Larvae - Onset of exogeneous feeding

(0-1000 °C * day)

Species Primary Data Secondary Data Reference
Alosa alosa After yolk-sac resorption fish were fed twice a day (i.e. one day at 20°C post-hatching) 20.0 Leguen et al, 2007
Alosa alosa By 3 days post-hatch [18-19°C], larvae were fed every 10 min with brine shrimp Artemia salini nauplii 18.5 Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
Alosa sapidissima 94 [5 days at 15.6] 94.0 Wiggins et al, 1985
Alosa sapidissima The transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding occurred between days 3 and 6, at 20 ± 1.0°C 20.0 Zydlewski and McCormick, 1997
Alosa sapidissima Feeding stage larvae was 6-8 days post-hatch at 19-20°C 7.0 Leach and Houde, 1999
Cobitis taenia 120-140 [20°C]. Exogenous feeding started at 6-7 days at 20°C 130.0 Bohlen, 1999
Cobitis taenia 120 [6 days at 21°C] 120.0 Bohlen, 2000
Cobitis taenia After the larvae had started exogenous feeding (usually on day 6-7) at 20-24°C 6.5 Bohlen, 1999b
Abramis brama 120-140 [6-8 days at 17-20°C] 130.0 Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama During the 6th of development, i.e. the 3rd after hatching, most individuals began to ingest exogeneous food. Their average total length was 6.6 mm 6.0 Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
Abramis brama The cages were stocked with 6-day-old bream larvae that had just graduated to the mixed feeding stage. Fish TL was 7.9-8.1 mm (average 8.0 mm) and the body weight 1.8 mh. Larvae of this length still retained the yolk sac 8.0 Ziliukiene, 2005
Abramis brama After 5-6 days at 12-19°C, noticeably diminished yolk sac. Feed on yolk and some rotifers 5.5 Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Alburnoides bipunctatus Etap 1: mixed (endogeneous and exogenous) nutrition, larvae 10 old (4-5 days post hatching at 18-20°C), length 8.5 mm 4.5 Penaz, 1976
Aristichthys nobilis [After 4.5-5 days at 22-26°C, the larvae are 8.5-9.0 mm; the larvae swim in the water column and feed, but also continue to utilize yolk] 4.75 Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis Carp larvae that just started to feed exogeneously (about 3 days post-hatch) were used, T= 26-30°C 28.0 Santiago et al, 2003
Aristichthys nobilis The first feeding bighead carp larvae (about 3 days post-hacth), with temperature range 26-28°C in the morning and 28-30°C in the afternoon 27.0 Santiago et al, 2004
Aristichthys nobilis Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 Naca, 1989
Aspius aspius First-feeding larvae age 6 days post-hatching at 20°C, Lt 7.8 ± 0.6 mm, body weight 2.7 ±0.2 mg 7.8 Wolnicki, 2005
Aspius aspius From hatch until day 3, the larvae obtain nutrition from susbtances stored in the yolk sac. Between day 3 and 11, the larvae started endo-exogenous feeding. 3.0 Ostaszewska, 2002
Aspius aspius Between days 3 and 5 post hatch, the intestine opened at both ends and lined with columnar epithelium. Signs of digestion and lipid absorption by enterocytes were observed on day 5, while protein absorption started on day 7 of the larval development. 3.0 Ostaszewska and Wegiel, 2002
Aspius aspius Beginning of exogenous (mixed) feeding at 7 days at 14°C 7.0 Kujawa et al, 2007
Barbus barbus 113-150 131.5 Philippart et al, 1989
Barbus barbus About 130-140 [7 days at 19.2-20] 135.0 Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Barbus barbus 180 [11 at 17.5°C] 180.0 Krupka and Meszaros, 1993
Barbus barbus Beginning of the exogeneous feeding at 102 DD, or 6 days after hatching 102.0 Penaz, 1971
Barbus barbus In the barb, the embryos pass to pelagic life habits and to exogenous food as late as between the 17th and 28 th day of developement, that is on the 11th to 19th day after hatching, depending on water temperature, about 16°C 17.0 Penaz, 1973
Barbus barbus The larva at the age of 12 days and 14 hours (Tl=12.9 mm; w=13.5 mg) was observed to ingest food for the first time (at that time the number of degree-days from the beginning of development was 245.8) at 19°C 12.0 Krupta, 1988
Carassius auratus At the day 8th and 10th after hatching larva is 7 mm long. At that time active feeding begins 8.0 Szczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius auratus Each experimental tank was stocked with 83 3-4-day-old goldfish of the cornet variety at a density of 6.5 fish. L-1, and all trials started at the time of first exogenous feeding (at 25°C) 3.5 Kaiser et al, 2003
