Salvelinus alpinus

  • Scientific name
  • Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Arctic charr

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 90%
Total data315
References61
Image of Salvelinus alpinus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness The females moves her body over the eggs and sweeps them into the interstitial spaces of the gravel bed Non-Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
5 Incubation time 97 [4°], 36 [12°] 97.0 days Groot, 1986
5 Incubation time 248.3 [2°C], 116.2 [4°C], 55.4 [8°C], 36.1 [12°C] 248.3 days Jungwirth and Winkler, 1984
5 Incubation time 60-70 [At 4.4°C] 65.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 112-139 [3.1°C], 50-58 [8.9°C] 125.5 days Pavlov, 1994
5 Incubation time 83-89 at 6°C 86.0 days Wedekind and Müller, 2004
5 Incubation time 64-80 or 70-80 72.0 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 60-80 70.0 days Bagenal, 1971
5 Incubation time 89.6 [5°C], 56.8 [7.5°C], 37.8 [10°C] and 26.1 [12.5°C] for 50% hatch 89.6 days Jensen, 1997
5 Incubation time Estimates of the number of days required for 50% of egg to hatch: 74 [5°C], 48 [10°C], and not evaluated at 15°C [In different populations: 74-166 [At 1.4-13.0°C], 101 [2.0-12.0], 42 [4.0-13.0], 56-72 [1.0-12.0]] 120.0 days Humpesch, 1985
5 Incubation time 96.7 ± 1.0 [At 4°C], 75.7 ± 0.2 [6°C], 53.7 ± 0.3 [8°C], 41.3 ± 0.3 [10°C] and 35.5 ± 0.2 [12°C] 96.7 days Swift, 1965
5 Incubation time About 85-90 at 6.4 ± 0.1 6.4 days Papst and Hopky, 1984
5 Incubation time 90-106 days at 4.9°C (range 4.4-5.1°C) 98.0 days Valdimarsson, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 443.2 [8°C]- 464.8 [4°C] 443.2 °C * day Guillard, 1992
7 Degree-days for incubation 425 [mean value] 425.0 °C * day Barton, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 450 450.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 400-500 450.0 °C * day Pavlov, 1994
7 Degree-days for incubation 326.5-447.8 [Between 5-12.5] 387.15 °C * day Jensen, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 370 [i.e. 74 days at 5°C at ca. optimum temperature] 370.0 °C * day Humpesch, 1985
7 Degree-days for incubation 454.4 ± 2.2 [But also These sampling corresponded approximatively to the end of the hatching period at 462 DD] 454.4 °C * day Dumas, 1995
7 Degree-days for incubation 380-450 [Rate of development varied with the water temperature, eggs taking on an average 45 days to hatch at 10°C and 95 days at 4°C] 415.0 °C * day Swift, 1965
7 Degree-days for incubation 577 [Effective day-degrees] 577.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation Degree-days for incubation very from 400 to 450 (based on Figure 4) 400.0 °C * day Atse, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation The time from egg fertilization to hatch is 350-500°C-days, depending upon the source of eggs and the incubation conditions 425.0 °C * day Jobling,1998
6 Temperature for incubation 3-8 [Optimal temperature, above 8 : important mortality and above 12 complete mortality] 5.5 °C Guillard, 1992
6 Temperature for incubation 3.5-8, <7 5.75 °C Barton, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 0-4 [In natural conditions], Temperatures above 7.8°C are lethal 2.0 °C Groot, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation Total losses occur at temperature as low as 12-13°C 12.5 °C Jungwirth and Winkler, 1984
6 Temperature for incubation 4.4 4.4 °C Fishbase, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 3.1-8.9 [Temperature leading to normal development] 6.0 °C Pavlov, 1994
6 Temperature for incubation Natural conditions: 0.0-2.2 [The eggs are killed by temperature above 7.8°C] 1.1 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 6°C [Constant temperature] 6.0 °C Wedekind and Müller, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation 1.4-7.5 is the temperature range for >50% survival to hatch [<1.4 and >12.5, lethal lower and upper limit] 4.45 °C Crisp, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 0.0-2.2°C in natural condition, 5-8 [In hatchery], 7.8-8°C can kill the eggs 1.1 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation Egg incubation takes place under the ice where temperatures are well below 5°C in Lake Saimma [Survive well at 4 and 8°C] 5.0 °C Huuskonen, 2003
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum temperature was about 5°C [The lower limit for hatching was < 1°C and the upper limit was between ca. 10 and 16°C] 5.0 °C Humpesch, 1985
6 Temperature for incubation 0-2 in natural conditions 1.0 °C Bradbury, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation Prior to eyed stage, eggs ware incubated at a constant temperature of 8°C and then between 8-13°C 10.5 °C Dumas, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation The eggs were incubated at 4°C 4.0 °C Johsson and Svavarsson, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation When incubation temperature is held constant from fertilization through hatch, mortality is lowest at 3-6°C and increases abruptly at temperatures above 8°C 4.5 °C Bebak, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation Excessive mortality occured at temperatures above 8°C, total mortality above 12°C. 8.0 °C Swift, 1965
