Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

  • Scientific name
  • Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum, 1792)

  • Common name
  • Chinook salmon

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 80%
Total data196
Image of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
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Traits detail

Egg (100.0%)

Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
1 Oocyte diameter 6.0-7.0 6.5 mm Mellinger, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 6.0-7.0 6.5 mm Barton, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 6.0-8.5 7.25 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 6.3-7.9 7.1 mm Groot, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 6.0-7.0 6.5 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 6.0-7.0 6.5 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Up to 10 10.0 mm Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
2 Egg size after water-hardening 7.66-8.73 [Water-hardened egg] 8.2 mm Beacham and Murray, 1993
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy Soon absorb water, becoming water hardened and semi-buoyant Pelagic Kerr and Grant, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Demersal Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Chinook salmon eggs incubate within the riverbed at depths ranging from 18 to 43 cm beneath the riverbed surface No category Hanrahan, 2007
4 Egg adhesiveness Non-adhesive, adhesive during water hardening Non-Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are temporarily adhesive, but soon absorb water, becoming water hardened and semi-buoyant Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
5 Incubation time 50-55 at 10-12.5°C 52.5 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 50-84 [7 to 9 weeks, and up to 12] 67.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 193 [2°C], 149 [3°C], 120 [4°C], 100 [5°C], 85 [6°C], 74 [7°C], 65 [8°C], 58 [9°C] 193.0 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time Eggs usually hatch in less than 4 months 4.0 days Goodyear et al, 1982
5 Incubation time 102.4 [5°C], 70.3 [7.5°C], 52.6 [10°C] and 42.1 [12.5°C] for 50% hatch 102.4 days Jensen, 1997
5 Incubation time 95 [6°C], 71 [8°C], 55 [10°C], and 44 [12°C] 95.0 days Heming, 1982
5 Incubation time At constant temperature: 204 [At 1.7°C], 157.5 [3.0°C], 120.1 [4.5°C], 76.8 [7.2°C], 46 [11.1°C], 41.9 [12.7°C] and 34.3 [15.3] and numerous other examples. At ambient temperatures: 172 [2.3°C], 132 [3.8°C], 112 [4.3°C], 97.6 [5.3°C], 62.5 [8.4°C], 42.3 [12.9°C] and 32.7 [15°C] 204.0 days Alderdice and Velsen, 1978
5 Incubation time 160 [3°C], 90 [6°C], 55 [10°C], 42 [12°C] 160.0 days Beacham and Murray, 1990
5 Incubation time 43.5 [12.1°C], 51.7 [10.5°C], 68.1 [8.4°C], 96.5 [5.5°C], 125.1 [4.4°C] 43.5 days Murray and Beacham, 1987
5 Incubation time 38.4 [14°C], 46.9 [11°C], 67.1 [8.0°C], 101.5 [5°C], 202 [2.0°C] 38.4 days Murray and McPhail, 1988
5 Incubation time Egg development from fertilization to 50% hatch at various constant temperatures: 160.3 days [At 3.0°C], 95 [At 6°C], 69 days [At 8°C], 55 days [At 10°C], 33 days [At 15°C], 28 [At 18.1°C] 50.0 days Velsen,1987
