Spawning conditions - Spawning period duration

(1-20 weeks)

Species Primary Data Secondary Data Reference
Anguilla anguilla Lengthly spawning season 0.0 Wang and Tzeng, 2000
Anguilla anguilla Reproduction from February to April or March to July 0.0 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Several months 0.0 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa 5-14 In Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea populations 9.5 Cassou-Leins et al, 2000
Alosa alosa 8-11 but Male and female residency times on the sapwning area are, respectively 111 days and 1-7 days 9.5 Acolas et al, 2004
Alosa alosa 8 weeks 8.0 Boisneau et al, 1990
Alosa fallax 3-6 In Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea populations 4.5 Cassou-Leins et al, 2000
Alosa fallax Males migrate to the spawning grounds first and wait there for the females which only move in when they are close to spawing 0.0 Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa sapidissima The males arrive on the spawning grounds first, soon followed by the females 0.0 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Alosa sapidissima 10-12 [In most years, spawning begins in late February and ends in early June, But spawning duration are unknown] 11.0 Olney et al, 2001
Alosa sapidissima Sevreal weeks of duration 0.0 Rue, 2001
Alosa sapidissima [Spawning was detected between February 21 and May 28 in 2003 and between March 16 and May 17 in 2004] 21.0 Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Aphanius iberus 14-16 [From May to August] 15.0 Vargas and De Sostoa, 1997
Aphanius iberus 16 [4.00 months, length of breeding season] 16.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Barbatula barbatula 12-14 [England], 4 [Estonia] and 4 [Finland] 13.0 Saat et al, 2003
Barbatula barbatula 3-5 4.0 Skryabin, 1993
Barbatula barbatula Exact observations on the length of the spawning period are lacking andit may vary to some extend, depending on water temperature of the waer, but normally appears to take only a few days 0.0 Sauvonsaari, 1971
Cobitis taenia 2-3, but also 5 2.5 Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis taenia 14-17 [Experimental conditions] but about 8 in Natural conditions [From End-May to End-July] 15.5 Bohlen, 1999
Cobitis taenia It appears that males enter the shallow littoral zone earlier in the season, and are joined later by the females during spawing. 0.0 Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
Cobitis taenia 10-12 11.0 Terver, 1984
Cobitis taenia The breeding season if from May to July [Larger females matured and spawned earlier than smaller ones] 0.0 Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
Cobitis paludica 12 [3.00 months, length of breeding season] 12.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Blicca bjoerkna 4 4.0 Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna Several weeks 0.0 Molls, 1999
Blicca bjoerkna 3-4 [In 1974, the white bream spawned from 10 June to 1 July and in 1975 sapwning started at the end of May and lasted about 20 June] 3.5 Hansen, 1980
Abramis brama 3 to 40 days [During warm and calm weather, bream spawn in masses in a short time (2-3 days) but longer under bad conditions, males are ready to spawn first and remain longer on the spawning grounds] 2.5 Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama 4 [Spawning was at its height between May 10 and 20] 4.0 Shestopalova, 1978
Abramis brama Adult fish may remain in the river for several weeks or months and participate in multiple spawnings 0.0 Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Abramis brama Spawning may take place in phases or extend over longer periods, from 3 to some tens of days. One to three even more spawning phases were observed in different populations 3.0 Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Abramis brama The duration of the spawning period may depend on the latitude; in the USSR for instance the bream spawning season varies from 58 to 60 days in the North to 16 days in the Volga delta. 58.0 Billard, 1981-1982
Abramis brama Median values (upper and lower quartiles in parenthesis) => 3 (2-6) in lakes and 2 (1-3) in rivers 4.0 Noges and Järvet, 2005
Alburnoides bipunctatus 8-10 9.0 Yildirim et al, 1999
Alburnoides bipunctatus 15 15.0 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus 15 weeks in laboratory conditions 15.0 Coad, 2005
Alburnoides bipunctatus 10-12 11.0 Persat, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus 9-10 9.5 Terver, 1984
Alburnoides bipunctatus Our oocyte diameter distribution analysis indicate that the reproductive season of spirlin from the Rudava stream is quite protracted (late April-early July), a reproduction feature typical for batch spawners 0.0 Polacik and Kovac, 2006
Alburnus alburnus 8-10 9.0 Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
Alburnus alburnus Spawning takes place in 3-6 stages at intervals of 9-11 days 4.5 Coad, 2006
Alburnus alburnus 15 or more 15.0 Environment agency, ???