Carassius auratus Three days after hatching at 20°C, the young larvae swim towards the surface for fulfill their swimbladder, and then start to search food 20.0 Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Carassius carassius When food are available from the start, larvae began mixed feeding at lengths of 6.5-7.2 mm, after 2-4 days of development at 20-30°C, when much of the yolk was present 6.85 Laurila et al, 1987
Carassius carassius A few days (3 days at 20°C) after hatching the fish swim to the surface to fill the swim bladder and then switch to exogenous feeding and yolk reserves are reduced. 3.0 Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
Chondrostoma nasus About 80-90 [5-6 days at 16°C] 85.0 Kamler et al, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus About 70-80 [3.9 (At 19°C), 5.2 (16°C), 5.3 (13°C), 7.1 (10)] 75.0 Schiemer et al, 2003
Chondrostoma nasus About 130, or 10 days after hatching 130.0 Penaz, 1971
Chondrostoma nasus Starts to ingest food actively at a age of 27 days after insemination (i.e. 7-8 days after hatching at 12.4-14.5°C), having attained a total length of about 12 . The duration is rather short, being about 4 days at water temperature of 14.1-15.4°C 7.5 Penaz, 1974
Chondrostoma nasus From the very onset of external feeding (day 6 post-hatch) for 20 days, at 25-28°C 26.5 Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus The fish were fed beginning 4 days post-hatch (at 20°C) 4.0 Ostaszewka et al, 2005
Chondrostoma toxostoma 180 [10 days and 20 hour at 16-17] à vérifier 16.5 Gozlan et al, 1999
Chondrostoma toxostoma 70-80 [4 days at 16-18°C] 75.0 Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella 3 or 4 days after hatching larval grass begin carp feeding on rotifers and protozoans 3.0 Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella 4.5 days: Feeding is mixed 4.5 Shireman and Smith, 1983
Ctenopharyngodon idella 7 days: the mesolarva measures 7.5 to 8.1 mm, has absorbed its yolk sac and feed exogenously 7.0 Shireman and Smith, 1983
Ctenopharyngodon idella Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 Naca, 1989
Ctenopharyngodon idella These foods were first offered to the larvae 72 h after hatching 72.0 Rottmann et al, 1991
Cyprinus carpio About 100 [4 days at 26°C] 100.0 Khadka and Ramakrishna, 1986
Cyprinus carpio [The larvae start to take in air and to fill the swimming bladder when about 1/2 or 2-3 of the yolk sac has been absorbed. At this time the larvae also begin to feed at 20-24°C) 2.5 Woynarovich, 1962
Cyprinus carpio Larvae were fed only dry diet from the third day after hatching at 20°C 20.0 Charlon and Bergot, 1984
Cyprinus carpio At the start of exogeneous feeding the mean length of the Koi carp larvae was 6.6 mm [Deduced from graph, about 3 days after hatching at 28-29°C] 28.5 Van Damme et al, 1989
Cyprinus carpio 3 days after hatching with rearing temperatures was raised from 19.5°C at days 0 to 24°C at day 4 and kept at that temperature thereafter 3.0 Carvalho et al, 1997
Cyprinus carpio 91 to 122 hour od development at 25°Cwe found that at a temperature of 25°C, the onset of the larval period, i.e. the intake of the first food, to take place at 91 hhours (4 day) following impregantion, wich corresponds to 37 hours (2 days after hatching) 91.0 Penaz et al, 1983
Cyprinus carpio Exogenous feeding begins before the exhaustion of yolk and is marked by the taking of air to fill the swim-bladder 0.0 Smith, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Received artificial diets starting from the 3rd day after hatching (i.e. 1st day of experiment = initiation of exogeneous feeding), at about 26 (25-27°C) 26.0 Kamler et al, 1990
Cyprinus carpio At 20°C, inthe series A,the 4 days old larvae captured and ingested about 70% of prey, while the 7 days old ones,over 90% 20.0 Jezierska et al, 2006
Cyprinus carpio The larvae were fed by nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina since the 5th day at 21.5-22.5°C 22.0 Palikova et al, 2004
Cyprinus carpio First feeding (day 1 of the experiment) started 2 days after hatching when larvae exhibited an inflated swim-bladder 1.0 Schlechtreim et al, 2004
Cyprinus carpio The gut evacuation time for four-day-old common carp larvae, taking their first food (Ewos C-10) is relaitvely short. It may be assumed that after 1 hour the larvae is emptied at 50% (at 24°C) 10.0 Szlamiska, 1987
