Spawning conditions - Spawning migration period


Species Primary Data Secondary Data Reference
Anguilla anguilla In France in fall: October to December ['October', 'November', 'December'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Anguilla anguilla Spawning migration that extend from November to February ['January', 'February', 'November'] Amin, 1998
Anguilla anguilla The mature silver eel leaves the rivers of Europe and North Africa in the autumn and swims accross the North Atlantic Ocean (navigating by an unknown process) to spawn in the Sargasso sea in the first half of the following year. Although the spawning process has never been observed, the small eel larvae (leptocephali) appear in the Sargasso Sea between February and July and drift on the ocean currents ['February', 'March', 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Keetle and Haines, 2006
Alosa alosa February to June ['February', 'March', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa alosa March to June-July [Water temperature of 10-11°C] ['March', 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
Alosa alosa Move into estuaries of large rivers, migrating into fresh water during late spring (April to June) Males migrate upstream first, followed by females on or two weeks later] ['April', 'May', 'June'] Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa alosa All anadromous populations have common biological characteristics: the migration (december-June) ['June'] Aprahamian et al, 2001
Alosa alosa Mature adults enter the estuaries of many European rivers from April and migrate some distance upstream, at about 11°C ['April'] Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa alosa Make their spawning migrations in April and June [In Gironde], migrations occurred between 7.5-24°C, and 90% below 17.5-20°C ['April', 'June'] Rochard, 2001
Alosa alosa During the three years upstream migration occurred between April 6 and August 15. The main movement took place between April 29 and June 18 in 2000 (96% of the migrants), between April 25 and June 16 in 2001 (94% of the migrants) and between April 19 and May 27 in 2002 (91% of the migrants). [...] Over the three years the temperature observed during the migration varied between 10.5°C and 23°C. The temperature threshold under which migration would be inhibited seemed to be close to 11°C and was recorded in 2001 only ['April', 'May', 'June', 'August'] Acolas et al, 2006
Alosa fallax Later than allis shad, and during a shorter time None Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa fallax In Ireland, mature fish enter from April to June, with peak spawning activity occuring in late May ['April', 'May', 'June'] Doherty et al, 2004
Alosa fallax The spawning migration into the estuary begins between February (southern populations) and May (northern populations), extends for thee months and is temperature depend ['February', 'May'] Aprahamian et al, 2001
Alosa fallax Mature adults enter the estuaries of many European rivers from April and migrate some distance upstream, at 10-14°C, ['April'] Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa fallax Pre-spawning adult enter the Sever, estuary at the start of the freswater phase of their spawning migration, between mid-April and mid-June; peak migration generally occurs in May. The timing of their movement into the estuary appears related to temperature, peak immigration occuring at temperature rangin between 10.6 and 12.3°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Aprahamian, 1998
Alosa fallax This species still migrates into the River Mira and the River Guadiana, Portugal to spawn. In theses rivers, spawning migration is triggered by favourable environmental conditions, such as the increase in water temperature, and starts between March and April, when adult twaite shad congregate in the sea near the mouth of the river ['March', 'April'] Pina et al, 2003
Alosa fallax The upstream migration and spawning of European Alosa spp seems to be triggered by water temperature (above 10-12°C) and predominantly influenced by estuarine tides and river flows/discharge None Esteves and Andrade, 2008
Alosa sapidissima Shad begin to enter the estuary as early as fall, the spawning runs occur in March ['March', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Internet, 2005
Alosa sapidissima Peak of spawning run occurs at temperature of about 18.3°C None Scott and Crossman, 1973
Alosa sapidissima The peak of spawning migrations in all Atlantic coast populations of closely related with a narrow range of water temperatures (13-18°C) None Carscadden and Leggett, 1975
Alosa sapidissima Adults move into the Hudson River from Atlantic waters in early spring, usually begin in March and April, and temperature must be 12°C or above before the shad begin their run ['March', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Everly and Boreman, 1999
Alosa sapidissima Up stream migrations in southern streams reportdly occur early in the spring and progressively later northward [the upstream migration of Amrican shad in the Sacramento river estuary reportdly takes about 3 months occuring in March, April and May). Migrate upstream in the spring [Take place when water is about 16.0-19.5°C ['March', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Mills, 2004
Alosa sapidissima In eastern Canada, spawing runs of shad enter rivers between late April and late June, with few, if any, entering rivers before water temperatures reach at least 4°C ['April', 'June'] Bradbury et al, 1999
