Perca flavescens

  • Scientific name
  • Perca flavescens (Mitchill, 1814)

  • Common name
  • Yellow perch

  • Family
  • Percidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness100%
Total data223
References33
Image of Perca flavescens

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Lose its adhesive properties within 3 minutes in water Adhesive Mansueti, 1964
5 Incubation time 51 [5.4], 27 [8.0°C], 13 [16°C], 6 [19.7°C] 51.0 days Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
5 Incubation time 27 days [8.5-12°C] 10.25 days Mansueti, 1964
5 Incubation time 8-10 9.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 20-27 days at peak temperatures 23.5 days Rue, 2001
5 Incubation time 8-10 9.0 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 8-10 9.0 days Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
5 Incubation time 10-20 days 15.0 days Whiteside, 1983
5 Incubation time 9.0 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 9.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time Hatching occurred within 12-14 days of fertilization 13.0 days Fulford, 2006
5 Incubation time Eggs hatched to days after fertilization No data Jentoft, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 229-300 [About 27 days at 8.5-12°C] 264.5 °C * day Mansueti, 1964
7 Degree-days for incubation From 250, 216, 208 to 118 DD : 51 [5.4], 27 [8.0°C], 13 [16°C], 6 [19.7°C] 250.0 °C * day Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-110 [At a temperature of 15°C] 95.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation 10-20 [Considered to be the optimal temperature] 15.0 °C Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation 7.8-16.1 is the optimum [Can tolerate 7.7-22.8] 11.95 °C Goubier, 1990
6 Temperature for incubation 15°C [Recommended temperature of 15°C] 15.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation 12 is the optimal temperature 12.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation The incubation temperature was 11°C, until 4 day at which time the temeprature was slowly increased to 15°C 11.0 °C Jentoft, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation Beakers were arranged in a water bath at 10 ± 1°C and individually aerated 10.0 °C Peters, 2007
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean diameter of 2.26 mm, 1.87 to 2.81 but some describes it to reach 4.5 mm [Water hardening within the first few minutes] 2.26 mm Mansueti, 1964
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.7-4.5 3.1 mm Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.5 [Swollen] 3.5 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.7 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] ??? 2.7 mm Olden, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Semi-demersal [Strands are slightly heavier than water and float in the current until they become untangled in debris] Pelagic Mansueti, 1964
3 Egg Buoyancy Egg masses are semi-buoyant [They undulate with water movement and adhere to submerged vegetation or, at times, to the bottom] Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy The egg cases are semi-buoyant and attach to submerged vegetation or occasionally to the bottom Ambiguous Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
1 Oocyte diameter 1.62-2.09, mean 1.76 [Fertilized eggs before water-hardening] 1.855 mm Mansueti, 1964
1 Oocyte diameter 1.6-2.1 1.85 mm Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
1 Oocyte diameter About 1.7 1.7 mm Malservisi and Magnin, 1968
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-1.9 [Not specified, but seems unswollen] 1.45 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Optimum is 20-23°C but can tolerate a range of 2.8-27.8°C for hatch to swim-up and optimum of 20-23.9 and tolerance range of 10-30 for feeding larvae 21.5 °C Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
11 Temperature during larval development 20-23.9 is the optimum [Can tolerate 2.8-27.8] 21.95 °C Goubier, 1990
11 Temperature during larval development In general, water temperatures varied between 10 and 22°C and it is suspected that this range prevails in the shallow waters of the natural spawning grounds. In other studies, specimens were raised under hatchery conditions around 20°C 10.0 °C Mansueti, 1964
11 Temperature during larval development Larvae were maintained in the lab in a 2.4 m diameter tank at 15-18°C under flow-through conditions 16.5 °C Fulford, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development Peak larval yellow perch densities generally occurred during late May or early June when surface temperatures were 12-19°C 15.5 °C Isermann and Willis, 2008