Gobio gobio 60 [3 days at 18-20°C] 19.0 Kennedy and Fitzmaurice, 1972
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Carp larvae that just started to feed exogenously (about 3 days post-hatch) were used, reared at 26-30°C 28.0 Santiago et al, 2003
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 Naca, 1989
Leucaspius delineatus Onset of exogeneous feeding for the first embryo 88 hours at 21.6°C] .i.e. 3-16 hours after hatching 9.5 Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Leuciscus cephalus About 130 [8 days at 17 °C] 130.0 Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus [5 days after hatching, the larvae were fed ad libitum with the rotifer, for 3 days at 18°C] 5.0 Harzevili et al, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus 9 days, oral feeding started at temperature between 15.4 and 17.8°C 9.0 Penaz, 1968
Leuciscus idus 70-90 [4-5 days at 19-20°C] 80.0 Harzevili et al, 2004
Leuciscus idus Beginning from day 3 after hatching the larvae (TL=8.1 at 25°C] were supplied exclusively with freshly hatched Artemia salina nauplii or exclusively commercial dry feed or both] 3.0 Wolnicki and Gorny, 1995
Leuciscus leuciscus About 100 [Feeding begin before the yolk-sac was fully absorbed] 100.0 Kennedy, 1969
Leuciscus leuciscus After 7 days at 15°C, fry start to eat 7.0 Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
Leuciscus leuciscus About 4-6 days at 10°C 5.0 Mills, 1982
Mylopharyngodon piceus Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 Naca, 1989
Phoxinus phoxinus 110 [7 days at 16°C] 110.0 Soin et al, 1982
Pimephales promelas Begin feeding the day of hatching 0.0 Duffy, 1998
Pseudorasbora parva Mixed feeding of the larvae. The filling of the swim bladder with air occurs during the first days after hatching. The length of the larvae at an age of 5-5.5 days is 6.3-6.5 mm. During these days the yolk is considerably resorbed. […] The larvae swim actively and begin to feed gradually. 5.25 Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Rhodeus sericeus 560 [28 days at 20°C] 560.0 Aldridge, 1999
Rutilus rutilus Starts swimming and feeding one to three days after hatching 0.0 Hlnterleitner et al, 1989
Tinca tinca 110 [5 days at 22] 110.0 Hamackova et al, 1995
Tinca tinca 95 [Initiation of external feeding at 7.04 at 22°C, i.e. 4.31 after hatcing] 95.0 Kamler et al, 1995
Tinca tinca 140 at 20.2 °C [At the mean temperature of 20.2°C, the embryonic period of development, starting with the moment of fertilization and ending with the passage of the embryos to exogeneous food, lasted 10 days (202 DD), while the incubation period lasted 62.1 DD] 140.0 Penaz et al, 1981
Tinca tinca [Duration of development from activation to onset of exogeneous feeding, in parenthesis time for incubation: 224.6 (71.2) at 20°C, 159.2 (48.5) at 22.5°C, 131.5 (36.3) at 25°C, 125.4 (30) at 27.5°C] 224.6 Penaz et al, 1989
Tinca tinca Mixed endogeneous and exogeneous nutrition 7 days after hatching at a size of L=5.5-5.8 mm 5.65 Penaz et al, 1982
Tinca tinca Commencement of exogeneous feeding 5 days post-hatching at an initial total length of 5.10 ± 0.18 mm 5.1 Wolnicki and KorwinKossakowski, 1993
Tinca tinca Total duration of endogenous feeding period (from egg activation to the beginning of external feeding) is 10 days at a mean temperature of 20.2, that is 202 D°. Development within an egg takes 62°D, i.e. a shorter part of endogenous feeding period. During remaining 140°C larva is fixed to submerged plants 10.0 Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Tinca tinca The feeding was begun on day 6 after hatching when larval total length (TL +/-SD) averaged 4.53 +/- 0.16 mm 4.53 Wolnicki et al,2003
Tinca tinca Experiments started on day 5 post-hatch 5.0 Celada et al, 2008
Vimba vimba First feeding larvae age 5 days post-hatching at 20°C, Lt 7.8 ± 0.2 mm, body weight 2.0 ± 0.2 mg 7.8 Wolnicki, 2005
Vimba vimba The larvae (2 ± 0.34 mg, 8.4 ± 0.24 mm) were fed from the sixth day after hatching . The average temperature was 24.0 ± 0.5°C, pH 8.6 ± 0.2, and dissolved oxygen 7.9 ± 0.3 mg.l-1. 2.0 Ostaszewska et al, 2008
Vimba vimba Larvae begin to swim freely 7 days after hatching, and feed on day later 7.0 Luszczek et al, 2008
Esox masquinongy Require 13.3 days at 15°C for larvae to swim-up 13.3 Farrell et al, 2005
Esox masquinongy By 3 weeks of age the young begin to feed on other fish 3.0 Clemmons and Newman, 1997