Alosa sapidissima 90% of the run occurred at temperatures between 15/5-19.5°C, and the peak run occurred at about 18°C None Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Alosa sapidissima Reproductive adults migrate into coastal rivers in the spring when river temperatures are between 14 and 20°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Zydlewski and McCormick, 1997
Alosa sapidissima The spawing run begins when maturing (prespawning) fish enter the mouth of the river in late January through late February and continues for approximatively4 months through mid-May ['January', 'February', 'May'] Olney et al, 2006
Blicca bjoerkna In the spring, when water temperatue is about 10-14°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
Blicca bjoerkna Every season a run of ripe white bream was observed migrating to the tributary to spawn about 2 weeks after the main migration runs of dominant cyrpinids (14-16°C). The period of multiple migration of multiple spawners, mainly bleak and bream (but also white bream and ruud). Early May-early June. Females of these species release eggs during periods of warm weather, each of which triggers a new wave. Transient period when the local movmeents takes over the spawning migration of multiple spawners. early June until mid July. The proportion of ripe individuals decreases as well as the migration rate ['May', 'June', 'July'] Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Blicca bjoerkna During the upstream migration (March-June), mature roach, silver bream and common bream females were collected from natural populations in a fish pass at the Lixhe dam (Belgian River Meuse, 50°45'; 5°40'E) ['March', 'June'] Nzau Matondo et al, 2007
Abramis brama The peak run of spawners takes place through the second half of April- first ten days of May at water temperature 8-12°C ['April', 'May'] Sidorova, 2005
Abramis brama The spring migration begins with the melting of ice on the sea, the first group strat their upstream migration at the begnning of April, while the second and larger run lasting for 15-30 days begins when the water of the river reaches 8°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama Bream had two distinct migration waves and at least two seperate spawning periods which resulted in distinct cohors on shore seine catches None Molls, 1999
Abramis brama In the spring, when water temperatue is about 10-14°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
Abramis brama The bream exibited limited pre-spawning acitivty with a gradual increase of proportion of ripe individuals and low migration rate. This period was followed by the main spawning rung when the daily migration represented hundreds of individuals (13-14°C). in the same period, massive spawning of bream was recorded in the whole reservoir None Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Abramis brama Semi-migratory species in some parts of its distribution in brackish waters. In the Caspian Sea, spring migrations to the Volga river delta commenced whith ice melting, but they were most intensive at a water temperature of 10-12°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Abramis brama During the upstream migration (March-June), mature roach, silver bream and common bream females were collected from natural populations in a fish pass at the Lixhe dam (Belgian River Meuse, 50°45'; 5°40'E) ['March', 'June'] Nzau Matondo et al, 2007
Alburnoides bipunctatus The main migration was triggered by a similar temperature level of 12-14°C. The daily migration rate during the main wave was 10-20 chub, with one to five fish in the remaining period. None Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Alburnus alburnus The prespawning migration was rather small, the majority of fish were caught during the first migration run when the water temperature in the river reached 13-14°C. The main spawning run of cyrpinids. Last days of April and early May. Females of the roach, bleak, bream and chub strat to release eggs nearly simultaneously. nearly half of fish biomss migrates during this period. the end of this period can be defined by the absence of females releasing the eggs. prolongation of this period depends very much on weather. The usual extent is 3-7 days, but a drastic cooling can shorten the massive spawning like in 2001. Summer period with highly reduced spawning activity, mid July until august. ripe indiviudals are very rare except for bleak. Most migrating bleack are still ripe for spawning but their numbers are low ['April', 'May', 'July', 'August', 'September'] Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Aristichthys nobilis Spawing migrations starts in the second week of May at 18-19°C ['May'] Abdusamadov, 1986
Aristichthys nobilis In May, there is an increasing amount of adults, probably as a result of the start of the crowding process that usually precedes the upstream migration. In June, the capture was the largest one; it signalises the peak of migration. The water temperature is of 19°C to 24°C ['May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
Aspius aspius Emerges from the overwintering habitat in early spring at the time of the onset of floods ['January', 'February', 'March', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Shikhshabekov, 1979
Aspius aspius The first cyprinid migrating to the tributary to spawn each year was asp. 1 March to approximatively 10 April, asp dominates in biomass and sometimes in numbers. Prespawning migration of perch, roach and bream is also apparent. ['March', 'April'] Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Carassius auratus In the spring, when water temperatue is about 10-14°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
Carassius auratus Move inshore short distances into littoral areas or tributaries beginning at about 45°F None Goodyear et al, 1982