10 Reaction to light Yellow perch are strongly attracted to light before they reach 50 mm Photopositive Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Larvae are cannibalistic on their siblings [Cannibalism by adults also takes place weh nlarvae are > 18 mm] Present Craig, 2000
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism The incidence of perch cannibalism was typically most intense in August when young perch averaged 40-70 mm length Present Tarby, 1974
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Yellow perch are known to be cannibaslitic Absent Kerr and Grant, 1999
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 3-5 days 4.0 °C * day Rue, 2001
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Larvae were initially fed a tank culture of rotifers and small zooplankton four to six times per day. Starting five days posthatch (dph), larvae were fed Artemia nauplii four times per day (at 15-18°C). 16.5 °C * day Fulford, 2006
8 Initial larval size 5.5-6.0 5.75 mm Mansueti, 1964
8 Initial larval size 4.7-6.6 5.65 mm Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
8 Initial larval size 4.0-7.0 5.5 mm Brown, 1996
8 Initial larval size 5 5.0 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size 4.8-6.0 5.4 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 5 5.0 mm Kerr and Grant, 1999
8 Initial larval size 4.1-5.5 4.8 mm Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
8 Initial larval size 5.6-6.2 5.9 mm Whiteside, 1983
8 Initial larval size 6.4 6.4 mm Olden, 2006
8 Initial larval size Each model simulation model began with 1000 larvae, and initial size was randomly assigned to each larva from a normal distribution (mean = 5.7 mm, SD = 0.3 mm). 5.7 mm Fulford, 2006
8 Initial larval size Deduced from graph => 5.2 mm 5.2 mm Peters, 2007
8 Initial larval size The TL of larval yellow perch ranged from 4 to 11 mm on the initial dates of capture 4.0 mm Isermann and Willis, 2008
9 Larvae behaviour Immediatly active swimmer Demersal Mansueti, 1964
9 Larvae behaviour Inactive for about 5 days Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour The swim-up stage occurs within two to five days after hatching [The fry are slow swimmers and gather in dense schools which makes them vary vulnerable) Pelagic Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Pelagic [are inactive for about 5 days until the yolk is absorbed] Demersal Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
9 Larvae behaviour Soon after hatching the larvae moved into the limnetic zone where they began feeding [This movement is probably a mechanism to escape intense predation in the littoral zone] Demersal Whiteside, 1983

Female (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females less highly coloured Present Scott and Crossman, 1973
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females generally grow faster than males and reach a greater final length Absent Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
24 Maximum GSI value 21.6-22.6 22.1 percent Hayes and Taylor, 1994
24 Maximum GSI value 22 in wild populations and up to 30.9% in cultured perch 22.0 percent Dabrowski, 1996
24 Maximum GSI value From 20 to 31% [Just prior to spawning] 20.0 percent Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
24 Maximum GSI value Mean 18.74% [March] 18.74 percent Malservisi and Magnin, 1968
24 Maximum GSI value The fecundity index gradually increased smoothly for all age classes from April to May reaching a value of 20-25% immediatly before spawning 22.5 percent Brazo, 1975
24 Maximum GSI value Mean 14, range 12-14 [March, but note that authors suspect that the Gsi's of yellow perch collected near to spawning (April-May) would have been higher] 13.0 percent Tansichuk and Mackay, 1989
24 Maximum GSI value 18% [April] 18.0 percent June, 1977
24 Maximum GSI value For stunted individuals: GSI vary between 22.5 to 30% and for normal females from 12.5-22.5% 17.5 percent Jansen,1996
25 Oogenesis duration Period of ova growth and vitellogenesis = 200 days, followed by a short stage of final maturation of oocytes and ovulation (few days) 200.0 months Dabrowski, 1996
25 Oogenesis duration The mimimum chill period is 160 days at approximatively 10°C or less 160.0 months Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
25 Oogenesis duration From Mid-August until Mid-April No data Malservisi and Magnin, 1968
19 Relative fecundity 79-223 151.0 thousand eggs/kg Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
19 Relative fecundity 190 190.0 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