Alburnus alburnus 10-11 10.5 Terver, 1984
Alburnus alburnus It therefore appears from the samples that the population shed a batch of eggs in early May, and that there was one, possibly two peaks of spawning activity during June 0.0 Mackay and Mann, 1969
Alburnus alburnus Adult fish may remain in the river for several weeks or months and participate in multiple spawnings 0.0 Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Aristichthys nobilis 1-2 [June 16-21 or June 21-July 5] 1.5 Schrank et al, 2001
Aristichthys nobilis Spawning period continues from April to July [Mass spawning takes place at the end of May and in the beginning of June] 0.0 Abdusamadov, 1986
Aspius aspius 1-2 (short) 1.5 Shikhshabekov, 1979
Aspius aspius Short 0.0 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Aspius aspius 1-2 [10-15 days] 1.5 Coad, 2005
Barbus barbus 1-2 twice within a spawning season 1.5 Baras, 1995
Barbus barbus 2 [0.50 months, length of breeding season] 2.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Barbus barbus 2-3 [Either from 28 Avril to 12 May in 1993 or From 21 May to 3 June in 1991] 2.5 Baras and Philippart, 1999
Carassius auratus 4-5 4.5 Kobayashi et al, 1986
Carassius carassius >2 months [including spawning and hatching] 2.0 Holopainen, 1997
Carassius carassius Up to 4 4.0 Persat, 2001
Carassius carassius The ready-to-spawn (ripe) fish (n=430) were captured between 19 May and 21 July, all within 64 days. In other sites: 32 dats and 60 days 430.0 Aho and Holopainen, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus Seems to be short : 3-4 days 3.5 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus 3 weeks 3.0 Nelva, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus From 2-3 days to 3 weeks [Spawn once on 16-17 April in one locality and twice, on 15-16 April and 2-3 May] 2.5 Prokes and Penaz, 1978
Chondrostoma nasus About 3-4 weeks: Spawning lasts 2-3 days and several spawning acts may occur within one year [During the spanwing season, sholas of males appear at the spawing area often weeks before the females] 3.5 Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus 4-5 4.5 Terver, 1984
Chondrostoma nasus Either 2-3 days [In two rivers this species reproduced repeatedly on two other occassion 10/12 May and on 26/28 May] 2.5 Zbinden and Maier, 1996
Chondrostoma toxostoma 4 [1.00 month, length of breeding season] 4.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Ctenopharyngodon idella 6-8 [Spawning period continues from April to July [Mass spawning takes place at the end of May and in the beginning of June]] 7.0 Abdusamadov, 1986
Ctenopharyngodon idella 8-10 [Begins in June, extends into July and sometimes event the first days of August 9.0 Krykhtin and Gorbach, 1982
Ctenopharyngodon idella We captured larvae as early as 23 May and as late as 15 July; however, most of the larvae were taken within a 6-d period in late May [The long breeding season was evident in our samples] 23.0 Brown and Coon, 1991
Ctenopharyngodon idella White amur eggs are found in the beginning of June through the beginning of July 0.0 Gorbach and Krykhtin, 1988
Cyprinus carpio Spawning may continue for several weeks […] Spawning is usually extended when water temperatures permit and in the Great Lakes region may extend from May to August 0.0 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Cyprinus carpio 4-26 [1.00-6.00 months, length of breeding season] 15.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Cyprinus carpio Duration of spanwing of carp from different areas: March to August [Camargue, France], Mid-March to August [scutari Lake, Y.U.], Mid-April to July [Terek delta, U.S.S.R], Mid-April to August [Danube Delta, Rou.], May to July [St-Lawrence Lake, Canada], May-June [South Dakota, U.S.A] 0.0 Crivelli, 1981
Cyprinus carpio Longest recorded period for common carp spawning in Australia. It continued from mid-november 2001 to mid-May 2002 (7 months), and recommnced in mid-september 2002 2001.0 Smith and Walker, 2004
Gobio gobio 4-8 6.0 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gobio gobio 4-8 [A female spawns about 4 times, with an interval of 1-2 weeks between each] 6.0 Kestemont, 1987
Gobio gobio 4-16 [1.00-4.00 month, length of breeding season] 10.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Gobio gobio In 1976: 11-13 May, at a mean watre temperature of 15.4 to 16.4°C; 17-19 May, at 15.1-16.4°C, 25-27 May, at 14.5-16.5°C and 10-12 June at 13.6 to 16.0°C 12.0 Penaz and Prokes, 1978
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 8 to 10 weeks 8.0 Kolar et al, 2005
Leucaspius delineatus 4-5 4.5 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leucaspius delineatus Few weeks 0.0 Coad, 2005
Leucaspius delineatus 8 [From May, 17 to July, 16] 8.0 Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
Leucaspius delineatus Commences in May, depedning on thermal conditions, and last until August 0.0 Bonislawska et al, 1999
Leuciscus cephalus 4-8 [1.00-2.00 months, length of breeding season] 6.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Leuciscus cephalus 8-9 8.5 Terver, 1984
Leuciscus cephalus At the end of the observation of gonads, it was determined that the fish has laid from May to the end of June. In other studies, described as between April and May, and if the altitude is more than 1000 meters, spawning occurs in June 1000.0 Ünver, 1998
Leuciscus idus Several days [Male arrives first on spawning grounds] 0.0 Billard, 1997