Chondrostoma nasus In spring, huge shoals migrate to their spawning areas ['April', 'May', 'June'] Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus In spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Keckeis, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Each year the specimens enter the river from the Danube in the mid-to late March. The spawning migration of the males starts two to three weeks earlier than the males ['March'] Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning migration begins in mid-April at 15-17°C, the most intensive spawning migration is observed during 1-20 May ['April', 'May'] Abdusamadov, 1986
Ctenopharyngodon idella In their native areas, grass carp begin migration to spawning areas when water temperatures reach 15-17°C None Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella In May, there is an increasing amount of adults, probably as a result of the start of the crowding process that usually precedes the upstream migration. In June, the capture was the largest one; it signalises the peak of migration. The water temperature is of 19°C to 24°C ['May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Breeding migrations commence when water temperature reaches 15-17°C None Shireman and Smith, 1983
Cyprinus carpio The carp migration usually starts in April when the water temperature is about 12°C and it has the highest intensity in May when the water temperature is aournd 16°C. The water temperature of 18°C to 20°C is the optimum for spawning. ['April', 'May'] Ciolac, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Adults move into weedy and grassy shallows None Scott and Crossman, 1973
Cyprinus carpio In the spring, when water temperatue is about 10-14°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The beginning of the spawning migration occurred at the end of April, at 16-17°C, the peak was observed in the middle and at the end of May and in the beginning of June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Abdusamadov, 1986
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix In May, there is an increasing amount of adults, probably as a result of the start of the crowding process that usually precedes the upstream migration. In June, the capture was the largest one; it signalises the peak of migration. The water temperature is of 19°C to 24°C ['May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
Leuciscus cephalus Near the onset of reproduction None Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus In both years, most chub started spawning migrations on 21 to 22 May. Chub stayed at or near (distance <50m) the spanwing grounds for 1 to 6 days and returned to their original home sites afterward. In both years, 44 chub strated their second spawning migration on 17 or 18 June mainly to the spawning grounds as in May. By 20 June, all chub were at spoawning grounds. After having spect 1 to 7 days on spawning grounds, chub migrated back to their individual home ranges and stayed there during the postspawning season up to the end of the trackning observations. In 1995, first spawning migration strated after a period of decreased in water tmeperature from 14 to 12°C. In 1996, weter temperature increased from 11 to 14°C beforte the first spawning ['May', 'June'] Fredrich et al, 2003
Leuciscus idus Leave their winter shelters from the main channel of danube for entering into the spawning areas when water temperature is about 4-6°C ['January', 'February', 'March'] Ciolac, 2004
Leuciscus idus In early spring (beginning of April) ide migrate upstream to spawning grounds. Populations linving in brackish Baltic waters migrate in May-June to spawn in rivers or near-shore lakes ['April', 'May', 'June'] Witkowski et al, 1997
Leuciscus leuciscus Migration prior and after spawning None Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Mylopharyngodon piceus Prespawning adults migrate upstream in spring - early summer ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September'] Fishbase, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus At spawning time the mature lake minnows migrate in large numbers up the inflowing streams, but apart from this no other mass movement has been observed None Frost, 1943
Rutilus rutilus The first migrations of roach to the backwaters started in mid-January and peaked from early February until late April. In mid-May, the daily migrations into the backwaters decreased considerably whereas no fish were caught after then end of June. ['January', 'February', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Kestemont et al, 1999
Rutilus rutilus Adult roach migration was maximal by the end of April ['April'] Molls, 1999
Rutilus rutilus Upstream migration of mature roach strated in early May with medium or falling watr level (3-6°C). Main stream migration lasted about 5-7 days ['May', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Vollestad et al, 1987
Rutilus rutilus Early March, the roach started moving to the spawning ground which occur during the first half of April ['March', 'April'] Papageorgiou, 1979
Rutilus rutilus The roach strated migrations also very early in the spring ; the first migration waves occurred in the first half of April. The main spawing runs of ripe individuals strated on the turn of April and May when the water temperature in the river continuously increased and reached 13-14°C. Prespawning pahse of the main cyprinid species. approximatively 10 april until 1 may. Phase after finishcing of asp spawning (all females spent)., but before the main spawning run of cyrpinids. The males of roach, bleak, bream and chub, may be active and releasing milt, but the females do not release eggs. Perch spawnig starts in this period. ['April', 'May', 'June'] Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Rutilus rutilus The upstream migration of roach started in a small river in Norway at water temperatures of 6-10°C, and in the Malse River (Czech Republic) at 13-14°C None Noges and Järvet, 2005