6 Temperature for incubation 4.4-9.4 and 5.8-14.2 6.9 °C Barton, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 5.8-14.2 [lower temprature is 0.6°C and lower] 10.0 °C Groot, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Survive best at temperature less than 14 14.0 °C Internet, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 8-9 [Natural conditions] 8.5 °C Vronskii and Leman, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation 2-9 [Survival begins to decline when the temperatures go above 10°C, the upper tolearance limit for egg and larvae is somewhere between 412 and 15°C] 5.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum temperature of yolk conversion is about 4°C 4.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1993
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at ambient temperature at 12.4°C and chilled water at 5.9°C 12.4 °C Kinnison et al, 1998
6 Temperature for incubation Mean of 11.1°C, vary between 5.8-14.2 [A daily mean of 52°F was suitable for incubation, and that excessive mortality occurred if the daily mean exceeded 60°F. Also found the range of incubating temperatures was between 42.5 and 57.5°F] 10.0 °C Allbaugh and Manz, 1964
6 Temperature for incubation Could tolerate a temperature of 0.5 if previously incubated at 5.5°C [Both chinook and pink salmon eggs could tolerate temperatures as low as 33°F for long periods if the intial incubating temperature had been above 42°F]] 0.5 °C Combs, 1965
6 Temperature for incubation Mean water temperature during the incubation period were 6, 8, 10 and 12 6.0 °C Heming et al, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs were fertilized and reared at 6, 8, 10 and 12°C 6.0 °C Heming, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation Lower and upper lethal temperatures for chinook salmon eggs, those associated with 50% mortality from fertilization to 50% hatch, are about 2.5-3.0°C and 16.0°C 2.75 °C Alderdice and Velsen, 1978
6 Temperature for incubation [High constant incubating temperatures established tha range between 57.5 and 60°F as the upper temperature threshold. Incubation at 35°F, resulted in complete mortality, thereby establishing this temperature as a lower limit for future trials. Other experiments, established the range 10 and 42.5°C as the lower threshold] 57.5 °C Combs and Burrows, 1957
6 Temperature for incubation Egg mortality during incubation from fertilization to 50% hatch at various temperatures: 52.6% [At 3.0°C], 7.1% [At 6°C], 9.3% [At 10°C], 99.0% [At 18.1°C] 50.0 °C Velsen,1987
6 Temperature for incubation Mean artificial egg pocket temperatures in the upper reach ranged from 6.1-6.7°C 6.4 °C Hanrahan, 2007
7 Degree-days for incubation 417 417.0 °C * day Barton, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 550.0 550.0 °C * day Internet, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation From 390-540 465.0 °C * day Kerr and Grant, 1999
7 Degree-days for incubation 511.8-527.5 [Between 5-12.5] 519.65 °C * day Jensen, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 420 420.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
7 Degree-days for incubation 480.3 to 491.4 [for different populations at 12.4°C]; 480.3 °C * day Kinnison et al, 1998
7 Degree-days for incubation Incubation time to 50% hatching varied inversely with temperature from 95d (556 tu) at 6°C, to 71 d (556 tu) at 8°C, to 55 days (534 tu) at 10°C and 44 days (520 tu) at 12°C 50.0 °C * day Heming et al, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 550-570 [71 at 8°C and 55 at 10°C] 560.0 °C * day Heming, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 480 [3°C], 540 [6°C], 550 [10°C], 504 [12°C] 480.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
7 Degree-days for incubation 476 [Effective day-degrees] 476.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002