6 Temperature for incubation Hatching sucess was significantly greater at 3°C than at 6°C 3.0 °C De March, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation Egg were incubated at about 3°C 3.0 °C Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
6 Temperature for incubation Incubation temperature was 6.4 ± 0.1°C 6.4 °C Papst and Hopky, 1984
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 6 ± 1°C 6.0 °C Gillet, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation The mean rearing temperature over the course of the study was 4.9 (range 4.4-5.1°C) 4.75 °C Valdimarsson, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at two temperature: 4 and 8°C 4.0 °C Gruber and Wieser, 1983
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs were incubated in darkness and at 4.5°C until 100% hatching. The water temperature was then gradually raised to 8°C (0.5°C per day) until first feeding 4.5 °C Atse, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation Mean (SD) hatching success was 47 (30)%for eggs incubated at 6°C, and increased to 65 (30)% for egg batches incubated at 3°C 3.0 °C Jobling,1998
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs were incubated at 6°C 6.0 °C Lemieux, 2003
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean of 6.28 but up to 7.1 [Horizontal: 5.20-6.05, vertical 4.85-5.70, swelling is completed 60 min after the eggs were put into water with a temperature of 9.5-11.0] 5.625 mm Pavlov, 1994
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.8-5.8 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 4.8 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 5.2 [Mean diameter of fertilized eggs] 5.2 mm Wedekind and Müller, 2004
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean egg diameter 4.9 ± 0.2, also descibed as 5.1 [Water hardened eggs] 4.9 mm Papst and Hopky, 1984
2 Egg size after water-hardening 5.2 [Fully hardened eggs] 5.2 mm Penaz, 1981
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Groot, 1986
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Buried in the gravel] Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 4.7 ± 0,6 (mean diameter) 4.7 mm Jamet, 1995
1 Oocyte diameter 3-5 4.0 mm Guillard, 1992
1 Oocyte diameter 3.2-5 4.1 mm Groot, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 4-4.5 4.25 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 4-5.5 or 3.8-5.8 [Populations of Norway] 4.75 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 4-5 [Not specified] 4.5 mm Gerdeaux, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 3.5-5.5 4.5 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 4-5 [When deposited] 4.5 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 3.9-4.3 [Not specified, seems to be unswollen] 4.1 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 3.5-5.0 4.25 mm Beddow, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter The diameter of the large eggs exceeded 4 mm [In ova] 4.0 mm Grainger, 1953
1 Oocyte diameter The mean ovum diameter from 'small charr' females was 3.5 ± 0.2 and from 'large charr' 3.6 ± 0.2 3.5 mm Sparholt, 1985
1 Oocyte diameter Range: 4.28-5.27, mean 4.80 4.775 mm Purtscher and Humpesch, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Egg diameter in females held in different environmental conditions range from 4 to 5 mm 4.0 mm Atse, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter Charr eggs are usually 4-5 mm in diameter 4.5 mm Jobling,1998
1 Oocyte diameter Mean diameters for the whole sample and for an individual ranged within 1.167-5.497 mm and 1.36-4.48 mm, respectively 3.332 mm Winnicki and Stankowska-Radziun, 1993

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 5-8 [Optimal temperature], 12 [almost lethal temperature] 6.5 °C Guillard, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development 4-9 are most favorable for larvae to transfer to mixed feeding 6.5 °C Pavlov, 1994
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 8-13 then 10-15°C for feeding 10.5 °C Dumas, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 6.8 ± 0.3°C 6.8 °C Wallace, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development The temperature was increased to 6°C at the first feeding 6.0 °C Johsson and Svavarsson, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development After swim-up, juveniles were reared at 9°C (warmed from 6°C over 1 day) 9.0 °C De March, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 2 and 6°C, and also at 8°C 2.0 °C Aasjord and Wallace, 1987
11 Temperature during larval development The experimental temperatures chosen were 3, 6, 8 and 12°C 3.0 °C Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
11 Temperature during larval development Rearing temperature was 6.4 ± 0.1°C 6.4 °C Papst and Hopky, 1984
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 2°C 2.0 °C Laurila, 1998
11 Temperature during larval development The mean rearing temperature over the course of the study was 4.9 (range 4.4-5.1°C) 4.75 °C Valdimarsson, 2002
11 Temperature during larval development Eggs were incubated in darkness and at 4.5°C until 100% hatching. The water temperature was then gradually raised to 8°C (0.5°C per day) until first feeding 4.5 °C Atse, 2002
11 Temperature during larval development The temperature was gradually raised to optimal rearing levels (9-10°C) 9.5 °C Lemieux, 2003