Leuciscus idus Spanwing is short , 2-5 days at 8-12°C. At lower temperatures may last two weeks, during cold springs spawning duration may be prolonged to> one month 3.5 Witkowski et al, 1997
Leuciscus leuciscus 4-5 [Southern populations from 10 February to 24 March] 4.5 Spillmann, 1961
Leuciscus leuciscus 4 [1.00 month, length of breeding season] 4.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Leuciscus leuciscus 8-9 8.5 Terver, 1984
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawing of all the age-groups togehter occurred within a 5-day period [In Siberia] 5.0 Lobon-cervia et al, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning occurred during the second half of March and no ripe fish were found at either site in April 0.0 Mann, 1974
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawn over a two or three week period 0.0 Mann and Mills, 1985
Mylopharyngodon piceus 8-10 [May to July] 9.0 Fishbase, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus About 6 6.0 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus 110 days 110.0 Mills, 1987
Phoxinus phoxinus 8-10 weeks 9.0 Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
Phoxinus phoxinus At least 3 weeks 3.0 Museth et al, 2002
Phoxinus phoxinus 5-6 5.5 Wooton and Mills, 1979
Phoxinus phoxinus 8 [2.00 months, length of breeding season] 8.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Phoxinus phoxinus Eggs are laid in three portions, also reported as 4 to 5 portions of eggs being laid by the minnow at about 15-day intervales 4.0 Heese, 1984
Phoxinus phoxinus Continues around 2 months from May to July 2.0 Soin et al, 1982
Phoxinus phoxinus Some females still contained ripe eggs on 15 July, 50 days after the first spent females had been captured 15.0 Mills and Eloranta, 1985
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning lasts from April to August, but early in the season the spawners are mostly 2-year-old fish with lengths of 60 mm and over. During May the remaining 2 year-olds, now generally at least 55 mm in length, commence spawning. From June onwards 2-year-olds begin to disappear and are replaced in the spawning shoals by 1-year-old fish which mature at a length of approximatively 49-50 mm, though one ripe male was captured wihc was only 44 mm long 49.5 Mills, 1988
Pimephales promelas 10-12 [From late May and ends sometimes in August] 11.0 Kerr and Grant, 1999
Pimephales promelas The spawning interval for reproductively-active pairs over the course of the study ranged from 1-15 days, with the majority of values falling in the range of 3-4 days 8.0 Jensen et al, 2001
Pimephales promelas Spawning occurs more than once, and the season extends most of the summer 0.0 Goodyear et al. et al, 1982
Pimephales promelas From May 5th to July 23rd, the spawning period of an individual female is about two months during the spawning season 5.0 Markus, 1934
Pseudorasbora parva 8 8.0 Coad, 2005
Pseudorasbora parva 8 8.0 Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Pseudorasbora parva 10-12 11.0 Rosecchi et al, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva Extended period from April to August 0.0 Pinder, 2005
Pseudorasbora parva Spawning occurred from 30 April to 21 August 30.0 Katano and Maekawa, 1997
Rhodeus sericeus 9-10 9.5 Terver, 1984
Rutilus rutilus Short period, all individuals spawn together 0.0 Spillmann, 1961
Rutilus rutilus Short period : about 1 week 1.0 Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
Rutilus rutilus Few days 0.0 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rutilus rutilus Short 0.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
Rutilus rutilus Lasted 15-25 days 20.0 Vollestad et al, 1987
Rutilus rutilus 1-2 [0.50-1.00 months, length of breeding season] 1.5 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Rutilus rutilus 8-10 9.0 Terver, 1984
Rutilus rutilus From 1 to 3 months [4 populations at 4 weeks, one at 8 weeks and two few days] 1.0 Tarkan et al, 2006
Rutilus rutilus In 1980, spawing took place between May 12 and 19. All females taken fater May 19 were spent, two of them partially spent. In 1981, the spawning began round May 12. On May 14 and 19 no famles were caught retaining all egs, two were found partially spent 1980.0 Libovarsky et al, 1985
Rutilus rutilus During the first half of the survey period, roach spawned at the end of may or at the beginning of June. The spawning period lasted c. 1 week. During the second half of the survey period, the roach spawning period occurred in mid-May 1.0 Gillet and Quétin, 2006
Rutilus rutilus Short spawning period 0.0 Mackay and Mann, 1969
Rutilus rutilus Within a few days the bulk of spawning roach returned downstream 0.0 Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Rutilus rutilus Duration vary according to different sources from 1 day to 60, mostly 3-15 days 9.0 Lappalainen and Tarkan, 2007
Rutilus rutilus Median values (upper and lower quartiles in parenthesis) => 5 (3-9) in lakes and 3 (2-5) in rivers […] Our analysis revealed a rather short period spawning duration (median 5 days) at a particular spawning ground, but obviously bue to the large spatial variability of conditions in the whole basin, the spawning period is extended to several weeks 6.0 Noges and Järvet, 2005
Rutilus rutilus Takes place in the spring over 1 or 2 days 1.0 Jobling et al, 2002b
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Quite long period 0.0 Spillmann, 1961
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 7-11 (June-July) 9.0 Shikhshabekov, 1979