Rutilus rutilus The fish were caught during the spawning migration (spring 2007) in the Volga Reach of Rybinsk Reservoir ['April', 'May', 'June'] Talikina et al, 2008
Rutilus rutilus During the upstream migration (March-June), mature roach, silver bream and common bream females were collected from natural populations in a fish pass at the Lixhe dam (Belgian River Meuse, 50°45'; 5°40'E) ['March', 'June'] Nzau Matondo et al, 2007
Scardinius erythrophthalmus A few ripe individuals of rudd were also caught in the same period as white bream (14-16°C) None Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Vimba vimba Exclusively in spring, in April-May at a temperature not lower than 10-12 ['April', 'May', 'June'] Shikhshabekov, 1979
Vimba vimba The spawning migration begins in March or April at 10-13°C ['March', 'April'] Coad, 2005
Vimba vimba The first migration, usually the most numerous, normally takes place in the middle of May, and the last one in the 1st, or less frequently in the 2nd decade of June ['May', 'June'] Wajdowicz, 1974
Vimba vimba At the beginning of the spawning migration in Kyzylagach Bay (March). At the and of march and beginning of April, the spawning migration of kutum and vobla is nearly finished, mass entry of vimba into the Malyy Kyzylagach is observed. In Dagestan waters, the most vimba enter the Terek, Sulak, samur rivers, and the Arakum waterbodies for spawning from April onward at water temperatres of 10-13°C/ mass-scale migration was recorded in the second half of May in water temperatures of 19-20°C ['March', 'April', 'May'] Kuliev, 1988
Vimba vimba The vimb spring migration is held in spring (April-May), a month before the spawning itself ['April', 'May', 'June'] Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
Esox masquinongy Make estensive migrations into tributaries, often to the headwaters, or to lake shallows, when the water temperature rises to 42°F, following ice breakup None Goodyear et al, 1982
Esox masquinongy Move to spawning sites at temperatures from 8.3-9.0°C None Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox masquinongy During winter, lake fish occupy depper water and are relatively quiescent. In early spring, before any rise in water temperature, there is a general increase in activity. As water temperatures rise above about 5°C, this movement directed toward upstream or shallow bay and shoreline spawning areas ['January', 'February', 'March', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Miller and Menzel, 1986
Esox masquinongy Muskellunge typically have a protracted spawning run in the St Lawrence River from early May to mid-June ['May', 'June'] Farrell et al, 2005
Esox niger Adults move into the spawning areas, soon after the ice is out None Coffie, 1998
Esox lucius Migrations could occur few days before spawning None Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius Individual spawner may arrive on the breeding ground some considerable time before it actuall spawns None Frost and Kipling, 1967
Esox lucius Spawners move inshore or upstream to the marsh areas to spawn None Fishbase, 2006
Esox lucius Spawning run began on April 11 with a single female, rose rapidly to a peak in numbers of fish by April 18, declined rapidly and ended by April 20 [Mean temperature about 9°C] ['April'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox lucius Nothern pike migrate to spawning areas immediatly after the ice melts in spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Bradbury et al, 1999
Esox lucius Sexually mature nother pike, undergo an early spring spawning migration ['April', 'May', 'June'] Giles et al, 1986
Esox lucius Migrate from deeper water to littoral areas or into tributaries at time of ice breakup, beginning at about 33-40°F; may begin to congregate at river mouths in late February before ice breakup ['February'] Goodyear et al, 1982
Lota lota The spawning migration began from the second half of October and continued until early January, i.e. in the period of the open water followed by the period of ice ['January', 'October'] Vedeneev et al, 2003
Lota lota They travel upstream 1.5-2 km (maximally 6 km per day), migration lasts 5-6 months (from September to January). Spawning migration are triggered by a decrease of water temperature in the lake 10-12°C. ['January', 'September', 'October', 'November'] Kujawa et al, 2002
Lota lota Move from deep water to nearshore areas and into harbors and rivers, usually beginning in early November ['November'] Goodyear et al. et al, 1982
Gasterosteus aculeatus Migrations of anadromous stickleback into freshwater usually occurs in late psring (June) ['June'] Bradbury et al, 1999
Ambloplites rupestris Move inshore beginning at 55°F None Goodyear et al, 1982
Micropterus dolomieui Move into littoral zones of lakes and rivers in spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Ridgway et al, 1989
Micropterus dolomieui Migrate inshore and enter bays and tributaries; movement begins when water temperature rises above 40°F; peak movement occurs at 55°F None Goodyear et al, 1982
Micropterus salmoides In the spring prior to the spawning; very short migrations ['April', 'May', 'June'] Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides The February activity peak was related to spawning migrations ['February'] Mesing and Wickler, 1986
Dicentrarchus labrax In England: In October, towards south (Cornouailles coast) then a back migration in spring following the spawning ['April', 'May', 'June', 'October'] Barnabé, 1980