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism It is not an uncommon occurrence that a young salmonid, having become cannibalistic, will take several days to fully ingest a captured sibling of similar dimensions Present Aasjord and Wallace, 1987
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 200-320 [135 days at 1.3, 40-43 at 8°C] 260.0 °C * day Pavlov, 1994
13 Full yolk-sac resorption [6 weeks after hatching at 8-13°C, fish were transfered to 70 l tanks to begin feeding] 10.5 °C * day Dumas, 1995
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Stage 2 was when about two-thirds of the yolk has been used: 61 days (3°C), 44 (6°C), 35 (8°C) and 32 (12°C) and Stage 3 was yolk exhaustion, defined as the point at which less than 1.5% of the yolk remain: 101 days (3°C), 75 (6°C), 59 (8°C) and 48 (12°C) and in degree-days 320 (3°C), 400 (6°C), 450 (8°C) and 570 (12°C) 2.0 °C * day Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 120-200 [70-96 days at 1.3°C, 25 days at 8°C] 160.0 °C * day Pavlov, 1994
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding First feeding in charr occurs when the fry are around 21.5 mm 21.5 °C * day Aasjord and Wallace, 1987
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Temperature was increased to 11.5°C when fish were free swimming and feeding at about 630 DD posthatch 11.5 °C * day Bebak, 2000
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding First feeding coincided with swim-up at 6°C and at 8°C while at 3°C one fish was observed to have taken food before swim-up. At 12°C swim-up was registered 3 days before the first occurence of feeding. About 170 DD [3°C], 240 [6°C], 250 [8°C] and 320 [12°C] or in days ca. 55 (3°C), 40 (6°C), 35 (8°C) and 32 (12°C). At all temperatures the alevins were between 19 and 22 mm in length at 50% feeding. Registration of 50% occured about 40 day-degrees after 50% swim-up, independent of temperature 6.0 °C * day Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About 120 [minus 85-90 for incubation] at 6.4 ± 0.1 6.4 °C * day Papst and Hopky, 1984
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding First feeding was reached after 627 ± 13 degree-days in all families (less than 400-450 °D for incubation) 627.0 °C * day Atse, 2002
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding From day 24 after hatching, first feeding was initiated manually several times a day with a specially adapted commercial feed formulation (Corey Feed Mills Inc.) 24.0 °C * day Lemieux, 2003
8 Initial larval size 15 15.0 mm Spillmann, 1961
8 Initial larval size 15 [Range from 13.9-17.6] 15.75 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size Mean: 18.5 (16.7-19.6 mm) at 3.1°C, and mean: 16.9, range 15.5-18.5 18.15 mm Pavlov, 1994
8 Initial larval size 14-16 15.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 14.7 ± 0.7 14.7 mm Wedekind and Müller, 2004
8 Initial larval size Range: 10.40-16.50, mean 14.05 13.45 mm Purtscher and Humpesch, 2006
8 Initial larval size Based on graph, length comprised chiefly beween 16 and 17.5 mm 16.0 mm Lemieux, 2003
9 Larvae behaviour Rest near the bottom Demersal Guillard, 1992
9 Larvae behaviour The newly hatched embryos remain in the gravel of the redd, emerging as young fry (alevins) in about to three months Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Upon hatching remain in the gravel until the yolk is absorbed Demersal Bradbury, 1999

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value 18.2 [15 October] 18.2 percent Frantzen, 1997
24 Maximum GSI value 17.4 [max value observed in October] 17.4 percent Jamet, 1995
24 Maximum GSI value In spawning females, there was a definite increase in GSI's throughout August and september, with females immediatly prior to spawning ranging from 20-30%, up to 35.7% 25.0 percent Beddow, 1998
24 Maximum GSI value Mature small charr females: 3.2-16.6 (mean 10.1%) and mature large charr 3.8-14.3 (mean 8.4%) 9.9 percent Sparholt, 1985
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 16.4 (range 12.8-18.6%) for anadromous populations, and 18.4 (range 11.9-24.3) for resident populations 15.7 percent Fleming, 1998
25 Oogenesis duration First histological signs of maturation were seen in March, 6-7 months prior ovulation, but onset of viteelogeneis apparently occured over several moths between March and June. Although onset of viteelogenesis occured as early as March, there was apprently no change in oocyte size and only a modest rise in GSI until early June. 6.5 months Frantzen, 1997
19 Relative fecundity 2.509 ± 0.964 2.509 thousand eggs/kg Jamet, 1995
19 Relative fecundity 2-3 2.5 thousand eggs/kg Guillard, 1992
19 Relative fecundity 1.4-3.7, 1.84-9.7 2.55 thousand eggs/kg Groot, 1986
19 Relative fecundity About 1 1.0 thousand eggs/kg Spillmann, 1961
19 Relative fecundity 2-4 3.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 2-4 3.0 thousand eggs/kg Gerdeaux, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 105.6 ± 14.8 eggs per 100 g in their study, also described 140 eggs per 100 g 105.6 thousand eggs/kg Papst and Hopky, 1984
19 Relative fecundity 363 [Age 4+] and 2175 [Age 8+], mean of 1470 for all age 363.0 thousand eggs/kg Shershnev, 1986
19 Relative fecundity 3886 ± 231 3886.0 thousand eggs/kg Gillet, 1991
19 Relative fecundity The relative fecundity was similar among groups 2685 +/- 706 eggs 2685.0 thousand eggs/kg Atse, 2002