Esox masquinongy Food was given to the larvae on the day they sawm up from the bottom of the tanks (9 days after hatching) and each day thereafter (at 20°C) 9.0 Anonymous, 1982
Esox lucius 150-160 155.0 Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
Esox lucius 150-160 155.0 Billard, 1996
Esox lucius 10 days at 12.5°C 10.0 Wurtz, 1944
Esox lucius The fry began to feed at 7 days post-hatching when the yolk sac was almost completely absorbed (at 12°C) 7.0 Giles et al, 1986
Esox lucius Pike larvae die within three days after the resorption of their yolk sac if no food is available to them 0.0 Penaz, 1971
Esox lucius Food was only detected in the alimentary tract of the larvae with the standard length no less than 12.8 mm 12.8 Ziliukiene and Ziliukas, 2006
Lota lota 270 DD at 15-16°C after fertilization, they begin feeding less than about 130-140 DD for incubation 15.5 Kujawa et al, 2002
Lota lota Burbot larvae, which were the pooled offpsring of many wild spawners, were reared from the first feeding (day 10 post-hatch) over a period of 20 days. Larvae of an initial size of 3.61 ± 0.27 mm (average TL ± SD; n = 15). 3.61 Wolnicki et al, 2002
Pungitius pungitius About five days after hatching at 15°C, begin the transition to mixed feeding 15.0 Shadrin and Ozernyuk, 2002
Micropterus dolomieui 120 [6-7 days at 20°C and 4-5 days at 25°C] 6.5 Siefert et al, 1974
Micropterus salmoides 75-105 [Initial feeding at 193 hours after fertilization and 90% hatch at 64 at 20°C and 124 hours and 90% hatch at 47 at 23°C, i.e. 5.3 days at 20°C and 3.2 days at 23°C] 90.0 Carlson and Siebert, 1974
Dicentrarchus labrax 115 [6 days at 19°C] 115.0 Cahu et al, 1998
Dicentrarchus labrax 160-230 [After day 10, larval development was based only on exogeneous food, at 16-23°C] 195.0 Hatziathanasiou et al, 2002
Dicentrarchus labrax 140-160 [Most deaths were recorded between 6 and 10 days and coincided with the onset of exogeneous feeding, at 16-23°C] 150.0 Hatziathanasiou et al, 2002
Dicentrarchus labrax Time of first feeding (8-9 days from hatching at 15°C) at a length of 4.78 mm 8.5 Cerda et al, 1994
Dicentrarchus labrax Feeding of cultured sea bass larvae has commonly begun at initiation of mouth opening (4 days after hatching). Initial feeding can be delayed 2-4 days without adversely affecting survival or growth of sea bass larvae if they are held at ambient temperature in dilute sea water 3.0 Johnson and Katavic, 1986
Dicentrarchus labrax First feeding about 6-7 days 6.5 Barnabé, 1980
Dicentrarchus labrax At the time of first-feeding 8-9 days post-hatching at 16°C 8.5 Cerda et al, 1994
Dicentrarchus labrax Feeding depends upon the yolk vesicle which persists beyong the mouth opening (day 5 post-hatching) until the end of endotrophy (day 7) at 15°C 5.0 Giffard-Mena et al,2006
Morone saxatilis Larvae in all experiments began active feeding 5 days after hatching at a temperature of 18°C 5.0 Eldridge et al, 1982
Morone saxatilis Beginning at 5 dph, larvae were provided with a diet that consisted of Artemia nauplii maintained at 100per liter, on days 5,6 and 7, 500-1000 rotifers Brachinonus plicatilis per liter also were provided 750.0 Monteleone and Houde, 1990
Morone saxatilis Larvae were fed Artemia from 6 days post-hatching. Larvae with food in their gut were first observed at 7 dph in the black tanks and one day later in white tanks 6.0 Martin-Robichaud and Peterson, 1998
Morone saxatilis At 16-19°C, striped bass larvae make the transition to exogenous feeding by 5 d posthatch 17.5 Harrell et al, 2002
Morone saxatilis The larvae grow quickly from 6 mm total length (Lt) at first feeding (6 days post-hatch, dph) […] Swimbladder inflation and first feeding occurred between 5 and 7 dph (at 19°C) 6.0 Macintosh and Duston, 2007
Gymnocephalus cernua Feeding begins after about 1 week 1.0 Crosier et al, 2005
Gymnocephalus cernua The transition to exogenous feeding takes plance in benthopelagic layer about 1 week after hatching 1.0 Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernua 120-130: Active feeding and swim-up occurring 13 days after fertilization (hatching 5-6 days after fertilization) at 16°C 125.0 Brown et al, 1998
Perca flavescens Larvae were initially fed a tank culture of rotifers and small zooplankton four to six times per day. Starting five days posthatch (dph), larvae were fed Artemia nauplii four times per day (at 15-18°C). 16.5 Fulford et al, 2006