Dicentrarchus labrax Control fish spawn between2 February and 20 March ['February', 'March'] Carillo et al, 1989
Morone americana Nonmigratory None Everly and Boreman, 1999
Morone americana Upstream movements occurred only during the spring months ['April', 'May', 'June'] Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops Migrate up tributaries when available None Kohler, 1997
Morone chrysops Sexually mature fish form schools, and move onto shoals or into estuaries for spawning, these inshore movements usually occurring when water temperature rises to 12.8-15.6 None Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone saxatilis There is a fall migration upriver, the potential spawners spend the winter in the river, then swim up to their spaning grounds in the spring ['January', 'February', 'March', 'April', 'May', 'June', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone saxatilis Migration began in mid- to late April when water temperature in the lower river reached 17-18°C ['April'] Carmichael et al, 1998
Morone saxatilis Anadromous, coming in from the sea to spawn in brackish or fresh water None Merriman, 1937
Morone saxatilis Ascend rivers to spawn in fresh or brackosh water in March to June when water temperature reach 15 to 19°C ['March', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Dudley et al, 1977
Gymnocephalus cernua Undergoes spawning migrations from winter habitats which are deep areas in river or lakes to shallow areas which are stony and covered with aquatic macrophytes ['January', 'February', 'March'] Craig, 2000
Perca flavescens In early Paril, most perch were in deep water (24 m). As water temperatures increased from 2 to 4°C, the fish moved shoreward. By 21 May, water temperature had reached 6-7°C and migration of male perch into shallow water (6-12 km) occurred ['May'] Brazo et al, 1975
Perca flavescens In the spring, males move to the shoreline first, followed by females, ans stayed on the spawning grounds longer than female ['April', 'May', 'June'] Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
Perca flavescens In the Chesapeake Bay, adult migrate from downstream tidal reaches into the upper reaches during late winter ['January', 'February', 'March'] Rue, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Males arrive on the spanwing ground days or weeks before females and remaining behind afterwards None Thorpe, 1977
Perca fluviatilis Perch, started migratory activity very soon in th study period and spawning activity culminated when the water temperature reached 8-12 None Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Sander lucioperca Begin 1 month prior to the actual spawning None Lappaleinen et al, 2003
Sander lucioperca Between April, soon after ice breakup at a water of about 4°C, and the beginning of June [The potential migrations could last 2 months] ['April', 'June'] Saulamo et al, 2005
Sander lucioperca When the temperature rises above 2.8°C in spring, they commence upstream migration ['April', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
Sander lucioperca Leave their winter shelters from the main channel of danube for entering into the spawning areas when water temperature is about 4-6°C ['January', 'February', 'March'] Ciolac, 2004
Sander lucioperca In autumn, pikeperch seek deeper waters where they stay over winter. Spawning migrations to the the sheltered bays start in March or April ['January', 'February', 'March', 'April', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Lehtonen et al, 1996
Sander vitreus In the spring, prior to spawning ['April', 'May', 'June'] Colby et al, 1979
Sander vitreus Spawning migrations start at 3.3-6.7°C None Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus lavaretus Late autumn on their spawning run, males arrive earlier than females and occupied the spawning area for a longer period ['October', 'November', 'December'] Skurdal et al, 1985
Coregonus lavaretus There is a spawning migration which may occur in summer but more usually peaks in autumn ['July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Coad, 2006
Coregonus lavaretus During the first 2-3 weeks of January, ripe males migrated to the spawning grounds, where they remained until the end of the spawning period ['January'] Fuller et al, 1976
Coregonus albula Ascend a short distance up the rivers in late August to mid-October ['August', 'September', 'October'] Fishbase, 2006
Coregonus clupeaformis Migrate to spawning grounds around mid-October when water temperatures begin to drop ['October'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis Move inshore to spawning grounds, migration begins in September-October, but occasionally as early as August; historically also ascend rivers to spawn ['August', 'September', 'October'] Goodyear et al, 1982
Hucho hucho Most often the migration starts between April 7 and 10, with water 7-8°C warm [Duration of migration varies from 6 days to 1.5 months depending on environmental conditions] ['April'] Witkowski, 1988
Hucho hucho Represents the largest exclusively riverine and non-migratory salmonid fish None Jungwirth, 1979
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Pink salmon returned to spawn in their natal streams in southern British Columbia during September and October ['September', 'October'] Beacham and Murray, 1986
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Between June and September ['June', 'September'] Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawners begin to move into the rivers at the beginning of July ['July'] Golobanov, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The entry of the spawners in the river was in July ['July'] Zolotukhin, 1993