19 Relative fecundity In general, a relative fecundity of 3000-4000 eggs per fish kg fish may be expected 3500.0 thousand eggs/kg Jobling,1998
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [weak proportion] 2.0 years Guillard, 1992
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Male] 4.5 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 5-7 [Male] 6.0 years Pavlov, 1994
27 Age at sexual maturity Usually mature at 4-5 years of age [Sex not specified] 4.5 years Bradbury, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity Average age of sexually mature fish from the Fraser River, nothern Labrador was 5.2 for males 5.2 years Beddow, 1998
27 Age at sexual maturity Maturity occurs in the Sylvia Grinnel River at about 12 winters, and in George River at least as early as 7 winters, possibly younger 7.0 years Grainger, 1953
27 Age at sexual maturity Char in this area reach maturity at 10 years 10.0 years Moore, 1975
27 Age at sexual maturity 50% of the charr geing seuxally mature at 4-5 year of age [Most males became sexually mature at a higher age than the females] 4.5 years Jonsson and Hindar, 1982
27 Age at sexual maturity No artic charr younger than 3+ were mature. Males of the 'small charr' started to mature at age 3+. Males of the 'large charr' started to mature sexually at age 4+ 3.0 years Sparholt, 1985
26 Resting period Recruitement of stage II and stage III oocyes was seen 1-2 months after ovulation had occured, and by February the next year all the post-ovulatory follicles had disappeared 1.5 months Frantzen, 1997
26 Resting period 0.3 (Resting period lasted until July) 0.3 months Jamet, 1995
22 Onset of oogenesis March [Although onset of vitellogenesis occured as early as March, there was apprently no change in oocyte size and only a modest rise in GSI until early June.] ['March', 'June'] Frantzen, 1997
22 Onset of oogenesis Gonad development began in August ['August'] Jamet, 1995
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity The period with the most intensive vitellogenesis occured in late July ['July'] Frantzen, 1997
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Growth in the size of the eggs occured during the first half of July ['July'] Grainger, 1953
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity In summer and the beginning of autumn, the achievements of grwoth and gametogenesis of Artic charr take place at temperatures higher than 5°C in natural environment ['September', 'August', 'December', 'July', 'October', 'November'] Gillet, 1991
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Frantzen, 1997
21 Oocyte development At least two size groups of eggs were present in many of the fish No category Grainger, 1953
20 Absolute fecundity Average 4.9, range 3.9-6.1 [A vérifier absolument ???] 5.0 thousand eggs Pavlov, 1994
20 Absolute fecundity Average 3-5 4.0 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity 3.589 [Corresponds to the mean maturing egg count from fish, rangin in length from 49 to 66.5 cm, and averaging 56 cm] 3.589 thousand eggs Grainger, 1953
20 Absolute fecundity 1769 ± 527 also, 4781 in the wild 1769.0 thousand eggs Papst and Hopky, 1984
20 Absolute fecundity Total number of eggs ranged from 4869 to 8065 for five females 4869.0 thousand eggs Winnicki and Stankowska-Radziun, 1993
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.84 [Far east], 0.9-2.0 [Alaska], 3.4 [Nortwest territories], 0.55-2.05 [Arctic islands] 1.45 kg Groot, 1996
17 Weight at sexual maturity The most common modal size range for the char within the 2 rivers was 1.2 ± 0.1 kg 1.2 kg Beddow, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity 23.5 23.5 cm Jamet, 1995
16 Length at sexual maturity 30-45 [Far east], 45-60 [Alaska], 62-80 [Nortwest territories], 38-69.5 [Arctic islands] 37.5 cm Groot, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity About 29 29.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 60 60.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Some populations at 15.2-17.8 [Female] 16.5 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
16 Length at sexual maturity The most common modal size range for the char within the 2 rivers was 44 ± 3 cm fork length 44.0 cm Beddow, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity The length at maturity of the Syvia Grinnel char is about 45 cm 45.0 cm Grainger, 1953
16 Length at sexual maturity The mean fork length of the 14 females spawned were 490. 7 ± 18.9 mm (range from 450 to 528 mm), much smaller than in wild conditions 624-697 mm 7.0 cm Papst and Hopky, 1984
15 Age at sexual maturity 7-12 9.5 year Barton, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-11 [Far east], 6-10 [Alaska], 10-18 [Nortwest territories], 11-25 [Arctic islands] 7.5 year Groot, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 5-10 [Female] 7.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 7-8 [Female] 7.5 year Pavlov, 1994
15 Age at sexual maturity Usually mature at 4-5 years of age [Sex not specified] 4.5 year Bradbury, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity Average age of sexually mature fish from the Fraser River, nothern Labrador was 6.9 for females 6.9 year Beddow, 1998
15 Age at sexual maturity Maturity occurs in the Sylvia Grinnel River at about 12 winters, and in George River at least as early as 7 winters, possibly younger 12.0 year Grainger, 1953