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 2 but in other areas much longer several months 2.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 4 [1.00 months, length of breeding season] 4.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Scardinius erythrophthalmus From 1 to 3 months, but all three populations 4 weeks and among them one few days] 1.0 Tarkan et al, 2006
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 6-8 [From April until June or from June from Mid-July] 7.0 Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
Tinca tinca 4-6 5.0 Breton et al, 1980
Tinca tinca 6-8 [Begins in late April and continues through early July] 7.0 Yilmaz, 2002
Tinca tinca 6-9 weeks at 22-25 7.5 Linhart and Billard, 1995
Tinca tinca 7-8 [Spawning took place from the beginning of June to the end of July in almost all individuals] 7.5 Alas and Solak, 2004
Tinca tinca In Poland, during the season 3-4 batches are depostited at about 2-week intervals between the second half of June and mid-August. In their experiment, the spawning period lasted between 32-66 days in the controls 3.5 Morawska, 1984
Vimba vimba 5 [But usually shorter] 5.0 Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
Vimba vimba 4 4.0 Hliwa et al, 2002
Vimba vimba Spawns in Malyy Kyzylagach bay at the end of April and continues until the end of May 0.0 Kuliev, 1988
Vimba vimba The spawning of V. vimba in the studied locality occurred once each year according to our observations, and lasted 2-3 days; no other spawning sites were found in this part of the River Dyje. 2.5 Lusk et al, 2005
Gambusia affinis 24-26 [6.00 months, length of breeding season] 25.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Gambusia affinis Total sexual acts peaked on 8 June; howeevr increased numbers of males caused the mean sexual acts per male to be less than on 14 April, the date of maxima sexual activity. In mid and late summer, density, individual sexual acts, and mean male sexual acts all decreased: 28 July was the only date on which females outnumbered males [Other sutdies: the reproductive period in females mosquitofish varied from 8 to 15 weeks in Illinois during July through October, while others reported that "waves" of yound apperared from June to October in their Long Island study area.] 8.0 Martin, 1975
Esox masquinongy 4-5 4.5 Farrell et al, 1996
Esox masquinongy Spawning usually last no more than a week 0.0 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox masquinongy The presence of muskellunge on spawning grounds, based on trapnet captures of over 280 adults (from 1990 to 2003), was observed between 26 April and June 13 280.0 Farrell et al, 2005
Esox niger 1-1.5 1.25 Coffie, 1998
Esox niger Lasts no more than 7-10 days 8.5 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox niger Lasts about one week 0.0 Pennslylvania fishes, 2006
Esox lucius 1-4 for the spawning period [But from 4-11 for the presence of spawners on spawning grounds] 2.5 Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius 4-5 4.5 Farrell et al, 1996
Esox lucius 2-4 [Males arrive earlier than females-Male can remain up to 38 days on spawning ground and female 27] 3.0 Frost and Kipling, 1967
Esox lucius 1 1.0 Bryan, 1967
Esox lucius Difficult to assess between few days to one month or more 0.0 Franklin and Smith, 1963
Esox lucius Spawned-out adults may stay on the spawning gorunds for as long as 14 weeks, but most leave within 6 14.0 Fishbase, 2006
Esox lucius 2-4 [0.50-1.00 months, length of breeding season] 3.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Esox lucius 7-8 7.5 Terver, 1984
Esox lucius Ripe female pike were caught from 1 April until 4 May 1986, a period of 34 days, and from 30 March until 18 April in 1987, a period of 20 days 1.0 Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
Esox lucius Spawning occurred in the first two weeks of April. In any one yeare spawning was usually over 2 weeks maximum 2.0 Treasurer, 1990
Esox lucius A period of 10-24 days 17.0 Goodyear et al, 1982
Lota lota Males are usually present first in the spawning area 0.0 Van Houdt, 2003
Lota lota Males arrive on the spawning ground first, followed in 3 or 4 days by the female 3.0 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lota lota 4-5 [From late December to January] 4.5 Vedeneev et al, 2003
Lota lota Males reach spawning grounds first and females follow a couple of days later 0.0 Anonymous, 2003
Lota lota Lasts about 3 weeks 3.0 Hewson, 1955
Lota lota During 7-10 days males are able to fertilize eggs produced by subsequently arriving females. In controlled conditions, milt preserves its fertilizing capacity during a month. 8.5 Kujawa et al, 2002
Lota lota 1 one week period 1.0 Goodyear et al. et al, 1982
Gasterosteus aculeatus 8 : female release 3 to 4 batches of eggs with about 1 week between each of the batch 8.0 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus The male parental cycle at one site in Canada lasts 9-15 days with female interspawning intervals of 19 days. 12.0 Coad, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus Under ideal laboratory control conditions, a pair can spawn six times within an interval of 10-15 days 12.5 Internet, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus Several months 0.0 Wallace and Selman, 1979
Gasterosteus aculeatus 4-5 4.5 Fitzgerald, 1983
Gasterosteus aculeatus 5-6 5.5 Terver, 1984
Gasterosteus aculeatus This indicates that in 1975, the breeding season in the Rheidol lasted for thrre to four months, but in Frongoch it lasted only about one month 1975.0 Wootton et al, 1978
