Quigley, 2004



Citation


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Mating system Females drop out of the river after spawning, while the males continue to spawn with other females No category
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Various researchers have found that the spawning initiating temperature ranges from 4-7, 8-9, 4.4-5.5, 4-6, and >4°C 5.5 °C
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration In Scotland, spawning can last anywhere from a few days up to two weeks, depending on prevailing environmental conditions No data
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning water type The fish usually congregate in the lower reaches of these rivers for a number of days prior to moving upstream to spawn [Spawning areas correspond to the maximum tidal influence on the river] No category
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Incubation time Hatching normally occurs after 20-35 days depending on temperature 27.5 days
Osmerus eperlanus Female Age at sexual maturity 1+ or 2+ [Both sex] 1.0 years
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg Buoyancy Are deposited on a range of substrates around the limit of the tidal influence Demersal
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period In Scotland, the adult smelt migrate upstream from the estuaries and into the lower reaches of large clean rivers between January and April ['April', 'January']
Osmerus eperlanus Female Absolute fecundity Can carry as many as 106,000 eggs, although the average is about 50,000 106.0 thousand eggs
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawning in the river Shannon takes place between the end of February and early April ['February', 'April']
Osmerus eperlanus Female Length at sexual maturity Average fork length of the spawing smelt was 15.7 cm and ranged from 13.5 to 20 cm [Both sex] 15.7 cm
Osmerus eperlanus Male Length at sexual maturity Average fork length of the spawing smelt was 15.7 cm and ranged from 13.5 to 20 cm [Both sex] 15.7 cm
Osmerus eperlanus Larvae Larvae behaviour After hatching, the larvae passively drift downstream into the estuary, where they begin to feed on zooplankton Demersal
Osmerus eperlanus Female Age at sexual maturity 1+ or 2+ [Both sex] 1.0 year
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Parity The maximum age recorded for smelt from the river Shannon is 3+ No category