Heidinger and Kayes, 1986


Heidinger, R.C. and Kayes, T.P. (1986) Chapter 7: Yellow perch., pp. 103-113

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Perca flavescens Egg Oocyte diameter 1.6-2.1 1.85 mm
Perca flavescens Egg Egg size after water-hardening 1.7-4.5 3.1 mm
Perca flavescens Egg Incubation time 51 [5.4], 27 [8.0°C], 13 [16°C], 6 [19.7°C] 51.0 days
Perca flavescens Egg Temperature for incubation 10-20 [Considered to be the optimal temperature] 15.0 °C
Perca flavescens Egg Degree-days for incubation From 250, 216, 208 to 118 DD : 51 [5.4], 27 [8.0°C], 13 [16°C], 6 [19.7°C] 250.0 °C * day
Perca flavescens Larvae Initial larval size 4.7-6.6 5.65 mm
Perca flavescens Larvae Temperature during larval development Optimum is 20-23°C but can tolerate a range of 2.8-27.8°C for hatch to swim-up and optimum of 20-23.9 and tolerance range of 10-30 for feeding larvae 21.5 °C
Perca flavescens Female Age at sexual maturity 2 [Rare, most at 3-4] 3.5 year
Perca flavescens Female Length at sexual maturity 14-19.1, with a mean of 15.8 [Sex specified] 16.55 cm
Perca flavescens Female Relative fecundity 79-223 151.0 thousand eggs/kg
Perca flavescens Female Absolute fecundity 3-109 56.0 thousand eggs
Perca flavescens Female Oocyte development Synchronous oocyte growth Synchronous
Perca flavescens Female Onset of oogenesis Oocyte growth during fall through winter ['January', 'February', 'March', 'October', 'November', 'December']
Perca flavescens Female Maximum GSI value From 20 to 31% [Just prior to spawning] 20.0 percent
Perca flavescens Female Oogenesis duration The mimimum chill period is 160 days at approximatively 10°C or less 160.0 months
Perca flavescens Male Age at sexual maturity 1 [Rare but most at 3-4] 3.5 years
Perca flavescens Male Length at sexual maturity 9.2-16.5, with a mean of 10.8 [sex specified] 12.85 cm
Perca flavescens Male Maximum GSI value 10 [In mid-october] 10.0 percent
Perca flavescens Male Maximum GSI value 8-15% 11.5 percent
Perca flavescens Male Spermatogenesis duration Rapid, within 6 weeks than testes steadily lose weight to reach 4-6% at spawning 5.0 months
Perca flavescens Male Resting period Between 1 and 2 [After spawning, declined troughout the summer until August] 1.0 months
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning migration period In the spring, males move to the shoreline first, followed by females, ans stayed on the spawning grounds longer than female ['April', 'May', 'June']
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning season Spring ['April', 'May', 'June']
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Approximatively 2 weeks 2.0 weeks
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 2.8-19.9°C [But optimum at 7.8-11.1°C] 11.35 °C
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No nest is built Open water/substratum scatter
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Mating system One female and two up to five males (even 25 males), it takes several minutes at 14-15°C and up to several days at temperatures below 5°C to extrude the entire egg mass No category
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Parental care No protection is given the egg mass or young by either parent No care