Gasterosteus aculeatus The prolonged breeding activity of sticklebacks, for as long as five months, enabled the fish to reproduce in the most favourable environmental conditions 0.0 Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
Pungitius pungitius 4-6 5.0 Fitzgerald, 1983
Pungitius pungitius 4-5 4.5 Terver, 1984
Pungitius pungitius The females were able to spawn for almost four months of the year in Puck Bay 0.0 Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
Ambloplites rupestris 4-5 [The nesting period lasted 42 days (20 May-30 June) but most reproductive activity occurred within a 19 day period (21 May-8 June)] 4.5 Gross and Nowell, 1980
Ambloplites rupestris In 1981, adult males were first seen on the breeding grounds in early May, designated at the start of the breeding season. Number of males peaked in early June, then declined to zero in late July, the end of the breeding season. The last observation of a female occurred almost 3 weeks earlier, however. The study site breeding season started earlier and finished lated then inlakes studied at similar latitudes 1981.0 Noltie and Keenleyside, 1987
Lepomis gibbosus 8-10 [From 28 May until 27 July, few spawning bouts until August 13] 9.0 Danylchuk and Fox, 1994
Lepomis gibbosus Duration of the spawning period averages 6.7 weeks (range 2.3-11.1) 6.7 Fox and Crivelli, 1998
Lepomis gibbosus 12 [From mid-May to Mid-August] 12.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
Lepomis gibbosus 12 [3.00 months, length of breeding season] 12.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Lepomis gibbosus 8-10 [From June 1 to end of August] 9.0 Fox and Crivelli, 1998
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning months only for females: 2 [England, Cottesmore pond], 3 [Romania, Danube Delta], 4 [Spain, Banyoles Lake], 12 [Brazil, Custodio's Dam], 2 [Canada, Warrens Lake], 1 [Canada, Black lake] 2.0 De Magalhaes and Ratton, 2005
Micropterus dolomieui Spawns usually over a period of 6-10 days 8.0 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus dolomieui 4-5 [From April 29 to June-1-15, but peak spawning occurred on one day (25%)] 4.5 Cooke et al, 2003
Micropterus dolomieui If temperatures remain stable, it is possible for smallmouth bass to occupy spawning sites as long as three to four weeks before spawning actually begins 0.0 Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus dolomieui activity lasted for less than 1 week 1.0 Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui Continues for up to 1 month 1.0 Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
Micropterus salmoides 4-14 9.0 Rosenblum et al, 1994
Micropterus salmoides 12-16 14.0 Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides 4-12 [The average duration of the effective reproduction period of largemouth bass (independent of stock) was 40 days, but was highly variable among ponds and years from 25 to 84 days] 8.0 Isely and Noble, 1987
Micropterus salmoides 12 [3.00 months, length of breeding season] 12.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Micropterus salmoides Long breeding season 0.0 Chodorowski, 1975
Micropterus salmoides The average duration of the effective reproductive period for largemouth bass (independent of stock) was 40 d, but was highly variable among ponds ans years. Peak nothern largemouth bass reproduction occurred 11 d before peak florida largemouth bass reprodcution, resulting in considerable overlap in ages of suspecifi progeny 40.0 Isely et al, 1987
Dicentrarchus labrax About 4 weeks for the female, much longer for males, seems to be 2-3 months 2.5 Prat et al, 1999
Dicentrarchus labrax 2-3 months 2.5 Secor, ???
Dicentrarchus labrax Female fish fed D1 showed a spawning period of 93 days, with the first spawning occuring in early January and the last in the first half of April. The second dietary treatment slightly extended the spawning spread to 104 days 1.0 Cerda et al, 1994
Dicentrarchus labrax Spawning spread in control fish : 46 days 46.0 Carillo et al, 1989
Dicentrarchus labrax 73 days 73.0 Cerda et al, 1994
Dicentrarchus labrax Natural spawning time of the control group : first spawning February 2 and last one March 20; mean spawning time 24 ± 5 February 24.0 Zanuy et al, 1995
Dicentrarchus labrax Spawning spread 48 days 48.0 Zanuy et al, 1995
Morone americana Spawning continues for 1-2 weeks and does not take place all at once 1.5 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone americana About 5-6 [From middle of May to end of June] 5.5 Sheri and Power, 1968
Morone americana Nothern populations begin spawning in late March to early April, whereas southern populations spawn slightly later. Freshwater populations spawn from April through May, astuarine stocks spawn from May through July 0.0 Stanley and Danie, 1983
Morone americana Egg release may span 10 to 21 days 10.0 Stanley and Danie, 1983
Morone americana Described as short (April 1 to 10) whereas others found that the spawning season at the head of Chesapeake Bay reaches its height i lae April and early May 1.0 Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops 1.5 [5-10 days] 7.5 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone chrysops 1-2 [Most spawning was during the last week in May and the first week in June] 1.5 Ruelle, 1977
Morone chrysops Spawing bouts can last from 5 to 10 days 5.0 Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Morone chrysops A period of 5-10 days 7.5 Goodyear, 1982