Perca fluviatilis About 100 100.0 Wang and Eckmann, 1994
Perca fluviatilis On 27 and 28 May half of the perch still had some yolk left and 90% had started feeding. Hatching at 24 May and temperature 12-14°C 13.0 Urho, 1996
Sander lucioperca At the age of 2-5 days the larvae start exogeneous feeding 3.5 Lehtonen et al, 1996
Sander lucioperca 3 days after hatching at 15°C 3.0 Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
Sander lucioperca The period of endogeneous feeding of the pike-perch lasted until the 6th day post hatching, mixed endo-exogenous feeding occurred from the 6th to the 12th day, and from the 17th day on the fish were exclusively fed exogenous feeding 6.0 Ostasweska, 2005
Sander lucioperca 4-18 dph, corresponding to the period extending from the beginning of exogenous feeding to the end of swim bladder inflation. Feedinf started in the final stages of the absorption of the yolk sac (about 4 days post hatching). Feeding with Artemia nauplii started 1 day later 11.0 Szkudlarek and Zakes, 2007
Sander vitreus 100-122 111.0 Krise and Meade, 1986
Sander vitreus Feeding takes place prior to disappearance of yolk 0.0 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Sander vitreus Walleye larvae commenced feeding at a mean length of 9 mm during this study 9.0 Johnston and Mathias, 1994
Sander vitreus The initiation of exogeneous feeding occurs between 100 and 120DD 100.0 Colsesante, 1996
Sander vitreus Initiation of feeding 100-120 110.0 Summerfelt, 1996
Sander vitreus Around days 5 and 6 at 19-25, mean of 22.3°C 22.0 Moodie et al, 1989
Coregonus lavaretus Feeding begin 4 days after hatching at 10-10.5°C 10.25 Beltran and Champigneulle, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus After a 2-days period of adaptation, the feeding experiment was begun with larvae 1-2 days old at T of 11 or 14°C. Living zooplankton was consumed immediatly afteits initial introduction 1.5 Rösch and Appelbaum, 1985
Coregonus lavaretus Four days at 10°C, at a size of 11.2 ± 0.1 mm 10.0 Champigneulle, 1988
Coregonus lavaretus Feeding started 4 days after hatching at 12 ±0.5°C 12.0 Segner et al, 1988
Coregonus lavaretus 4 days after hatching at a size of 11-12 mm 11.5 Champigneulle and Rojas-Beltran, 1990
Coregonus lavaretus At 14-16°C, larvae begin to feed on the 2nd-3rd day after hatching. At lower temperatures (5-11.8°C) active feeding begins later, and according to various authors its beginning fluctuates between the 5th and 8th day 15.0 Jezierska et al, 1979
Coregonus lavaretus Food was found in all yolk-sac larvae 10 mm and larger indicating that feeding is normal for yolk-sac larvae 10.0 Hudd et al, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus Fish larvae were fed nematodes ad libitum starting on day 1 after hatching.Nematodes are readily ingested by 2-day-old whitefish larvae. In comparison with the ingestion of nematodes, the onset of dry diet intake by Coregonus lavaretus is clearly delayed, starting around 8 days after hatching 1.0 Schlechtriem et al, 2004
Coregonus lavaretus Feeding commenced on 13 February (three days after hatching) 13.0 Dlugosz and Demska-Zakes, 1989
Coregonus albula Gradual transition from yolk utilization to external feeding occurred after 10 days at 13.7°C 10.0 Karjalainen, 1991
Coregonus albula Time from hatching to exogeneous feeding in vendace, larvae decreased from 8 to 2 days when the temperature increased from 4.5 to 19°C. In the vendace population the larvae start exogeneous (mixed feeding at a total length of 9.5 mm [Other studies: at a constant temperature of 10°C, 6 days after hatching, whereas at 9.4°C, it amounted to 4 days] 8.0 Dostatni and Luczynski, 1991
Coregonus albula The number of days between mass hatching and the commencement of external feeding by 50% of fish is: 4.0 days [4.0°C], 3.5 days [7.3°C], 3.5 [10°C], 3.0 [12.3°C], 2.5 [15.3°C], 2.5 [17.1°C], 2.5 [19.8°C], 2.0 [22.1°C] 50.0 Luczynski, 1991
Coregonus albula At 10°C, the first exogenous feeding took place on about the 6th day, and all fish fed exogenously from the 8th-9th day after hathing 10.0 Jezierska et al, 1979
Coregonus albula Vendace incubated at pH 7.00 and 7.40 started to ingest paramecia several days after hatching and began feeding on Artemia a week later. The fish at pH 5.50 started to feed on paramecia with 7 days delay compared to the controls 7.0 Duis and Oberam, 2000
