Bradbury et al, 1999



Citation


Bradbury, C. and Roberge, M.M. and Minns, C.K. (1999) Life history characteristics of freshwater fishes occuring in Newfoundland and Labrador, with major emphasis on lake habitat requirements.
Fisheries and Oceans

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg Buoyancy Eggs are released into open water where they are carried along by currents, and being slightly heavier than water, gradually sink to the bottom Demersal
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg adhesiveness Nonadhesive Non-Adhesive
Alosa sapidissima Egg Incubation time 8-12 at 11-15°C 10.0 days
Alosa sapidissima Egg Temperature for incubation 11-15°C 13.0 °C
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Larvae behaviour Larvae are planktonic and do not metamorphose into juveniles for 4-5 weeks Demersal
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning migration period In eastern Canada, spawing runs of shad enter rivers between late April and late June, with few, if any, entering rivers before water temperatures reach at least 4°C ['April', 'June']
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Homing Return to its natal river to spawn Present
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawning normally occurs in May and June, but may occur as late as July ['May', 'June', 'July']
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 13-20 16.5 °C
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning water type Spawn in rivers or brackish estuarine rivers, seldom if ever in lakes [River spawning usually takes place in moderate to strong flowing water, generally where there is sufficient velocity to eliminate silt deposits, and at the same time, far enough upstream for eggs to drift and hatch before reaching saltwater] Stagnant water
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning depth Range from 0.2-12 m 6.1 m
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning substrate It is generally thought that subsrate is unimportant to shad since spawning occurs in the water column and eggs are carried dowstream by the current. Spawning was observed over sand, silt, muck, gravel and boulder substrates, also over sand or gravel. Lithophils
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are released into open water Open water/substratum scatter
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Parity May spawn up to 7 times and live to be 13 years No category
Esox lucius Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Esox lucius Larvae Larvae behaviour Larvae remain atatched to vegetation for 6 to 10 days Demersal
Esox lucius Female Age at sexual maturity In Labrador, pike generally mature at 3-5 years [Sex not specified] 4.0 year
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Considered maily a sedentary species No data
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Nothern pike migrate to spawning areas immediatly after the ice melts in spring ['April', 'May', 'June']
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning season In Labrador, spawning normally takes place from mid-April to mid-May, shortly after ice-out ['April', 'May']
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 6 to 14°C 6.0 °C
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning water type No significant weter current and some protection from dominant winds. Flowing or turbulent water
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning depth Generally 5-60 cm [also in Shallow vegetated area <4 m deep] 32.5 m
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate The preferred spawning substrate is a moderatly dense mat of flooded vegetation in shallow (5-60 cm deep), wind sheltered area. Although grasses, sedges and rushes with fine leaves make the best substrate for egg deposition, the type of vegetation does not appear to be critical providing the vegetative susbtrate is adequate to entrap eggs and suspend them above the susbtrate where anoxic conditions can develop. The type of bottom over which spawning occurs varies widely, but a soft, silt-filled area with decaying vegetation is common . The absence of inundated vegetation can inhibit or delayed spawning. Thus, the following characterisctics constitute suitable spawning sites for pike; presence of live or decaying vegetation, shallowness, no significant weter current and some protection from dominant winds. Phytophils
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Pike are broadcast spawners Open water/substratum scatter
Lota lota Egg Egg Buoyancy Eggs are semi-buoyant when first laid, but become demersal within a few days and settle into interstices into the substrate Demersal
Lota lota Egg Incubation time Eggs incubate for 3-4 months 3.5 days
Lota lota Larvae Larvae behaviour Upon hatching larvae are pelagic Pelagic
Lota lota Female Age at sexual maturity In Canada, burbot generally reach sexual maturity between 2-8 years of age [sex not specified] 5.0 year
Lota lota Male Age at sexual maturity In Canada, burbot generally reach sexual maturity between 2-8 years of age [sex not specified] 5.0 years
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawn under the ice, usually between January and March ['January', 'February', 'March']
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning water type Both lakes and rivers Stagnant water
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning depth In lakes, spawning occurs in areas with little accumulation of silt or detritus, usually at depths of 0.3-3.0 m, but has been reported at depths of 18-20 m 1.65 m
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Over clean sand, gravel or cobble/rubble substrates Lithophils
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are broadcast into the water column well above the substrate Susbtrate chooser
Gasterosteus aculeatus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Gasterosteus aculeatus Larvae Larvae behaviour Upon hatching, young leave the the spawning area but remain close to shore in shallow water Demersal
Gasterosteus aculeatus Female Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Not specified] 2.5 year
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Migrations of anadromous stickleback into freshwater usually occurs in late psring (June) ['June']
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawning shortly occur after migration, in June [Resident freshwater populations spawn mainly in mid-Summer, during June and July] ['June', 'July', 'August', 'September']
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Anadromous populations may spawn in brackish or freshwater [Spawning in freshwater has been observed in two distinct habitat types within lakes; open-water areas, or in association with aquatic vegetation Stagnant water
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Males generally avoid nesting in water shallower than 0.2 m and have been observed nesting at depths of up to 40 m 0.2 m
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate In marine or estuarine habitats, spawning may occur in a variety of habitats including rock crevices, sheltered ellgrass bads, algal mats and sometimes over sand and silt near vegetation Phytophils
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The male constructs a nest of small twigs, algae or plant debris typically over a sandy or mud bottom No category
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning release Eggs are deposited in clusters in the nest Fractional
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Parity Have a maximum lifespan of about 2 and 1.5 years No category
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Parental care The male guards and fans the nest and protects the young for up to 2 weeks after hatching or until they are able to fend for themselves Male parental care
Pungitius pungitius Larvae Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larve move to the top of the nest where they remain relativelt inactive Demersal
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning season In most areas thoughout its range, spawning occurs in the summer in relatively shallow areas containing dense aquatic vegetation ['July', 'August', 'September']
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning water type Although ninespine stickleback have a relatively high salinity tolerance, they have only been reported to spawn in freshwater No category
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning depth Shallow areas, yet spawning has been observed at depths of 5-40 m in some areas 22.5 m
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Areas containing dense aquatic vegetation Phytophils
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Males construct a nest made of algae and other plants debris. No category
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Parity Longevity of the river form was 1 year and some months, whereas the lake form lived for more than 2 years No category
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Parental care Male guards the nest and aerate the eggs through fanning with their pectoral fins Male parental care
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Egg Buoyancy Settle in rocky crevices where they remain Demersal
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs Adhesive
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Incubation time 4-6 months 5.0 days
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Temperature for incubation 1-8°C 4.5 °C
Coregonus clupeaformis Larvae Larvae behaviour Young typically hatch from mid-May to mid-June and remain within the general vicinity of the spawning area Demersal
Coregonus clupeaformis Female Age at sexual maturity In labrador, lake whitefish usually attain sexual maturiy in 5-11 years, although dwarf populations may mature as early as 2 years of age [Sex not specified] 8.0 year
Coregonus clupeaformis Male Age at sexual maturity In labrador, lake whitefish usually attain sexual maturiy in 5-11 years, although dwarf populations may mature as early as 2 years of age [Sex not specified] 8.0 years