15 Age at sexual maturity 50% of the charr sexually mature at 4-5 year of age [Most males became sexually mature at a higher age than the females] 4.5 year Jonsson and Hindar, 1982
15 Age at sexual maturity No artic charr younger than 3+ were mature. females of the 'small charr' started to mature at age 4+. females of the 'large charr' started to mature sexually at age 9+ 3.0 year Sparholt, 1985
15 Age at sexual maturity The spawning run was composed of six age groups from 4+ to 9+. Quantitatively, age 6 and 7 fish predominate 4.0 year Shershnev, 1986

Male (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Bright colors on sides and pair and impair fins Present Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present Willson, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Only large males may be strong enough to flaunt bright red spawning colors and still defend a territory Present Jonsson and Hindar, 1982
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent Fleming, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value 4.2 (max value in September) 4.2 percent Jamet, 1995
33 Maximum GSI value 1.3-6.1 [End of September] 3.7 percent Beddow, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value Mature small charr males: 3.2-12.5 (mean 7.1%) and mature large charr 1.3-4.8 (mean 2.4%) 7.85 percent Sparholt, 1985
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 4.4 for anadromous populations (mean of 6.7% for mature male parr) and 2.8 for resident populations 4.4 percent Fleming, 1998
35 Resting period Almost 0 (Between December to July, value in July = 0.6%) 0.0 months Jamet, 1995
28 Length at sexual maturity 20.7 20.7 cm Jamet, 1995
28 Length at sexual maturity 23 23.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity The most common modal size range for the char within the 2 rivers was 44 ± 3 cm fork length 44.0 cm Beddow, 1998
28 Length at sexual maturity The length at maturity of the Syvia Grinnel char is about 45 cm 45.0 cm Grainger, 1953
28 Length at sexual maturity The mean fork length of the 14 males spawned were 492. 7 ± 18.9 mm (range from 404 to 551 mm), much smaller than in wild conditions 720-774 mm 7.0 cm Papst and Hopky, 1984
29 Weight at sexual maturity The youngest sexually mature char detemirnated was a 4-year-old male, weighting 0.31 kg at 30.3 cm in length [The most common modal size range for the char within the 2 rivers was 1.2 ± 0.1 kg] 1.2 kg Beddow, 1998

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system The male may mate with several females during the spawning season No category Groot, 1996
47 Mating system Polygamy : one female followed by 2 to 8 males Polyandry Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system By pair, but males often mate with more than one female and sometimes a female will mate successively with two or more males Monogamy Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system A female is usually attended by one male during deposition and fertilization of the eggs [Males usually mate with more than one female] No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system Mating stops between the pair when the female is spent No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occurs primarily during the day Day Groot, 1996
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning takes place at almost any time of the day Day Fishbase, 2006
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Actual spawning takes place during the day Day Scott and Crossman, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Occurs during the day: mating will go uninterrupted for several hours, except for periods of darkness or when the female begins to build a new nest Day Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care Non guarders [The females covers the eggs, and begins the next redd] No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care The male abandons the female and immediately begins to court another ripe female. The spent female leaves the spawning site No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care Arctic char females may defend the nest briefly, unlike brook char No category Willson, 1997
50 Parental care None for the anadromous populations and rarely for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Gravels to pebbles (1-5 cm and few about 30 cm) but no sand in the Léman Lake, mostly gravels and corase gravels but rarely sand [if nothing else present], mud in other parts Ambiguous Rubin and Buttiker, 1992
44 Spawning substrate Spawning substrate ranges from coarse sand to gravel with boulders [Sand botooms are utilisez when density of spawning fish is high or when gravel substrates are limited] Ambiguous Groot, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil: gravels, pebbles 1-5 cm in diameter Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravels: 2-10 cm Lithophils Gerdeaux, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Bottom areas were covered with large stones Lithophils Pavlov, 1994