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha From June to September ['June', 'July', 'August', 'September'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha June to late September, depending on location ['June', 'September'] Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Congrate off tributary mouths beginning in mid-August; ascend tributaries grounds in September ['August', 'September'] Goodyear et al, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The prespawning run of O. gorbuscha in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Kurils lasts from May to September. This water area is first crossed (late May-June) by the migrating early summer O. gorbuscha, then, (the end of June-July) follows the late summer O. gorbuscha, and from August to September, the run is terminated by the autumn O. gorbuscha. ['May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Shubin et Kovalenko, 2000
Oncorhynchus keta Enter streams when temperatures drop to 15°C and the majority move upstream at temperatures from 10 to 12°C. Arrive on the spawning ground as early as July ['July'] Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta Enter as early as July in northern British, in the south they begin to arrive at the mouth of some streams in September ['July', 'September'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus keta Enter streams when temperature drop to 15°C, most enter at 10-12°C, peaks of migration varied from 7-11°C None Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus keta Spanwing runs in some Soviet streams were recorded from the first half of September to the end of October, the same periods as in the native habitat ['September', 'October'] Coad, 2006
Oncorhynchus keta Approaches of the spawners to the coastal spawning rivers were noted in the third ten-day period of May. The spawners entered the rivers in the first ten-day period of July. As a rule, the mass migration occurs in the first-second ten-day periods of August. The spawning migration eds mainly in the late August through the second-third ten -day periods of September ['May', 'July', 'August', 'September'] Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
Oncorhynchus keta Chum salmon are the last of the Pacific salmon to return to their natal streams, usually leaving the marine waters in summer and fall to begin their upstream migration ['July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Pauley, 1988
Oncorhynchus kisutch The spawning run may begin in late August but heavy runs up tributaries are observed between mid-September and mid-November ['August', 'September', 'October', 'November'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus kisutch Congrate off tributary mouths in August and September, ascend tributaries to spawning grounds usually in September but sometimes in August, movement into tributaries correlated with increased flow ['August', 'September'] Goodyear et al, 1982
Oncorhynchus kisutch ggenerally enter Sashin Creek from early August to early November, but the greatest numbers enter from late August to mid-October. ['August', 'September', 'October', 'November'] Crone and Bond, 1976
Oncorhynchus mykiss Enter freshwater from May to October in a sexually immature condition, remain in rivers all winter (often more than six months), and spawn the following spring ['January', 'February', 'March', 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September', 'October'] Robards and Quinn, 2002
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning runs start when water temperature are between 1 and 15, but are most commonly in the 9-10°C range None Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus nerka Vary between populations : June July or later in the season ['June', 'July'] Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus nerka Salmon return to spawn appear in coastal waters from May to October ['May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September', 'October'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus nerka Ocurrs during summer and fall as late as December ['July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus nerka In general, river entry and spawn timing show considerable spatial and temporal variability. Sockeye salmon enter Puget Sound Rivers from mid-June through August, while Columbia River populations gegin river entry in May ['May', 'June', 'August'] Gustafson et al, 1997
Oncorhynchus nerka The spawning run usually begins in the last days of May and ends the end of October/beginning of November. The heavy run occurs in the time interval between the middle of July and the beginning of September, the main part of the run from the end of July to the middle of August [The total duration of the spawning run is 5.5 months, the heavy run 1.5-2 months, the main part of the run 10-22 days] ['May', 'July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November'] Yegorova, 1978
Oncorhynchus nerka Move from offshore waters to spawning grounds along the lakeshore and in tributaries; tributary runs begin in mid-August; peak in late September and end in mid-October ['August', 'September', 'October'] Goodyear et al, 1982
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Return to their natal river 6-9 months prior to spawning, as early as February ['February'] Slater et al, 1994