Coregonus clupeaformis In trial (at 11-13.5°C), lake whitefish were feeding in all tanks by day 3. In trial 2 (at 7.2-12.2°C), lake whitefish larvae were feeding in all tanks by day 3, but feed was not observed in the digestive tract until day 5 12.25 Zitzow and Millard, 1988
Coregonus clupeaformis Larvae were not fed until just prior to yolk sac absorption (21 after hatching) [Yet under natural conditions; larval lake whitefish are capable of feeding within 48 h after hatching 21.0 Brown and Taylor, 1992
Coregonus clupeaformis Upon acclimatization to 10 and 5°C, a lethal temperature of 22.6°C and 20.6°C, respectively. 10.0 Jezierska et al, 1979
Hucho hucho Two or three weeks later they begin feeding (at 12°C) 12.0 Jungwirth, 1978
Hucho hucho 457-545 DD (less than 287.6-339.1 for incubation) mixed nutrition 501.0 Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Alveins emerged from the gravel and started feeding 6 to 8 weeks after hatching at 11-12°C 11.5 Macquarrie et al, 1979
Oncorhynchus mykiss 500 500.0 Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Oncorhynchus mykiss The fry commence feeding about 15 days after hatching 15.0 Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus mykiss Young fish were expected to feed 60 days post-fertilization at 10°C 60.0 Springate and Bromage, 1985
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 437 [At 12°C], 464 [10°C], 482 [8°C] and 523 [6°C] posu hatching [It would be of little benefit to initiate food presentation before 905 tu, the point at which 50% of alevins were first able to ingest food at all four tested temperature, between 6-12°C, less than about ca.520-556 for incubation; This optimum feeding zone existed at temperatures below 12°C, between 905 thermal units (tu) postfertilization and a point (F, tu) which varied with temperature (T, °C) as F= 1201.1-20.3 T 9.0 Heming et al, 1982
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 490 -520 [Exogeneous feeding is presumed to begin shortly after emergence is completed . However, even within the same species, some alevins emerge with considerable yolk while others emerge with virtually none: Number of days to 50% emergence: 192 postfertilization -95 days for incubation [6°C], 136-71 [8°C], 104-55 [10°C] and 85-44 [12°C], i.e. between 97 [6°C], 65 [8°C], 49 [10°C] and 41 [12°C]] 505.0 Heming, 1982
Salmo salar [Equation relating time from hatch to first feeding: Y=472T-1.27. This equation yeilds times of 81, 49, 34, 25, and 20 days for incubation temperatures of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12, respectively] 472.0 Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
Salmo salar Fry emerge after 23 [12°C], 32 [10°C] and 70 [6°C] 23.0 Brännäs, 1988
Salmo salar First feeding occurred after 815 degree-days at ambient temperature and 839 degree-days at 8°C (for incubation, 473-505 for heated and 452-487 for ambient respectively). Most of the visible yolk sac has been resorbed 489.0 Johnston and McLay, 1997
Salmo salar The last sample was taken immediatly before the juveniles were fed for the first time (about 700 day-degrees, and 520 for incubation) 700.0 Berg et al, 2001
Salmo trutta fario 300-350 [About 25 days at 14°C to 75 days at 4°C] 325.0 Ojanguren and Brana, 2003
Salmo trutta fario [At the commencement of first feeding, 35 days after haching at a temperature which fluctuated between 7.6 and 8.9°C with a mean of 8.5°C] 35.0 Hansen, 1985
Salmo trutta fario After 91 days post-fertlization [50 days for incubation] at 8°C, embryos in the control had completely resorbed their yolk supplies and were feeding exogeneously 91.0 Luckenbach et al, 2001
Salmo trutta fario Freely swimming fry, a few days after the yolk had been completely resorbed; the fry had already strated actively feeding and were behaving as fully formed organisms. The fry measured 25-35 mm 30.0 Formicki et al, 2004
Salvelinus alpinus 120-200 [70-96 days at 1.3°C, 25 days at 8°C] 160.0 Pavlov et al, 1994
Salvelinus alpinus First feeding in charr occurs when the fry are around 21.5 mm 21.5 Aasjord and Wallace, 1987
Salvelinus alpinus Temperature was increased to 11.5°C when fish were free swimming and feeding at about 630 DD posthatch 11.5 Bebak et al, 2000