44 Spawning substrate Gravel or rocky shoals Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate "Genrally occurs over areas or gravel, but occassionally sand The size of spawning material can vary anywhere between coarse sand and boulder-strewn gravel, but the preferred size of spawning material seems to be ""walnut-sized"" gravel" Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Under experimental conditions, Lake saimaa Arctic charr preferred cobbles to finer material as spawning substrate No category Huuskonen, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Over a variety of substrates ranging from fine sand and mud to rubble, however, gravel and cobble appear to be the most favoured spawning substrate [Lake-spawning has been observed from mud and gravel to boulders] Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Habitat for the majority of sites consisted of 40% boulders, 50% rubble, and 10% san/gravel Lithophils Beddow, 1998
44 Spawning substrate In this area the substratum seems to be most suitable for spawning. Dwarf males were generally foudndeeper then 15 m thoughout the spawning season. During the first part of the spawning period the distribution of sexually mature females resembled that of the corresponding male groups, however during late spawning (December 8) dwarf females were also found at the depth of 5-15 m No category Jonsson and Hindar, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Arctic charr normally spawn on a gravel substrate, but spawning can occur in deposits varying from coarse sand to boulder-strewn gravel Ambiguous Walker, 2007
45 Spawning site preparation Several nests, constitue by gravels, could be construct by female No category Guillard, 1992
45 Spawning site preparation Female dig as many as 8 to 10 nests before all the eggs have been laid Susbtrate chooser Groot, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation No nests, but females lay their eggs on the substrates Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Once a spot is selected, a female starts digging a redd Susbtrate chooser Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Although the males establish and guard territories, the nest or redd is prepared by the female who uses her caudal fin, paddle-like, to clear debris from the site Susbtrate chooser Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation The female selects a suitable site and digs a redd using her body and tail Susbtrate chooser Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Females dug a redd before laying their eggs and covered it by tail beats after fertilization [Arctic charr females in the lakes Onage and Ladoga, Russia, did not bury their eggs after spawning but the eggs were freely spread among the rocks and gravel. Susbtrate chooser Huuskonen, 2003
45 Spawning site preparation Females dig a nest or redd in the loose gravel where the eggs incubate over winter Susbtrate chooser Bradbury, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Males fight intensively in the spawning area, and one large, dominant male may fertilize the eggs of several consecutive females within the same territory No category Jonsson and Hindar, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 0.5-7, 3-15 3.75 °C Barton, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 2-7 4.5 °C Groot, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Ovulation occurs at 5-8°C but is inhibited at 10-11°C 6.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature From 11.2 to 8.6 11.2 °C Pavlov, 1994
41 Spawning temperature Around 4 4.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 0.5-1.5 1.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Between 2-7, 5-6 or at 4°C 4.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 0.5-1.5 1.0 °C Mittlebach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 1-3 2.0 °C Bradbury, 1999
41 Spawning temperature Spawning was believed to have occured during late September and in the first week of October, when temperature dropped below 7°C 7.0 °C Beddow, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Wild spawning takes place at 2°C 2.0 °C Papst and Hopky, 1984
41 Spawning temperature Spawning may be inhibited at temperatures over 10°C, the timing of ovulation may be delayed at 8°C compared to lower temperatures, and the process of egg over-ripening is greatly accelerated at temperatures above 5°C 10.0 °C Jobling,1998
40 Spawning period duration 3 [The ovulatory period may have no more than 3 weeks] 3.0 weeks Frantzen, 1997
40 Spawning period duration 3-5 4.0 weeks Jamet, 1995
40 Spawning period duration 4 [when the water is about 8°C during the beginning of the cycle] 4.0 weeks Guillard, 1992
40 Spawning period duration 3-4 3.5 weeks Pavlov, 1994
40 Spawning period duration Males arrive at the spawning grounds first and remain there throughout the spawning period No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
40 Spawning period duration 5-6 5.5 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration Spawning activities extending over a three week period in October, with peak spawning occuring in mid-Ocotber No data Bradbury, 1999
40 Spawning period duration Spawning duration of 4-5 weeks 4.5 weeks Jobling,1998
42 Spawning water type Current velocities range from 0.2 to 0.8 cm/sec Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
42 Spawning water type Bottom of lakes with constant and strong current, sometimes in plein water Ambiguous Billard, 1997
42 Spawning water type Shoals in lakes, quiet pools in rivers Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Both lakes and rivers [Water velocities of 0.2-0.7 m/s] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type Most spawning takes place in streams [May spawn either in streams or lakes in Labrador] Stagnant water Bradbury, 1999