Morone saxatilis Males remain on the spawning grounds for as long as 30 days while females spend about 7-10 days there 8.5 Sullivan et al, 1997
Morone saxatilis Males remained on the spawning grounds for averages of 22 and 21 days, females for 8 and 11 days 22.0 Carmichael et al, 1998
Morone saxatilis From 5 to 9 weeks 5.0 Rue, 2001
Gymnocephalus cernua 8 8.0 Brown et al, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernua 8 8.0 Leino and McCormick, 1997
Gymnocephalus cernua 7-8 7.5 Terver, 1984
Gymnocephalus cernua Started spawning in early May, the spawning lasting no longer than until early June 0.0 Neja, 1988
Perca flavescens 2-8 [Male arrive on spawnning grounds earlier than female] 5.0 Craig, 2000
Perca flavescens Approximatively 2 weeks 2.0 Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
Perca flavescens 2-3 2.5 Kayes and Calbert, 1979
Perca flavescens Male remain longer on the spawning grounds than do the females 0.0 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Perca flavescens The spawning period lasts between two and four weeks [Adult males arrive on the spawning grounds days or weeks before the females] 0.0 Kerr and Grant, 1999
Perca flavescens The spawning period occurred from the middle of May through the end of June 0.0 Brazo et al, 1975
Perca fluviatilis 3-7 [2-18 days on the spawning ground for males and 1-4 days for females] 5.0 Thorpe, 1977
Perca fluviatilis 7 7.0 Dalimier et al, 1982
Perca fluviatilis 2-8 [Male arrive on spawnning grounds earlier than female] 5.0 Craig, 2000
Perca fluviatilis 1.5 1.5 Treasurer, 1983
Perca fluviatilis 7-15 11.0 Craig, 2000
Perca fluviatilis spawning last for > 9 weeks. The length of the main spawning period was about 5weeks. [The spawning period was very extended in the heated environments] 9.0 Sandström et al, 1997
Perca fluviatilis 7 7.0 Goubier, 1990
Perca fluviatilis 2 [0.50 months, length of breeding season] 2.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Perca fluviatilis 4-6 [But spawning activity was intensive during 12 days] 5.0 Gillet et al, 1995
Sander lucioperca 3-4 [i.e. 20-27 days] 3.5 Craig, 2000
Sander lucioperca 2-6 with a mean of 26 days [Males arrive first at the spawning grounds and are followed by females] 4.0 Lappaleinen et al, 2003
Sander lucioperca Over a period of 2-3 weeks 2.5 Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander lucioperca 2 [i.e. May 9-21, and April 29 to May 6] 15.0 Demska-Zakes and Zakes, 2002
Sander lucioperca 2 [0.50 months, length of breeding season] 2.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Sander lucioperca 4-6 5.0 Terver, 1984
Sander lucioperca Over a period of 3 weeks 3.0 Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
Sander vitreus Usually 1-2 in any given location 1.5 Malison and Held, 1996b
Sander vitreus 1-4 [Males precedes the arrival of female to the spawning grounds and remain for a number of days after the female have left] 2.5 Colby et al, 1979
Sander vitreus Males moves to the spawing grounds first 0.0 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Sander vitreus 1-2 weeks 1.5 Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus lavaretus Males appear at the spawning area earlier than females 0.0 Skurdal et al, 1985
Coregonus lavaretus Usually about one month 0.0 Salojarvi, 1982
Coregonus lavaretus 4 [From 15 January to 15 February] 4.0 Bagenal, 1970
Coregonus lavaretus Spawning takes place during the first 3 weeks of January in Loch Lomond, Scotland 3.0 Fuller et al, 1976
Coregonus albula Several weeks 0.0 Lahti and Muje, 1991
Coregonus albula The duration of spawning does not exceed 2-3 weeks, only seldom being longer 2.5 Zuromska, 1982
Coregonus clupeaformis Last for a week or ten days [Eggs being deposited over a period of several days] 0.0 Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis 2-5 weeks 3.5 Goodyear et al, 1982
Coregonus clupeaformis The breeding season for an individual female does not probably last more than 10 days 10.0 Mack and Billard, 1984
Hucho hucho 5-6 [On the south of Europe spawning starts as soon as February and lasts until March] 5.5 Witkowski, 1988
Hucho hucho The earliest spawning was noted on April 6, to mid July (the last spawning was observed on May 13 (the most intense spawning usually occurs by the end of April) 6.0 Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
Hucho hucho In Poland, the spawning time is between April 20 and 26, in Yugoslavia in the Drava river, between march 18 and 22 20.0 Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Hucho hucho Annual spawning period in free rivers is relatively short 0.0 Jungwirth, 1979
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 6-8 [that long when spawning ground availibility is limited] 7.0 Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning time of female from selection of first nest site to death averages 10.8 days 10.8 Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 5-6 5.5 Zolotukhin, 1993
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha A period of 3-5 days 4.0 Goodyear et al, 1982
Oncorhynchus keta Spawn over a long seasonal period 0.0 Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta Total adult life in fresh water may not exceed one week [Female stays over the nest 2-10 days protecting it from other female] 6.0 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus keta The time spent by adults in freshwater (time of stream entry to death) to be 11 to 18 days 11.0 Pauley, 1988