Salvelinus alpinus First feeding coincided with swim-up at 6°C and at 8°C while at 3°C one fish was observed to have taken food before swim-up. At 12°C swim-up was registered 3 days before the first occurence of feeding. About 170 DD [3°C], 240 [6°C], 250 [8°C] and 320 [12°C] or in days ca. 55 (3°C), 40 (6°C), 35 (8°C) and 32 (12°C). At all temperatures the alevins were between 19 and 22 mm in length at 50% feeding. Registration of 50% occurred about 40 day-degrees after 50% swim-up, independent of temperature 6.0 Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus About 120 [minus 85-90 for incubation] at 6.4 ± 0.1 6.4 Papst and Hopky, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus First feeding was reached after 627 ± 13 degree-days in all families (less than 400-450 °D for incubation) 627.0 Atse et al, 2002
Salvelinus alpinus From day 24 after hatching, first feeding was initiated manually several times a day with a specially adapted commercial feed formulation (Corey Feed Mills Inc.) 24.0 Lemieux et al, 2003
Salvelinus fontinalis The first external feeding activities of the fish larvae start when the larvae swim up. Observations have demonstrated that the larva has a piece of yolk when swimming up, so in trout fisheries the first external feeding starts when over 30% of the larvae swim up. 30.0 Bascinar et al, 2003
Salvelinus fontinalis 82-188 [Samplings at 544 and 650 DD were conducted to approximatively coincide with the middle and end of yolk absorption period, i.e. 82 and 188 when substrated the DD of incubation (462)] 135.0 Dumas et al, 1995
Salvelinus fontinalis [6 weeks after hatching at 8-13°C, fish were transfered to 70 l tanks to begin feeding] 10.5 Dumas et al, 1995
Salvelinus fontinalis The feeding experiment started 16 weeks after fertilization (21 February 1992 for SWF2 and FWF2, and 28 February 1992 for FWF3), when all the free-swimming fry were feeding (mouths and complete digestive tracts functional). This corresponded to 658.2 degree-days from time of fertilization for FWF2 and SWF2, and 622.5 degree-days for FWF3 16.0 Roche-Mayzaud et al, 1998
Salvelinus namaycush About 140 [Initial feeding started at 101 days after fertilization and 90% hatch occurred at 81 days at 7°C and 60 days after fertilization and 90% hatch at 10°C, i.e. 20 days at 7°C and 14 days at 10°C] 140.0 Carlson and Siebert, 1974
Stenodus leucichthys About 30 [Mixed feeding at 3 days at 11.4°C, and 7 days at 3.8°C] 30.0 Bogdanova, 1978
Thymallus thymallus 100-110 [10-11 days at 9.0-10.5°C] 105.0 Zaytsev, 1986
Thymallus thymallus On the 8th day after hatching (at 10°C), the embryos, having attained the length of 15 mm, were observed to ingest exogeneous food for the first time 8.0 Penaz, 1975
Thymallus thymallus Change to active feeding 4-5 days after hatching 4.5 Kokurewicz et al, 1980
Thymallus thymallus 40 à 50 degré-jours après l'éclosion, à une taille moyenne de 15 mm, les alevins commencent à gober les particules. 40.0 Carmie et al, 1985
Thymallus arcticus Young grayling begin taking food as late as 9 days after hatching 9.0 Bishop, 1971
Ictalurus punctatus 700 700.0 Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
Ictalurus punctatus Yolk absorption, feeding activity, and swimming of fry at the surface normally occurs at 4-5 d after hatching (fry at this stage are commonly referred to as "swim-up" fry [23-33°C] 4.5 Weirich et al, 2001
Silurus glanis After their first feeding (5-7 days old) at temperature of 22-26°C 6.0 Horvath, 1977
Silurus glanis 125 [5 days at 25°C] 125.0 Wolnicki et al, 1998
Silurus glanis 130 [5 days at 28°C] 130.0 Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
Silurus glanis 150.0 150.0 Linhart et al, 2002
Silurus glanis Exogenous feeding started at DPH 4 and there was a 2-day mixed endogenous-exogenous feeding period 4.0 Kozaric et al, 2008
Thymallus arcticus 9 days after hatching 9.0 Stewart et al, 2007b
Ptychocheilus lucius began eating at 9.5 days at 18 C; 7.6 days at 22 C; 6.8 days at 26 C 9.5 Bestgen and Williams, 1994
Acipenser brevirostrum 8-12 days at 15-17 C 160.0 Kynard, 1997
Esox niger 6-8 days 7.0 Underhill, 1949
Etheostoma flabellare onset of exogeneous feeding around 12 days at 19.8-20.2 C 20.0 Paine and Belon, 1986
Etheostoma caeruleum onset of exogeneous feeding around 12 days at 19.8-20.2 C 20.0 Paine and Belon, 1984
Scaphirhynchus platorynchus 8 days post-hatch at 20 C 8.0 Colombo, 2007
Scaphirhynchus platorynchus development into larvae (defined as first feeding interval) happens at 72-78 Degree-Days on day 4 75.0 Kynard and Horgran, 2002