19 Relative fecundity Although the weight range of stunted and normal perch did not overlap and values had to be extrapolated for stunded fish, the above relationships between fecundity was used to calculate the fecundity of a 100g 'strandard' perch. For the stunted population this hypothetical fish produced approximatively 5000 more eggs (16556 +/-710) than a corresponding female from the normal population (11327 +/-2245). Data from other studies: 130-232 [For females 190-354 mm in Lake Michigan, US], 130-255 [For females 98-168 in Narrow Lake, CDN], 112-199 [For females 135-257, in Lake Ontario, CDN], 82-184 [For females 174-411 mm, in Patuxent River, US], 85-141 [For females 200-305 mm, in Baptiste Lake, CDN], 132-157 [For female 156-353 mm, in Lake Erie, CDN], 16556.0 thousand eggs/kg Jansen,1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Rare but most at 3-4] 3.5 years Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Sex specified, rarely at 1] 2.0 years Dabrowski, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Sex specified] 3.0 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity Males reach sexual maturity during their second summer No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Males] 1.0 years Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
27 Age at sexual maturity 2.0 [Both sex] 2.0 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Except fot two age II females taken in the summern all fish older than age I were mature No data Brazo, 1975
27 Age at sexual maturity Out of the 483 stunded males analyzed for maturity status, almost all fish had reached maturity by the time they were two years old, and one male reached maturity after the firstgrowing season. The average age at maturity (1.61 years) of stunded males was nerly 1 year less than that of normal males (2.52 years). Males of P. flavescens and P. fluviatilis typically spawn at age 2, although in some populationsof P. fluviatilis almostall fish mature furing their first year of life, and in one reported case most male P. flavescens mature at age 1 2.52 years Jansen,1996
26 Resting period Mid-June until Mid-August No data Malservisi and Magnin, 1968
26 Resting period May until August No data Dabrowski, 1996
26 Resting period Late April to August No data Hayes and Taylor, 1994
26 Resting period <1% from July to August 1.0 months Tansichuk and Mackay, 1989
22 Onset of oogenesis Active growth of ova starts in early september and formation of yolk in November ['November'] Dabrowski, 1996
22 Onset of oogenesis Oocyte growth during fall through winter ['February', 'March', 'January'] Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
22 Onset of oogenesis Mid-August until end of September ['August', 'September'] Malservisi and Magnin, 1968
22 Onset of oogenesis Late August until immediately before spawning, increase gradually ['August'] Hayes and Taylor, 1994
22 Onset of oogenesis Rapid increase of oocyte diameter from late July to November-December ['November', 'December', 'July'] Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
22 Onset of oogenesis In September, ovarian weights began to increase again and reached 4-5% of body weight for all age classes by mid-November, when the study was terminated ['November', 'September'] Brazo, 1975
22 Onset of oogenesis Began increasing in August and then increased siginificantly from October through March ['October', 'August', 'March'] Tansichuk and Mackay, 1989
22 Onset of oogenesis September ['September'] June, 1977
22 Onset of oogenesis Rapid gonadal development in September and October ['October', 'September'] Jansen,1996
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity The increase of temperature in March induces the completion of vitellogenesis, resulting in a sharp increase of GSI before spawning ['March'] Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity March, but lacks evidence … ['March'] Tansichuk and Mackay, 1989
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Increase regularly until December (10%) then from December to April ['April', 'December'] June, 1977
21 Oocyte development Synchronous oocyte growth Synchronous Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
21 Oocyte development Synchronous oocyte growth Synchronous Dabrowski, 1996
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous development Group-synchronous Craig, 2000
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 3-109 56.0 thousand eggs Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
20 Absolute fecundity 8.618-78.741 43.6795 thousand eggs Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
20 Absolute fecundity 2-90 46.0 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity Fecundity ranged from 10.654 eggs for an age II female (190 mm total length, 82g) to 157,594 eggs for an age VI fish (354 mm, 678 g) 10.654 thousand eggs Brazo, 1975