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Many river systems have salmon spawning runs that return at diffrent (one to three) times during a year None Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Maturing chinook salmon move inshore into spawning rivers over most of the year None Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Migration from the sea begins in December so that the first fish are near the river mouths by spring ['April', 'May', 'June', 'December'] Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Great lakes chinhook salmon will typically move to the mouths of spawning tributaries in August [Spawning runs occur from late August to mid-October], temperature is usually between 4-18°C ['August', 'September', 'October'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Congregate near tributary mouths usually in late August or September at about 70°F; upstream migration to spawning grounds may begin as early as mid-July, possibly by drop in stream temperature to 65°F; a spring run also occurs; spring run fish inhabi deep pools in the stream until fall, when they spawn ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Goodyear et al, 1982
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Enter freswater in spring: February-June ['February', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Berman and Quinn, 1991
Salmo salar Migration take splace in three successive phases: rapid movement upstream for either long or short distances, than a long residence period, followed by a short upstream migration just before spawning None Baglinière at al., 1990
Salmo salar Marine salmon move into estuaries and to fresh water in spring, summer, or early autumn [Landlocked or permantly freshwater salmon simply move from the lake into the tributary stream to be used for spawning] ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo salar Spawning runs occur in September and early October ['September', 'October'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar In insular Newfoundland, there is considerable variation in the timing of the upstream spawning migration which extends from early May to early September, while in Labrador upstream migrations are usually restricted ti July and August ['May', 'July', 'August', 'September'] Bradbury et al, 1999
Salmo salar In Norway, Atlantic salmon ascend rivers between April and November, with a peak in most streams in June and July ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November'] Okland et al, 2001
Salmo salar Runs stimulated by sudden increase in stream flow; some fish may be found in streams in most months; all approach shore in April-October, but at least two separate runs may occur; an early run ascends streams in May-July and remains in the streams until spawning time; a late run ascends in September and October just prior to spawning ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'September', 'October'] Goodyear et al, 1982
Salmo trutta fario Male and female migrations seem to peak between 7.6 and 7.8°C None Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo trutta fario Anadromous brown trout spawning in large rivers, may enter fresh water some 6 months before arriving at the spawning areas, whereas brown trout spawning in small streams often ascend in a short period of time just prior to spawning None Rubin et al, 2005
Salmo trutta fario Enter and ascend tributaries in late summer and fall, beginning in July; runs are often limited by low stream flow ['July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Goodyear et al, 1982
Salvelinus alpinus The upstream migration begin in late July or early August, and peaks between mid-August and early September ['July', 'August', 'September'] Groot, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus Males are on the spawning sites two months prior to reproduction (from August onward) ['August'] Jamet, 1995
Salvelinus alpinus The upstream migration occur from July to September, and the spawning occur at the beginning of winter in Europe ['January', 'February', 'March', 'July', 'August', 'September'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salvelinus alpinus Ocean migrations of Artic charr in Nothern Labrador are generally of short duration, usually lasting one to three months, in localized areas. Up stream migrations may extend into the last two weeks of September ['September'] Bradbury et al, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Extensive studies on the annual migrations of Fraser River Arctic char in Nothern Labrador has revealed that seaward migration of char occurs during May and early Junecoinciding with spring run off and river ice break up. The larger fish, both maturing and non-maturing, usually begin to enter the sea first, followed by smaller adults and juveniles. The return upstream migrations begin mid July with the peak return occuring in August ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August'] Beddow et al, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus The return to fresh waer begins in late July or early August and continues until at least early September, and its occurrence seems to be influenced by tidal conditions, most upstream movement takink place at high tides, and the first mass upstream migration beginning during high spring tides ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September'] Grainger, 1953
Salvelinus alpinus Mass upstream movement in rivers A and B began during the second week of August and was apparently completed within 5-6 weeks ['August'] Moore, 1975
Salvelinus alpinus The first char in the spanwing run passed the Malkaya river weir in the mid July. Until the end of July only individual spawners arrived. During the period from 2 to 4 August the average daily passage of fish was 200 specimens. The peak of the spawning run at the weir occurred in mid august. during this period three peaks of intensity were noted - 11, 15 and 19 August. Toward the end of August the run declined ['July', 'August'] Shershnev et al, 1986