Larvae (86.0%)

Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
8 Initial larval size 20 20.0 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size Mean fork length of 25.8 (25.7, 25.9) at 6°C, 25.6 (25.4, 25.8) at 8°C, 24.9 (24.8, 25, 0) at 10°C, 24.6 (24.6 (24.4, 24.8) at 12°C 25.8 mm Heming, 1982
8 Initial larval size Average 22, range 21-23.5 22.25 mm Beacham and Murray, 1990
8 Initial larval size 35-44 [Newly emerged fry] 39.5 mm Groot, 1996
8 Initial larval size Means fork length vary according to temperature between 20.4 to 23.6 20.4 mm Murray and Beacham, 1987
8 Initial larval size Mean SL vary at 50% hatching vary with temperature: 18.7 [14°C], 18.5 [11°C], 20.1 [8°C], 19.4 [5°C] 50.0 mm Murray and McPhail, 1988
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatch larvae stay in the gravel 2-3 weeks until the yolk is absorbed, then become free swimming, and remain in the sapwning area or more dowstream Demersal Internet, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour Inittially fry hide in the gravel and undr banks during daylight hours, then appear along open shorelines and finally move into higher velocity waters along the shore or farther in the sream Demersal Groot, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour The alevins spend 2-3 weeks in the nest while the yolk is absorbed Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour Following hatching the young fry, called alevin, remain in thegravel for several weeks Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Emerge from gravel a few weeks after hatching Demersal Goodyear et al, 1982
9 Larvae behaviour Swim-up from fertilization: 890 degree-days [From hatching 890 less 420] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
10 Reaction to light Emergence occurs exclusively at night Photophobic Kerr and Grant, 1999
10 Reaction to light The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Oncorhynchus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development Alevins can tolerate decreases of temeprature from 10 to 0°C [The upper temperature tolerance limit for egg and larvae is somewhere between 12 and 15°C] 10.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
11 Temperature during larval development Mortality was significantly higher among eggs, fry, and fingerlings of chinhook salmon as temperatures exceeded 60°F, i.e. 15.5°C 60.0 °C Allbaugh and Manz, 1964
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature during the feeding studies averaged 6 to 12 °C 12.0 °C Heming et al, 1982
11 Temperature during larval development This study refines that recommendation by indicating that temperatures of 12°C are supraoptimal for rearing chinook eggs and alevins. Chinook produced at 12°C experienced reduced survival, hatch and emerge precociously, and are smaller than fish at lower temperatures 12.0 °C Heming, 1982
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 470 [Swim-up from fertilization: 890 degree-days, from hatching 890 less 420] 470.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 870-920 [Thermal units from fertilization at complete yolk absorption averaged 1456 ± 22 among the test temperatures: 250 days (6°C), 180 (8°C), 150 (10°C) and 120 (12°C), minus 95, 71, 55, 44 days for incubation respectively, thus vary between 870-920] 1456.0 °C * day Heming et al, 1982
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 550-570 [Complete yolk absorption: 250 days postfertilization at 6°C, and size of a mean 42.2 (41.8, 42.6); 183 days at 8°C and a mean size of 40.8 (40.5, 41.2), 147 days at 10°C and a mean size of 39.5 (39.1, 39.9), 120 at 12°C ar a mean size of 38.9 (38.5, 39.4), less than 95, 71, 55, 44 for incubation respectively; i.e. 95 [6°C], 71 [8°C], 55 [10°C], 44 [12°] 560.0 °C * day Heming, 1982
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Emergence at 315 DD [3°C], 360 [6°C], 400 [10°C], 396 [12°C] at an average size of 35, range of 33.5-36.5 35.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Emergence time vary: 32.1 days [12.1°C], 51.1 [9.3°C], 53 [8.1°C], 87.8 [4.8°C], 90.3 [4.1°C] 32.1 °C * day Murray and Beacham, 1987
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 50% emergence vary: 24.6 [14°C], 37.1 [11°C], 47.9 [8°C], 89.5 [5°C], 114 [2°C]; Mean SL vary at 50% emergence vary with temperature: 27.3 [14°C], 28.6 [11°C], 28.5 [8°C], 30.7 [5°C] and 29 [2°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and McPhail, 1988
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 437 [At 12°C], 464 [10°C], 482 [8°C] and 523 [6°C] posu hatching [It would be of little benefit to initiate food presentation before 905 tu, the point at which 50% of alevins were first able to ingest food at all four tested temperature, between 6-12°C, less than about ca.520-556 for incubation; This optimum feeding zone existed at temperatures below 12°C, between 905 thermal units (tu) postfertilization and a point (F, tu) which varied with temperature (T, °C) as F= 1201.1-20.3 T 9.0 °C * day Heming et al, 1982
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 490 -520 [Exogeneous feeding is presumed to begin shortly after emergence is completed . However, even within the same species, some alevins emerge with considerable yolk while others emerge with virtually none: Number of days to 50% emergence: 192 postfertilization -95 days for incubation [6°C], 136-71 [8°C], 104-55 [10°C] and 85-44 [12°C], i.e. between 97 [6°C], 65 [8°C], 49 [10°C] and 41 [12°C]] 505.0 °C * day Heming, 1982

Female (58.0%)

Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 4.5 year Barton, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-8 [Most female (93%) mature after spending four or five winter ar sea] 6.0 year Beacham et al, 1989
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-7 [Rarely at 2 or 3] 5.0 year Hankin et al, 1993
16 Length at sexual maturity 83.9-91.5 87.7 cm Barton, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity The postorbital-hypural length : 73.9.-79.4 with n = 540, i.e. more than 90% of the sample [Complete mean range : 68.6 (n=35), 794 (n=147] 44.2 cm Beacham, 1989
17 Weight at sexual maturity Up to 50 kg 50.0 kg Hankin et al, 1993
19 Relative fecundity From 5.232 to 7.525 [Different populations] 5.23 thousand eggs/kg Kinnison et al, 1998
20 Absolute fecundity 4.8 4.8 thousand eggs Barton, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 2-17 wide mean range ! [ Average fecundity of female of the seame size (74 cm) can vary from 4.4 to 9.4] 9.5 thousand eggs Groot, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 3.2-10.6 6.9 thousand eggs Beacham and Murray, 1993
20 Absolute fecundity Mean fecundity range between 18 populations used: 3634 to 10622, total range from 1622 to 17255 18.0 thousand eggs Healey and Heard, 1984
21 Oocyte development Synchronous ovarian develoment, determinate fecundity Synchronous Fishbase, 2006
24 Maximum GSI value From 17.6 to 20.3 [Mean for different populations] 17.6 percent Kinnison et al, 1998
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 19, range 17.8-21.1, for different populations 19.45 percent Fleming, 1998

Male (56.0%)

Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Most males (81%) mature after spending three or four winters in the ocean] 3.5 years Beacham et al, 1989
27 Age at sexual maturity May mature as early as 2 as "Jacks", through at least 7 2.0 years Hankin et al, 1993
27 Age at sexual maturity Usually in 2 and 3 [Male specified] 2.0 years Kerr and Grant, 1999
28 Length at sexual maturity The postorbital-hypural length : 58.5-67.9 with n = 929 i.e. 90% of the sample [Complete mean range : 51.0 ± 1.2 (n=54), 85.2 +/ 2 (n=3)] 51.0 cm Beacham, 1989
28 Length at sexual maturity 58-70 [Age 1.2] and 73-89 [Age 1.3] 64.0 cm Groot, 1996
29 Weight at sexual maturity May mature as early as 2 kg as "Jacks", trough at least 50 kg 2.0 kg Hankin et al, 1993
30 Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development , in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype; an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes and snouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondary trait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present Willson, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent Fleming, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 6.1 (range 5.4-6.7%) 6.05 percent Fleming, 1998

Spawning conditions (100.0%)

Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
36 Spawning migration distance 494-km spawning migration 494.0 km Slater et al, 1994
36 Spawning migration distance From the tidal limit to locations over 1000 km 1000.0 km Groot, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance The adults proceed up river as short a distance as the point just above tidal influence, or as much as 600 miles and over 1200 miles 600.0 km Scott and Crossman, 1973
36 Spawning migration distance Adults migrates up to 4,827 km upstream to spawn 827.0 km Fishbase, 2006
36 Spawning migration distance We estimated that 10 fish spawned from river km 236.7 to 326.0; four fish spawned from river km 201.7 to 203.7 and five fish spawned from tiver km 172.8 to 187.1 10.0 km Berman and Quinn, 1991
37 Spawning migration period Return to their natal river 6-9 months prior to spawning, as early as February ['February'] Slater et al, 1994
37 Spawning migration period Many river systems have salmon spawning runs that return at diffrent (one to three) times during a year No data Groot, 1996
37 Spawning migration period Maturing chinook salmon move inshore into spawning rivers over most of the year No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
37 Spawning migration period Migration from the sea begins in December so that the first fish are near the river mouths by spring ['April', 'May', 'June', 'December'] Fishbase, 2006
37 Spawning migration period Great lakes chinhook salmon will typically move to the mouths of spawning tributaries in August [Spawning runs occur from late August to mid-October], temperature is usually between 4-18°C ['August', 'September', 'October'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Congregate near tributary mouths usually in late August or September at about 70°F; upstream migration to spawning grounds may begin as early as mid-July, possibly by drop in stream temperature to 65°F; a spring run also occurs; spring run fish inhabi deep pools in the stream until fall, when they spawn ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Goodyear et al, 1982
37 Spawning migration period Enter freswater in spring: February-June ['February', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Berman and Quinn, 1991
38 Homing Return to their natal river Present Slater et al, 1994
38 Homing Homing Present Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
38 Homing Chinook return to their home stream to spawn Present Kerr and Grant, 1999
38 Homing Homing tendency to Pacific salmon to their natal stream Present Murray and Beacham, 1987
38 Homing We assumed that the chinook salmon were all homing to their rivers of origin Present Berman and Quinn, 1991
39 Spawning season All year around because many races are involved No data Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season May to July and September to October : all year round ['May', 'June', 'July', 'September', 'October'] Groot, 1996
39 Spawning season Spawning normally occur in September ['September'] Slater et al, 1994
39 Spawning season From late September to early October ['September', 'October'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season September to November, also March to May ['March', 'April', 'May', 'September', 'October', 'November'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Either spawn in the spring or fall depending on the latitude, in Great lakes generally spawn in the fall ['April', 'May', 'June', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Late August-mid November, peaks in October ['August', 'October', 'November'] Goodyear et al, 1982
39 Spawning season Among the species of Oncorhynchus, the salmon are typically late-summer spawners (the exact timing differing among locations and years), although southern chinook populations breed in psring, and some coho populations breed in late winter ['January', 'February', 'March', 'July', 'August', 'September'] Willson, 1997
39 Spawning season Pacific salmon spawn in fall (though this may be as early as July or as late as February, depending on species and region) whereas the Pacific trout species (formely in the genus Salmo) spawn in spring. ['February', 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Quinn and Myers, 2004
39 Spawning season In British Columbia, chinook salmon spawnin in over 260 streams from early August through October ['August', 'October'] Murray and Beacham, 1987
39 Spawning season August-October ['August', 'October'] Berman and Quinn, 1991
40 Spawning period duration Spawning times of females range from 5 to 14 days 5.0 weeks Groot, 1996
40 Spawning period duration Last several weeks No data Goodyear et al, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 10-15 12.5 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 4.4-18 and 5.6-13.9 11.2 °C Barton, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Fluctuates between 5.6-13.9°C, the optimum temperatures are 8.0-9.8°C 9.75 °C Chebanov and Riddell, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 50-37°F 43.5 °C Goodyear et al, 1982
42 Spawning water type From large river system to small tributaries 2 to 3 m wide No category Groot, 1996
42 Spawning water type Past, upper reaches of River, also in some tributaries No category Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Sites influenced by intrasubstrate flow [with a current not exceeding 2 m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Vronskii and Leman, 1991
42 Spawning water type Large tributaries, near riffles No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Larger mainstream and headwater tributaries [Where water velocities are not less than 0.3 m/s], most frequently at head of riffles Flowing or turbulent water Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type Riffle areas with water velocity of 1-3 fps, in high gradient mid-reaches or headwaters of tributaries; spawning may also occur along lake shore or on shoals Stagnant water Goodyear et al, 1982
42 Spawning water type Streams No category Willson, 1997
43 Spawning depth Several meters depth, but also only a few centimetres of water No data Groot, 1996
43 Spawning depth Shallow riffle areas No data Internet, 2005
43 Spawning depth Spawning sites ate located where water becomes shallow, at the top of a slope of a riffle [About 50-70], bit do not spawn in shallow areas with depths less than 10-15 cm 60.0 m Vronskii and Leman, 1991