20 Absolute fecundity Mean fecundity of 28 stunted females 9.8-16.8 cm, was 3992 eggs (range 1910-11812). The corresponding value for 29 normal perch (20.0-30.5 cm) was 22658 eggs (range: 10639-55592). Data from other studies: 10654-157594 [For females 190-354 mm in Lake Michigan, US], 1910-11812 [For females 98-168 in Narrow Lake, CDN], 3035-61465 [For females 135-257, in Lake Ontario, CDN], 5266-75715 [For females 174-411 mm, in Patuxent River, US], 10639-55952 [For females 200-305 mm, in Baptiste Lake, CDN], 12641-135848 [For female 156-353 mm, in Lake Erie, CDN], 13.3 thousand eggs Jansen,1996
17 Weight at sexual maturity 30-40 g 35.0 kg Dabrowski, 1996
17 Weight at sexual maturity The smallest stunded female weighted 5.52 g 5.52 kg Jansen,1996
16 Length at sexual maturity 14-19.1, with a mean of 15.8 [Sex specified] 16.55 cm Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
16 Length at sexual maturity 15.0 [Both sex] 15.0 cm Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Size of female at age 2 range from 9.9-16.2 13.05 cm Brazo, 1975
16 Length at sexual maturity The smallest stunded female was 8.4 cm long 8.4 cm Jansen,1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Rare, most at 3-4] 3.5 year Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex specified] 3.5 year Dabrowski, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 [Sex specified] 4.0 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity Female reach sexual maturity during their third or fourth summer No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Female] 2.5 year Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
15 Age at sexual maturity 2.0 [Both sex] 2.0 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Except fot two age II females taken in the summern all fish older than age I were mature No data Brazo, 1975
15 Age at sexual maturity The largest immature females from the stunded population attained just over 10% of the weight of the smallest normal females which had reached maturity. At an average age of 2.84 years, stunted females matured exactly 2 years earlier tnah their normal conspecific (4.84 years). Generally, females mature 1 or more years later than male P. fluviatilis or P. flavescens. This can be as early as during the second year of life for P. flavescens. More commonly, though, females are 3 or 4 years old at first maturity, and in some populations it may take on average 5 years to become mature 10.0 year Jansen,1996

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Colours of spawning males more intense, bronze-green, bars darker, lower fins suffused with orange to bhroght red Present Scott and Crossman, 1973
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Fast growth of the testes during autumn, begin in September and remain high until spring ['April', 'May', 'September', 'December', 'June', 'October', 'November'] Dabrowski, 1996
31 Onset of spermatogenesis GSI increased significantly in August [Testes composition did not change between Septemner and March] ['August', 'March'] Tansichuk and Mackay, 1989
33 Maximum GSI value 10 [In mid-october] 10.0 percent Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
33 Maximum GSI value No value [November] No data Dabrowski, 1996
33 Maximum GSI value 5% in September 5.0 percent Tansichuk and Mackay, 1989
32 Main spermatogenesis activity August: one month ['August'] Tansichuk and Mackay, 1989
35 Resting period Between 1 and 2 [After spawning, declined troughout the summer until August] 1.0 months Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
35 Resting period Below 1%, in June and July 1.0 months Tansichuk and Mackay, 1989
34 Spermatogenesis duration Spermatigenesis is completed by December No data Dabrowski, 1996
34 Spermatogenesis duration Rapid, within 6 weeks than testes steadily lose weight to reach 4-6% at spawning 5.0 months Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
28 Length at sexual maturity 9.2-16.5, with a mean of 10.8 [sex specified] 12.85 cm Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
28 Length at sexual maturity 15.0 [Both sex] 15.0 cm Olden, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Size of male at age 2 range from 9.9 to 15.9 2.0 cm Brazo, 1975
28 Length at sexual maturity The smallest fish of the stunted males was 5.9 cm. The smallest mature male from the normal population measured 10.0 cm 5.9 cm Jansen,1996
29 Weight at sexual maturity 5-6 g 5.5 kg Dabrowski, 1996
29 Weight at sexual maturity The smallest fish of the stunted males weighted 1.71 g. The smallest mature male from the normal population weighted more than 10 g 1.71 kg Jansen,1996

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system One female and two up to five males (even 25 males), it takes several minutes at 14-15°C and up to several days at temperatures below 5°C to extrude the entire egg mass No category Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
47 Mating system One female and two up to five males, during about 30 mn [described in more details] No category Craig, 2000