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning activity for males after they had chosen mates: spawning, which lasted 2 to 5 days; and extirpation, which lasted 1 to 5 days [Females passed through three spawning phases: Phase 1, spawning lasted 2 to 4 days and consisted of preparation of the redd, deposition of eggs, guarding the redd, and association with one or more males; pahse 2 post-spawning which lasted less than 1 to as much as 5 days- spawning ceased even though males wre still in attendance and females guarded the redds against intruding females; phase 3, extirpation which lasted 1 to 6 days, females were no longer attended by males and passively guarded the redds 2.0 Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning at these sites extended from Late July to October 0.0 Leman, 1993
Oncorhynchus kisutch A 90-day period 90.0 Goodyear et al, 1982
Oncorhynchus kisutch The mean redd life for 56 females was 13 days (range of 6 to 21). In 1967, 151 females remained an average of 11 days on the spawning riffles (range of 3 to 24 days) 56.0 Crone and Bond, 1976
Oncorhynchus mykiss 4 4.0 Duston and Bromage, 1986
Oncorhynchus mykiss 2-6 4.0 Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus mykiss 8-9 8.5 Terver, 1984
Oncorhynchus mykiss Reproduction in the rainbow trout is an annual event, with spawning confined to a brief (typîcally 6-8 week) period each year 7.0 Randall et al, 1998
Oncorhynchus mykiss From April 9 to April 19, 1931 9.0 Greeley, 1932
Oncorhynchus mykiss Each individual brrodstock producing eggs over a 6-8 weeks period 7.0 Bromage et al, 1992
Oncorhynchus nerka 1-2 weeks peak spawning but overall duration 6-8 1.5 Gustafson et al, 1997
Oncorhynchus nerka Its total duration is 6.5 months, but in one lake is about 3 months 6.5 Yegorova, 1978
Oncorhynchus nerka The island beach populations display possibly the most contracted period in the species, with a total spawning of just 2 weeks 2.0 Hamon et al, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning times of females range from 5 to 14 days 5.0 Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Last several weeks 0.0 Goodyear et al, 1982
Salmo salar 2 [From 2/12 to 18/12] 2.0 Dumas and Darolles, 1999
Salmo salar Spawing is completed in 2-3 days 2.5 Fishbase, 2006
Salmo salar The peak spawning took place between 18 October and 10 January in the ten rivers, and usually lasted for five to ten days in each river. The duration of the entire spawning perdio lasted from 17 days in the river Numedalslagen to 56 days in river Stryneelva 18.0 Jensen et al, 1991
Salmo salar 3 to 14 days 3.0 Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Salmo salar 5-14 days 9.5 Goodyear et al, 1982
Salmo trutta fario 2 [0.50 months, length of breeding season] 2.0 Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Salmo trutta fario 8-9 8.5 Terver, 1984
Salmo trutta fario From November 4 to November 25 [An individual may remain on the spawning grounds for a smuch as 25 days] 4.0 Greeley, 1932
Salmo trutta fario The spawning period lasts for c. 3 weeks 3.0 Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
Salmo trutta fario Males usually entered the stream first and stayed longer, so the sex-ratio at the beginning and at the end of the spawning season was usually slanted towards males. Most of the females entered the stream and spawned the same or the next night. In contrast males tended to stay much longer in the stream (21.3% between 2 and 3 weeks) before spawning 21.3 Rubin et al, 2005
Salvelinus alpinus 3 [The ovulatory period may have no more than 3 weeks] 3.0 Frantzen et al, 1997
Salvelinus alpinus 3-5 4.0 Jamet, 1995
Salvelinus alpinus 4 [when the water is about 8°C during the beginning of the cycle] 4.0 Guillard et al, 1992
Salvelinus alpinus 3-4 3.5 Pavlov et al, 1994
Salvelinus alpinus Males arrive at the spawning grounds first and remain there throughout the spawning period 0.0 Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus 5-6 5.5 Terver, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning activities extending over a three week period in October, with peak spawning occuring in mid-Ocotber 0.0 Bradbury et al, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning duration of 4-5 weeks 4.5 Jobling et al,1998
Salvelinus fontinalis 5 [First redd at October 20 and the last at November 26, i.e. 38] 5.0 Snucins et al, 1992
Salvelinus fontinalis The spawning periods lasted as long as 4 weeks, but the greatest number of spawning charr were present for less than 2 weeks 4.0 Curry et al, 1991
Salvelinus fontinalis 4-5 [From Mid-October to end of November, Males apparently spent a longer period of time on the spawning area, probably 15-20 days, while females seldom seen on the bed more than 10 days after their first appeareance] 4.5 Fraser, 1985
Salvelinus fontinalis Males usually arrive first on the spawning ground 0.0 Groot, 1996
Salvelinus fontinalis Males arrive on the spawning ground first and defend a territory 0.0 Coad, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis A 15 day peak within a spawning period of about 50 days [With a decline in water temperature below 11°C and increased rainfall] 15.0 Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis 5-6 5.5 Terver, 1984