43 Spawning depth They tend to spawn on deeper waters than other salmons No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth 0.5-4 m 2.25 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth 1-6 feet 3.5 m Goodyear et al, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Gravels to coarse gravels Lithophils Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Gravels [Larger gravel siez may occur in large rivers] Lithophils Beacham et al, 1989
44 Spawning substrate Gravel : 1.3-5.1 [80% of the optimal gravel], full range 1.3-10.2 Lithophils Groot, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Does not spawn on coarse rubble (more than 20 cm in diameter) No category Vronskii and Leman, 1991
44 Spawning substrate Larger gravel than other salmons Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Spawning subrates sizes from fines (0.3 cm) to cobble (15cm) No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in redd dug in gravel and small rubble with good interstitial water flow, little mud or silt Lithophils Goodyear et al, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Large redds (nests) are constructed by the females Susbtrate chooser Internet, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation Females built nests, and that actively defend No category Chebanov and Riddell, 1998
45 Spawning site preparation The female digs the redd [The males and females are aggressive on the spawning grounds] Susbtrate chooser Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Once a female selects a spot, she begins to dig a nest, driving away other females during the period of nest building Susbtrate chooser Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation The female begins to construt a shallow depression in the gravel with her tail No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in redd dug in substrate Susbtrate chooser Goodyear et al, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Upon establishing a territory, the female constructs, spawns in, and covers a series of nests (three to eight), and then defends these from other females until her death days to weeks later No category Hamon et al, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Bury their eggsin gravel redds generally during the fall Susbtrate chooser Heming, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Nesting by females No category Fleming, 1998
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Females paired with large males were observed to participate in a total of 28 spawning events, and 21 (43%) were estimated to have occurred overnight, compared with 26 observed and 18 night spawning events (41%) by females paired with small males Night Berejikian et al, 2000
47 Mating system A dominante male joints the female in the redd and the two engage in the spawing act No category Internet, 2005
47 Mating system The female may dig more than one redd and spawn with more than one male No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system One female with a dominant male, sometimes with smaller males No category Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system Several males are attracted as the female starts to dig in earnest. The largest male dominates and joins her in the centre of the redd. No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
48 Spawning release Deposited and buried in clusters in gravel Fractional Internet, 2005
48 Spawning release Fertilized eggs are buried under 20-60 cm of gravel, in several times Multiple Groot, 1996
48 Spawning release Buried in the ground at about 25-30 No category Vronskii and Leman, 1991
48 Spawning release The whole process of mating and spawning is repeated until the female releases all her eggs, which may take several days [The male the leaves the female and may mate with another female] Multiple Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Females spawn multiple times in a series of nests, usually comprising a single redd Multiple Berejikian et al, 2000
49 Parity Most die after spawning, although some precocious males have been reported to survive Semelparous Groot, 1996
49 Parity Semelparous Semelparous Hankin et al, 1993
49 Parity Adults die, usually within a few days to weeks Semelparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
49 Parity Spent adults usually die a few days after spawning Semelparous Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity After about a week to ten days or more the adult male and female fish die Semelparous Kerr and Grant, 1999
49 Parity Die soon after spawning Semelparous Goodyear et al, 1982
49 Parity Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, Semelparous Willson, 1997
49 Parity All members of the genus Oncorhynchus(including anadromous and non-anadromous forms) die after spawning, and this is true with three exceptions. Firstn the Pacific trout species, are all iteroparous. Second, male masu salmon (O. masou) that mature in fresh water as parr are capable of surviving, migrating to sea, and spawning in subsequent season, though anadromous males and females are semelparous. Third, under experimental conditions male chinhook salmon can mature as parr, survive spawning, grow, and spawn again the following year, and even a third year. Iteroparous Quinn and Myers, 2004
49 Parity 0% of repeat spawners (mature male parr may survive to breed again) No category Fleming, 1998
50 Parental care Female may defend the redd area against other females to 4 to 26 days Female parental care Groot, 1996
50 Parental care The female buries the eggs in loose gravel and remains at the nest for about two weeks or until she dies No category Internet, 2005
50 Parental care The female guards the nest as long as she is able Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Brood hiders [The eggs are covered and a new nest is made], the female guards the nest for as long as she can Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care The female may guard the redd as long as she is able Female parental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care Willson, 1997
50 Parental care Nests and completed redds are defended against surimposition of nests by other males. Males compete for acess to spawning females, and males abandon their mates in search of other active females shortly after spawning No care Berejikian et al, 2000
50 Parental care The female defends the nests from other females until her death days to weeks later. Male pacific salmon take no part in parental care. Rather they remain sexually active throughout their breeding life span and move amongst breeding females Male parental care Hamon et al, 1999
50 Parental care Females defence after Female parental care Fleming, 1998