Scaphirhynchus platorynchus 4 days post hatch (72-78 Degree-Days) 75.0 Kynard and Horgran, 2002
Scaphirhynchus albus development into larvae (defined as first feeding interval) happens at 79 Degree-Days on day 4 79.0 Kynard and Horgran, 2002
Scaphirhynchus albus 11-12 days post hatch (198-205 Degree-Days) 11.5 Kynard, 2007
Sander vitreus 1-6 days 3.5 Malison and Held, 1996
Atractosteus spatula 3 days 3.0 Buckmeier et al, 2017
Atractosteus spatula 8 days at 28 C 224.0 Mendoza et al, 2002
Cottus bairdi 6 days 6.0 Jones and Janssen, 1992
Esox americanus americanus 10 days until active feeding starts 10.0 Scott and Crossman, 1998
Catostomus commersonii 13 days @ 16C 13.0 Hart and Werner, 1987
Acipenser medirostris 10-16 days 13.0 Moser et al, 2016
Acipenser medirostris 10-15 days post hatch at 15 C 12.5 Van Eenennaam, 2001
Acipenser medirostris 11 days 176.5 Degree-Days 11.0 Kynard, 2005
Leuciscus idus 6.1-12 days 9.05 Krupen et al, 2011
Leuciscus idus 6.1-12 days 15.7 C 9.05 Krupen et al, 2011
Leuciscus idus 23.7 days 12.3 C 23.7 Kupren et al, 2008
Leuciscus idus 21.3 days 12.3 C 21.3 Kupren et al, 2008
Leuciscus idus 6.8 days 23.0 C 6.8 Kupren et al, 2008
Leuciscus idus 6.1 days 23.0 C 6.1 Kupren et al, 2008
Sander lucioperca 4 days 20 C 4.0 Szkudlarek and Zakes, 2007
Sander lucioperca 3 days 18.1 C 3.0 Lund and Steenfeldt, 2001
Dorosoma cepedianum 3 days 3.0 Bodola, 1955
Notropis atherinoides 6 days 24-29 C 26.5 Ross and Brenneman, 2001
Xyrauchen texanus 9 days 18 C 9.0 Bestgen, 2008
Noturus insignis 5-6 days 20 C 5.5 Simonson, 1987
Cyprinella analostana 6 days 6.0 Gale and Buynak, 1978
Phoxinus neogaeus 7 days 7.0 Becker, 1983
Acipenser transmontanus 8-11 days 16-18 C 9.5 Doroshov et al, 1983
Astyanax mexicanus 4 days 24 C 96.0 Riddle, 2019
Hypomesus olidus 4 days 14 C 4.0 Sato, 1952
Fundulus diaphanus By 6-15 days 10.5 Jones and Tabery, 1980
Etheostoma raneyi ~24 hours 24.0 Ruble et al, 2019
Lepomis gulosus 6 days 25 C 6.0 Hirsch and Wetzel, 2011
Lepomis gulosus 7 days 25-26.4 C 25.7 Larimore, 1957
Lepomis cyanellus 5 days 25 C 5.0 Smith, 1975
Elassoma gilberti 4 days 24.4 C 4.0 Lipscomb, 2019
Entosphenus tridentatus 32 days 18 C 32.0 Yamazaki et al, 2003
Entosphenus tridentatus 16-24 days 20.0 Moser et al, 2019
Entosphenus tridentatus 4-12 days 18 C 8.0 Reyes, 2008
Erimyzon sucetta 196hrs (~8 days) 21 C 196.0 Shaklee et al, 1974
Acipenser sturio At 18 C exogenous feeding starts at about day 16. 18.0 Kirschbaum and Wiliot, 2011
Misgurnus fossilis 1.5 Day-degrees (C) 1.5 Perrin, 2001
Leuciscus idus 9.5 9.5 Kupren et al, 2008
Leuciscus idus 2.0 2.0 Kupren et al, 2015
Neogobius melanostomus Zooplankton 0.0 Hensler and Jude, 2007
Neogobius melanostomus 5 days after hatching feeds on cyclopoids 5.0 Bonislawska et al, 2013
Acipenser ruthenus ARM (A. r. marsiglii) Siberian Sterlet = dry diet from 5 dph (day post-hatch) at 20,5 - 21,4°C 13.0 Feledi, 2013
Acipenser ruthenus 7 days (live feeding) at 19± 1 °C 19.0 Lundova et al, 2018
Acipenser ruthenus 7-38 dph at 18±0.5°C 18.0 Laczynska et al, 2017
Atractosteus spatula 5 days 5.0 Mendoza et al, 2000
Atractosteus spatula 5 days 5.0 Aguilera et al, 2002
Atractosteus spatula > 4 4.0 Mendoza et al, 2002
Atractosteus spatula 5 days 5.0 Mendoza et al, 2002
Atractosteus spatula >30days 30.0 Mendoza Alfaro et al, 2008
Atractosteus spatula 5 days 5.0 Mendoza Alfaro et al, 2008
Atractosteus spatula 5 days 5.0 Clay et al, 2011
Atractosteus spatula 5 days 5.0 Snow, 2014
Atractosteus spatula 3 days after hatching 3.0 Castillo et al, 2015
Acipenser transmontanus 8-11@16-18 9.5 Doroshov et al. (, 1983)
Acipenser transmontanus 12@16-17 16.5 Buddington and Doroshov (, 1984)
Pseudorasbora parva 3 3.0 Zhu et al, 2018
Pomoxis annularis prey items were first observed in the gut on 9 day after hatching. 180.0 Browman and O'Brien, 1992
Pomoxis annularis Growth of first-feeding larvae (<10 days old) increased with total zooplankton biomass (r2 = 0.64). 10.0 Bunnell et al, 2003
Salvelinus fontinalis 2136 2136.0 Granier et al, 2011
Acipenser baeri 5-7 days 6.0 Gisbert et al, 2000
Acipenser baeri From hatch to 6 dph (days post hatch) growth was negatively allometric (b = 0.76), reflecting utilization of yolk for morphogenesis, growth, and metabolic energy 6.0 Gisbert et al, 2001
Coregonus peled 5 to 7 h after hatching at 8 days 5.0 Mack and Billard, 1984
Coregonus peled From the 4th day for exogenous food 4.0 Stejskal et al, 2018