42 Spawning water type Lakes, river pools Stagnant water Willson, 1997
42 Spawning water type Pools, or in association with large boulders downstream riffles [Water flow about 1 m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Beddow, 1998
42 Spawning water type Tyrolean lake Stagnant water Gruber and Wieser, 1983
43 Spawning depth Either swallow waters or at depth of 120 m 120.0 m Guillard, 1992
43 Spawning depth Most spawning sites are located at 50-120 m in the Léman Lake and char don't seem to to use areas in more shallow waters 85.0 m Rubin and Buttiker, 1992
43 Spawning depth 3-6 [up to 100 in european lakes] 4.5 m Groot, 1996
43 Spawning depth Depends from 60-80 m in deep lakes to shallow waters 1-3 70.0 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Sometimes up to 40-120 m 80.0 m Gerdeaux, 2001
43 Spawning depth Average depth is 1 m, and 2.5-3.5 m 3.0 m Pavlov, 1994
43 Spawning depth 1.0-4.5 m 2.75 m Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth Depending on the site, water depths may vary from one to 11 m, and as deep as 100 m 11.0 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth In streams, spawning usually occurs at depths of 1.5-2 m with is sufficient to keep the eggs safe from winter ice, but has been reported at depths ranging from 1-11 m. Lake-spawning normally occurs adjacent to inlet streams at depths of 0.5-1.5 m, but has been observed at depths ranging from 2-6 m. [Depths ranging from 0.3 to 120 m] 1.75 m Bradbury, 1999
43 Spawning depth 1-2 m deep 1.5 m Beddow, 1998
43 Spawning depth Normal charr males occupied the upper 15 m of the depth gradient in the spawning area from about 3 wk before spawning started until the end of the spawning period. 15.0 m Jonsson and Hindar, 1982
43 Spawning depth Spawning in the lake occurs at a depth between 60 to 80 m 60.0 m Gillet, 1991
43 Spawning depth In Tyrolean lake, the spawning sites ate situated at depths around 5 m 5.0 m Gruber and Wieser, 1983
36 Spawning migration distance Most fish travelled less than 25 km from their stream of origin, but some travel 100, 400, 500 and 940 away 25.0 km Groot, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Nearly all recaptures of fish in the sea were from local coastal areas, about 80% of the recaptures were made within 30 km of the River 80.0 km Finstad and Heggberget, 1993
36 Spawning migration distance Remained within 100 km of where they were originally released 100.0 km Bradbury, 1999
36 Spawning migration distance The maximum distance anadromous char moved from saltwater was 40 km 40.0 km Moore, 1975
37 Spawning migration period The upstream migration begin in late July or early August, and peaks between mid-August and early September ['August', 'July', 'September'] Groot, 1996
37 Spawning migration period Males are on the spawning sites two months prior to reproduction (from August onward) ['August'] Jamet, 1995
37 Spawning migration period The upstream migration occur from July to September, and the spawning occur at the beginning of winter in Europe ['March', 'January', 'September', 'July', 'February'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
37 Spawning migration period Ocean migrations of Artic charr in Nothern Labrador are generally of short duration, usually lasting one to three months, in localized areas. Up stream migrations may extend into the last two weeks of September ['September'] Bradbury, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Extensive studies on the annual migrations of Fraser River Arctic char in Nothern Labrador has revealed that seaward migration of char occurs during May and early Junecoinciding with spring run off and river ice break up. The larger fish, both maturing and non-maturing, usually begin to enter the sea first, followed by smaller adults and juveniles. The return upstream migrations begin mid July with the peak return occuring in August ['April', 'May', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Beddow, 1998
37 Spawning migration period The return to fresh waer begins in late July or early August and continues until at least early September, and its occurrence seems to be influenced by tidal conditions, most upstream movement takink place at high tides, and the first mass upstream migration beginning during high spring tides ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Grainger, 1953
37 Spawning migration period Mass upstream movement in rivers A and B began during the second week of August and was apparently completed within 5-6 weeks ['August'] Moore, 1975
37 Spawning migration period The first char in the spanwing run passed the Malkaya river weir in the mid July. Until the end of July only individual spawners arrived. During the period from 2 to 4 August the average daily passage of fish was 200 specimens. The peak of the spawning run at the weir occured in mid august. during this period three peaks of intensity were noted - 11, 15 and 19 August. Toward the end of August the run declined ['August', 'July'] Shershnev, 1986
39 Spawning season Autum or during winter ['February', 'March', 'January'] Guillard, 1992
39 Spawning season January ['January'] Berg, 2004
39 Spawning season October and the first half of December ['October', 'December'] Jamet, 1995