47 Mating system A single larger female and many males which swim about in a long compact queue, the first males with their snouts pressed against the females No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system Several males fertilize the eggs as they are extruded by the female in a gelatinous, convoluted string No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
47 Mating system Group, communal spawing: a ripe female is followed by several males, the males release sperm as she extrudes a convolued egg strand Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the night and early morning Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition The time at which yellow perch spawning occurs has been reported as being both at night and during the day Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning takes place in the night or early in the morning Ambiguous Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
50 Parental care No protection is given the egg mass or young by either parent No care Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
50 Parental care There is little if any protection of the eggs No care Craig, 2000
50 Parental care No protection is given the egg masses or young by the parents No care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care No parental care is provided to the eggs or fry No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Usually near rooted vegetation, submerged brush, or fallen trees, but at times over sand or gravel Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Over a wide variety of substrates including boulders and gravel, aquatic macrophytes, roots of trees, dead branches and other materials Lithophils Craig, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Non obligatory plant spawner Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Eggs adhere to sumerged plants, but other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate A variety of bottom is sused, including aquatic vegetation Phytophils Rue, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Yellow perch seem to have little preference for bottom type, allowing them a wide variety of habitat choices No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Usually near rooted vegetation, fallen trees, or brush Phytophils Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
45 Spawning site preparation No nest is built Open water/substratum scatter Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
45 Spawning site preparation No nest is built Open water/substratum scatter Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
41 Spawning temperature 7-20°C [But optimal temperature at 10-13°C] 13.5 °C Craig, 2000
41 Spawning temperature 2.8-19.9°C [But optimum at 7.8-11.1°C] 11.35 °C Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
41 Spawning temperature 8.0-12.0°C 10.0 °C Kayes and Calbert, 1979
41 Spawning temperature 8.9-12.2 10.55 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 7.8-11.1 9.45 °C Goubier, 1990
41 Spawning temperature Ranging from 7 to 20°C [Usually 10-13°C] 11.5 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
41 Spawning temperature 6-14 10.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Range from 5.0-12.8, with peak spawning between 8.5-11.0 8.9 °C Rue, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Varies between authors: 5-14, 9-12, 7-11, 6.1-8.9 9.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 6.7-12.2°C 9.45 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
41 Spawning temperature 7 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 7.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Mean of 9.2°C 9.2 °C June, 1977
41 Spawning temperature At water temperatures less than 17°C 17.0 °C Isermann and Willis, 2008
40 Spawning period duration 2-8 [Male arrive on spawnning grounds earlier than female] 5.0 weeks Craig, 2000
40 Spawning period duration Approximatively 2 weeks 2.0 weeks Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
40 Spawning period duration 2-3 2.5 weeks Kayes and Calbert, 1979
40 Spawning period duration Male remain longer on the spawning grounds than do the females No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
40 Spawning period duration The spawning period lasts between two and four weeks [Adult males arrive on the spawning grounds days or weeks before the females] No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
40 Spawning period duration The spawning period occured from the middle of May through the end of June No data Brazo, 1975
42 Spawning water type In the shallows of lakes, and often into tributary, where they live in brackish water, they migrate into fresh water Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Upper reaches of many major tributaries No category Mansueti, 1964