Salvelinus fontinalis 3-4: The seasonal peak in spawning activity: 1994, days 296-310; 1995, days 296-312 coincided with peak counts of males and females [Brook trout were observed on or near the spanwing grounds over a 64-d period in 1994 (30 September to 2 December) and a 61-d period in 1995 (25 September to 24 November). Peak number of males and females occurred approximatively the same time, between 22 Ocotber to 8 November. The duration of time spent on the spawning grounds was longer for males in 1994 than in 1995 (31 ± 12 and 22 ± 9 d, respectively), although no difference was observed for females between years (11 ± 6 and 15 ± 7, respectively).] 31.0 Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
Salvelinus fontinalis From October 24 to december 6, 1931 [An individual may remain on the spawning grounds for a smuch as 25 days] 24.0 Greeley, 1932
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning begins late in September and extends into November 0.0 Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
Salvelinus namaycush The spawning period generally lasts between seven to 18 days, and lake trout spawning in Algouquin Park lakes often occurs during the latter portion of October and lasts for 10 days 18.0 Kerr and Grant, 1999
Stenodus leucichthys 6-8 [Spawning takes place in October and November] 7.0 Coad, 2006
Thymallus thymallus 10-19 days [Male] and 2-3 days [Female] 14.5 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Thymallus thymallus About 2-4 [Male comes first and fight for few weeks for better places) 3.0 Persat, 2001
Thymallus thymallus About 3 weeks from 23 March to 11 April [Males stayed at the spawning grounds on average 12.2 ± 9.84 days and females 7.0 ± 7.6 days] 12.2 Ovidio et al, 2004
Thymallus thymallus About 2-3 [Males arrived on spawning grounds several days before females, and were detected on these grounds over much longer periods: 10-19 vs 2-3 days respecitively] 2.5 Parkinson et al, 1999
Thymallus thymallus About 2-3 [The estimated spawning season lasted from 7 May to 1 June] 2.5 Nykänen et al, 2004
Thymallus thymallus In very warm springs migrations and spawing takes 1.5-2 weeks long, if spring is cold last about a month 1.75 Witkowski and Kowalewski, 1988
Thymallus thymallus Spawning period ran from 6 to 8 April 6.0 Darchambeau and Poncin, 1997
Thymallus thymallus Both males and females return to the lake shortly after spawning, males generally within 15 days and females within 10 days 15.0 Kristiansen and Doving, 1996
Thymallus thymallus La préiode de reproduction elle-même était en moyenne de 10 à 20 jours, pouvant parfois s'abaisser à moins de 10 jours et durer exceptionnellement un peu plus d'un mois 10.0 Vivier, 1958
Thymallus arcticus 3-4 [Early to late May] 3.5 Northcote, 1995
Thymallus arcticus 3 [Spawning activity was observed on the east side outlet between May 19 and June 10, 1975 and peaked from May 23 to May 25. In 1976, spawning began on the east and west sides of the outlet on May 15 and May 18 respectively. Adult grayling were seen on the east spawing grounds until June 2 and on the west spawning grounds until June 8, 1976. The peak of spawning occurred from May 25 to May 29 on the east side.] 3.0 Kratt and Smith, 1977
Thymallus arcticus Spawning activity was observed in the Fond du Lac River from 15 May to 18 June, with peak activity 25-29 May 27.0 Kratt and Smith, 1978
Thymallus arcticus The spawing period lasted 22 days in 1975 and 24 days in 1976. Male held territories for up to 7 days during the breeding season and one male was observed attempting to spawn on 54 occassions. 22.0 Kratt and Smith, 1980
Cottus gobio 8-9 8.5 Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
Cottus gobio Normally the spawning time lasts from April to May but can be until early June in alpine streams and lakes 0.0 Wanzenböck et al, 2000
Cottus gobio 8 8.0 Terver, 1984
Cottus gobio Occur over a period of about 1 month 1.0 Abdoli et al, 2005
Cottus gobio 1st spanwing observed 15/2-75 and the 4th at 30/5/75 [In the high altitude headwaters of the River Tees, bullheads exhibit a short breeding season during late Paril and first week of May] 38.5 Fox, 1978
Ameiurus nebulosus 3-6 4.5 Rosenblum et al, 1987
Ictalurus punctatus 6-8 [From Mid-April or Mid-May until July] 7.0 Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus 3-4 [Late May to Mid-June] 3.5 Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ictalurus punctatus 6-8 [From May through July] 7.0 Rue, 2001
Ictalurus punctatus All of the adults that were alive in May spawned naturally during the period from the last week of May to the first week of June 0.0 Pacoli et al, 1990
Silurus glanis 3-4 [Begins at the end of June and ends in Mid-July] 3.5 Zholdasova and Guseva, 1987
Osmerus eperlanus For about one month, but peak spawning usually last only 2-4 days [Males spawn for a longer time and stay at the spawning grounds longer than females] 3.0 Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus Fish were present in the river for approximatively 1 week in both years although the spawning grounds were abandoned at times of high flow [Also described as 5-10 days, or 8-10 days; others authors foudn that while spawing could last up to 3-4 weeks, the peak seldom lasted for more than 1 week] 7.5 Hutchinson and Mills, 1987
Osmerus eperlanus Individual males may spawn on as many as 8 nights consecutively, whereas females may spawn only 3 to 4 nights 8.0 Buckley, 1989
Osmerus eperlanus Last about 1 week, 1.0 Lyle and Maitland, 1997
Osmerus eperlanus The annual spawning takes place over just a few days 0.0 Maitland, 2003
Osmerus eperlanus In Scotland, spawning can last anywhere from a few days up to two weeks, depending on prevailing environmental conditions 0.0 Quigley et al, 2004