Salvelinus fontinalis Upstream migrations have been observed as early as July in some Newfoundland rivers ['July'] Bradbury et al, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Enter their natal stream in spring and summer even though spawning occur in fall ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November', 'December'] Coad, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis Lake-run fish ("coasters") enter and ascend streams beginning in mid-August ['August'] Goodyear et al, 1982
Salvelinus namaycush Move from deep water to spawning grounds in shallower water on offshore reefs, in littoral waters, or in tributaries. Movement usually begins in late August or September; fish arrive on grounds 1-2 weeks before spawning begins ['August', 'September'] Goodyear et al, 1982
Stenodus leucichthys The upstream, presumably prespawning migration, is prolonged and apparently continues all summer ['July', 'August', 'September'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
Stenodus leucichthys Upstream migration from wintering areas begins at ice break-up ['January', 'February', 'March'] Fishbase, 2006
Stenodus leucichthys The prespawning nelma begins migration to its spawning grounds before the ice drift, the mass migration is observed in the first half of June ['June'] Chereshnev et al, 2000
Stenodus leucichthys The Caspian inconnu migration into the Volga mouth began in September-Ocotber when the water temperature decreased down to 18-19°C, and it went on 6-7 months ['September'] Dyubin, 2007
Thymallus thymallus The spawning migration of grayling from the Volga to its tributaries usually occurs from late March to early May ['March', 'May'] Pavlov et al, 1998
Thymallus thymallus Migrations started in March, under conditions of decreasing water level and increasing water temperature in a thermal range of 5 to 8°C ['March'] Ovidio et al, 2004
Thymallus thymallus All migrations started between 18 and 29 March ['March'] Parkinson et al, 1999
Thymallus thymallus They leaft their overwintering sites during ice break-up and increasing spring fllod, at mean daily water temperature of 0.3-3.7°C, between 28 April to 2 May ['January', 'February', 'March', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Nykänen et al, 2004
Thymallus thymallus When water temepratures is 4-6°C, which is most often at the end of March or at the beginning of April ['March', 'April'] Witkowski and Kowalewski, 1988
Thymallus thymallus Spawning run (12-25 March), a period of residency (26 March-1 April) and the dowstream migration (2-16 April) ['March', 'April'] Meyer, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Mature grayling from most lake-living populations migrate to streams and rivers after ice-break to spawn None Haugen and Vollestad, 2000
Thymallus thymallus Mass migration of graylingto spawning grounds takes place only in calm windless weather when the water temperature reaches 3°C (daily fluctuations 2.3-3.9°C) and continues 1-2 days. In case of warming of the water masses along with constant intermixing due to wind, the spawning is delayed and takes place under more favorable conditions (absence of waves) and at a higher temperature. In such cases, the spawning is significantly extended, and the intervals between individual arrivals of spawners is 10-12 days None Zaytsev, 1987
Thymallus thymallus Ascend tributaries in May/June when water temperature increase to 5°C ['May', 'June'] Kristiansen and Doving, 1996
Thymallus thymallus Mature fish migrating into streams and rivers after ice break None Gregersen et al, 2008
Thymallus arcticus As the ice is breaking-up in the small streams, adults migrate from ice-covered lakes and from larger rivers to small gravel- or rock-bottomed tribitaries None Scott and Crossman, 1973
Thymallus arcticus Move onto spawning areas shortly after ice-out at temperatures near 4°C, usually in May ['May'] Northcote, 1995
Thymallus arcticus Often moving onto spawning areas shortly after ice-out at temperatures near 4°C, usually occur in mid-May ['May'] Northcote, 1993
Ameiurus nebulosus Move inshore and into rivers, beginning in early April at 50-55°F ['April'] Goodyear et al. et al, 1982
Ictalurus punctatus Depending on habitat, the spawners may or may not migrate into rivers or moving water at spawning time None Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ictalurus punctatus Move inshore from deep water, may enter and migrate long distances up tributaries None Goodyear et al. et al, 1982
Silurus glanis Leave their winter shelters from the main channel of danube for entering into the spawning areas when water temperature is about 4-6°C ['January', 'February', 'March'] Ciolac, 2004
Osmerus eperlanus From March to early July depending on areas [The spawning run begins within the first 10 days after the ice has broken] ['March', 'July'] Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning migration in the northwestern regions of the Soviet Union begins in the early spring: either when ice breaks up or immediatly after ['April', 'May', 'June'] Ivanova and Polovka, 1972
Osmerus eperlanus Spawners usually begin to move into spawning areas before the ice breakup None Buckley, 1989
Osmerus eperlanus October-November, migrates into estuarines ['October', 'November'] Rochard, 2001
Osmerus eperlanus Mature adults congregate in the upper estuary during the winter, preparatory to spawning in the spring ['January', 'February', 'March', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Maitland, 2003
Osmerus eperlanus In Scotland, the adult smelt migrate upstream from the estuaries and into the lower reaches of large clean rivers between January and April ['January', 'February', 'March', 'April'] Quigley et al, 2004