42 Spawning water type Tales place in tidal and non-tidal water No category Rue, 2001
42 Spawning water type Lakes and tributary streams [Sites protected from high winds and fast currents are chosen] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth Shallow : 60-90 cm deep 75.0 m Mansueti, 1964
43 Spawning depth 0.5-8 4.25 m Craig, 2000
43 Spawning depth In lakes, spawning occrus at water depth from 0.5-3 m altough depths of up to 8 m have been reported in large lakes and reservoirs 1.75 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
36 Spawning migration distance Spawning migrations are usually short-ranged [On lalke system this involves movment from deep water, where the fish over-wintered, to shallow water spawning areas] No data Craig, 2000
36 Spawning migration distance Adults migrate shoreward into the shallows of lakes, and often into tributary rivers to spawn No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
36 Spawning migration distance Perch do not move extensively [Winter migrations take perch into deep water where maximum water temperatures are approximatively 4°C. in the spring fish begin to migrate to the shallow water spawning areas] 4.0 km Kerr and Grant, 1999
36 Spawning migration distance Move to shallower water to spawn No data Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
37 Spawning migration period In early Paril, most perch were in deep water (24 m). As water temperatures increased from 2 to 4°C, the fish moved shoreward. By 21 May, water temperature had reached 6-7°C and migration of male perch into shallow water (6-12 km) occurred ['May'] Brazo, 1975
37 Spawning migration period In the spring, males move to the shoreline first, followed by females, ans stayed on the spawning grounds longer than female ['April', 'May', 'June'] Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
37 Spawning migration period In the Chesapeake Bay, adult migrate from downstream tidal reaches into the upper reaches during late winter ['February', 'March', 'January'] Rue, 2001
39 Spawning season Depending on latitudes, the spawning period extends from March to late June ['March', 'June'] Craig, 2000
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Mansueti, 1964
39 Spawning season Spring No data Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
39 Spawning season April and early May ['April', 'May'] Kayes and Calbert, 1979
39 Spawning season Mid-April to Beginning of May ['April', 'May'] Malservisi and Magnin, 1968
39 Spawning season In the spring, usually from April 15 to early May, but spawning may extend into July in some areas ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Spawning period extends from March to late June ['March', 'June'] Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
39 Spawning season Spaws in spring during a period when water temperatures begin to rise (mid-April to early May) ['April', 'May', 'June'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Spring No data Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
39 Spawning season Early spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Whiteside, 1983
39 Spawning season The spawning period occured from the middle of May through the end of June ['May', 'June'] Brazo, 1975
39 Spawning season Mean peak spawning 1 May [Range: 14 April-20 May] in Lake Oahe, South and North Dakota ['April', 'May'] June, 1977
39 Spawning season Spawn in April-June and complete most of a year's growthby August ['April', 'August', 'June'] Purchase, 2005
39 Spawning season Yellow perch typically spawn in South Dakota lakes and wetlands from mid-April to mid-May […] On Lake Madison during 2000 and 2001, egg deposition on submerged conifer bundles occurred over 3-15 days periods from 21 April to 5 May at water temperatures between 7 and 17°C, and no new egg deposition was observed after the first week of May ['April', 'May'] Isermann and Willis, 2008
38 Homing Return to their local location to spawn Present Craig, 2000
48 Spawning release Total spawner Total Dabrowski, 1996
48 Spawning release Once a year Total Craig, 2000
48 Spawning release Eggs of the yellow perch are extruded in adhesive strands, eggs are extruted in long adhesive and 'accordion folded' strands about 5 cm thick No category Mansueti, 1964
48 Spawning release Extruded in a unique transparent, gelatinous, accordion-folded string or tube No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
48 Spawning release Eggs are laid in masses or ribbons on structure suc as aquatic vegetation No category Rue, 2001
48 Spawning release Intermittent spawning Fractional Luksiene, 2000
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Dabrowski, 1996
49 Parity Have been reported to live up to 11 years No category Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3