39 Spawning season In autumn in either lakes or rivers. Non-migratory fish may spawn in lakes in autum and spring, but only in autum in rivers, September-October [Nothern regions], November-december [Southern regions] ['April', 'May', 'September', 'December', 'June', 'October', 'November'] Groot, 1996
39 Spawning season Ripening females were first observed on 24 September and by 15 October all the sampled females had ovulated ['October', 'September'] Frantzen, 1997
39 Spawning season End of November to January ['November', 'January'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season November to January ['November', 'January'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season November to January ['November', 'January'] Gerdeaux, 2001
39 Spawning season October, November but also in September until January, even March ['March', 'January', 'September', 'October', 'November'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season From 20 September to mid-October, maximum spawning were observed at the end of September ['October', 'September'] Pavlov, 1994
39 Spawning season Usually in September or October, and as late as November or December ['October', 'November', 'December', 'September'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season The anadromous form spawns in atumun in either lakes or rivers, non migratory pawn in lakes in the autum or spring but river spawners only spawn in the autumn ['April', 'May', 'December', 'June', 'October', 'November'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Mid November to mid-January ['November', 'January'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season Lake Saimaa Arctic charr spawn during October-November, at the time when lakes begin ti freeze ['October', 'November'] Huuskonen, 2003
39 Spawning season Spawning normally occurs between mid-October and mid-November in Newfoundland, but occurs two weeks earlier in Labrador [Landlocked Arctic charr may spawn in streams or lakes from early Ocotber to mid-November] ['October', 'November'] Bradbury, 1999
39 Spawning season Salmo and most char are fall breeders, although a few populations of Arctic char breed in spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Willson, 1997
39 Spawning season Spawning was believed to have occured during late September and in the first week of October ['October', 'September'] Beddow, 1998
39 Spawning season Winter spawner [Other authors described between September and April] ['April', 'September'] Humpesch, 1985
39 Spawning season The first spawning of normal females were cuaght on November 9, whereas dwarf females did not begin spawning until 2 weeks later. ['November'] Jonsson and Hindar, 1982
39 Spawning season Ovulation were first recorded at the end of November. In mid-January, 100% of the females had spawned ['November', 'January'] Gillet, 1991
39 Spawning season Spawn in the first two week or two October ['October'] Walker, 2007
39 Spawning season In the wild, Arctic charr usually spawn in the autumn at water temperatures of about 4°C ['October', 'November', 'December'] Jobling,1998
38 Homing Homing is relatively strong and many return to the home stream for the first and subsequent spawnings Present Groot, 1996
38 Homing Homing has been observed Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
38 Homing There is a strong tendency for spawning charr to return to the spawning grounds from which they originated Present Kerr and Grant, 1999
38 Homing Exhibited a high degree of homing to their natal rivers Present Bradbury, 1999
38 Homing Observe them returning to their natal river Present Moore, 1975
48 Spawning release Once, may not spawn every year but spend several years between two spawning season Mutliple Jamet, 1995
48 Spawning release Batch spawner Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Females can release all the eggs over a period from 4 h to 3 d during which she can prepare ut to 8 nest pockets [Eggs can be buried under a layer of gravel 10-20 cm thick] No category Groot, 1996
49 Parity Either once a year or not every year [May only spawn two or three times, and at the most four times in a lifetime] No category Groot, 1996
49 Parity Females spawn every second or third year, but seldom every year except in southern partsof the range No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
49 Parity Adults normally spawn every second or third year, but seldom every year except in southern part of its range No category Bradbury, 1999
49 Parity Breeding is annual in some populations of Arctic charr (mostly freshwater, one anadromous population), but for most anadormous individuals, the interval between breeding is 2 to 4 years, especially in the north. Lifespan is potentially long, up to 40 years, but more often 15 years No category Willson, 1997
49 Parity Since spawning requires high energy output, females often oly spawn every 2 or 3 years, and therefore, not all the adults are part of the spawning population in a given year No category Beddow, 1998
49 Parity Lives more than 24 years [It is apparent that all the females within the size range of maturity do not spawn every autumn] No category Grainger, 1953
49 Parity Mean of 41 (range 32-50%) of repeat spawners for anadromous populations and 61 (range 33684%) for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998