Naca, 1989



Citation


NACA (1989) Integrated fish farming in China. NACA Technical Manual 7.
A World Food Day publication of the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia and the Pacific,

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Mating system In estrus, two or three males chase one female, the male repeatedly hits its head against the female's abdomen until the female is lying on its side adjacent to some aquatic plants. No category
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Mating system In estrus, two or three males chase one female, the male repeatedly hits its head against the female's abdomen until the female is lying on its side adjacent to some aquatic plants. No category
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning activity proceeds from midnight to dawn. If environmental conditions are favourable, however, these fish can spawn the whole day Ambiguous
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning activity proceeds from midnight to dawn. If environmental conditions are favourable, however, these fish can spawn the whole day Ambiguous
Aristichthys nobilis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate The eggs are fertilized in the water Pelagophils
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate The fundamental requirement for spawning is the presence of susbstrat (e.g. aquatic plants) that the eggs can adhere to Phytophils
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning substrate The eggs are fertilized in the water Pelagophils
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning substrate The fundamental requirement for spawning is the presence of susbstrat (e.g. aquatic plants) that the eggs can adhere to Phytophils
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Spawning conditions Spawning substrate The eggs are fertilized in the water Pelagophils
Aristichthys nobilis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature The optimum temperature for spawning is 22-28°C 25.0 °C
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Although the spawning season begins at different times, water temperature requirements are identical, at least 20°C 20.0 °C
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning temperature The optimum temperature for spawning is 22-28°C 25.0 °C
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Although the spawning season begins at different times, water temperature requirements are identical, at least 18°C 18.0 °C
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Spawning conditions Spawning temperature The optimum temperature for spawning is 22-28°C 25.0 °C
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning water type Naturally reproduce in the still or running waters of Southern and Nothern China No category
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning water type Naturally reproduce in the still or running waters of Southern and Nothern China No category
Aristichthys nobilis Female Female sexual dimorphism Pectoral fin is smooth Absent
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Female sexual dimorphism The pectoral fins are thin and short, spreading out spontaneously like a fan. No pearl organs appear Absent
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Female Female sexual dimorphism Pectoral fin is smooth Absent
Mylopharyngodon piceus Female Female sexual dimorphism The pectoral fins are thin and short, spreading out spontaneously like a fan. No pearl organs appear Absent
Aristichthys nobilis Female Maximum GSI value Average maturity rate 13.6% 13.6 percent
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Maximum GSI value Average maturity rate of 14.2% 14.2 percent
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Female Maximum GSI value Average maturity rate 15.1% 15.1 percent
Mylopharyngodon piceus Female Maximum GSI value Average 11.00 11.0 percent
Aristichthys nobilis Male Male sexual dimorphism Edges of the upper rims of several of the foremost pectoral fin rays are sharp and slant backward Absent
Ctenopharyngodon idella Male Male sexual dimorphism The pectoral fin rays are thick and long, extending freely like sharp knives. In the reproduction season, pearl organs appear on the pectoral fins and opercula of mature male fish. They are coarse to the touch Absent
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Male Male sexual dimorphism There is a row of fine bony atenoid serrations on several of the foremost fin rays of the pectoral fin. They are coarse and thorny and present throughout the life of the fish* Present
Mylopharyngodon piceus Male Male sexual dimorphism The pectoral fin rays are thick and long, extending freely like sharp knives. In the reproduction season, pearl organs appear on the pectoral fins and opercula of mature male fish. They are coarse to the touch Absent
Aristichthys nobilis Egg Egg adhesiveness The eggs are seperated and nonadhesive Non-Adhesive
Carassius carassius Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Egg adhesiveness The eggs are seperated and nonadhesive Non-Adhesive
Cyprinus carpio Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Egg Egg adhesiveness The eggs are seperated and nonadhesive Non-Adhesive
Mylopharyngodon piceus Egg Egg adhesiveness The eggs are seperated and nonadhesive Non-Adhesive
Cyprinus carpio Egg Incubation time At 20°C, the fertilized eggs of common carp take 101-104 hours to incubate, at 25°C, 49-53 hours, at 30°C, 47-50 hours 102.5 days
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Egg Incubation time 61 hours [At 18°C], 50 [20°C], 24 [25°C], 18 [28°C], 16 [30°C] 61.0 days
Aristichthys nobilis Female Relative fecundity Avrage relative fecundity 96.7 96.7 thousand eggs/kg
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Relative fecundity Average fecundity of 90.2 90.2 thousand eggs/kg
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Female Relative fecundity Average 131 131.0 thousand eggs/kg
Mylopharyngodon piceus Female Relative fecundity Average 93.1 93.1 thousand eggs/kg
Aristichthys nobilis Egg Temperature for incubation The optimum temperature is between 25 and 27°C 25.0 °C
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Temperature for incubation The optimum temperature is between 25 and 27°C 25.0 °C
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Egg Temperature for incubation The optimum temperature is between 25 and 27°C 25.0 °C
Mylopharyngodon piceus Egg Temperature for incubation The optimum temperature is between 25 and 27°C 25.0 °C
Aristichthys nobilis Egg Egg size after water-hardening After the eggs have been fertilized and have absorbed water, the egg membrane expands to about 5-6 mm 5.5 mm
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Egg size after water-hardening After the eggs have been fertilized and have absorbed water, the egg membrane expands to about 5-6 mm 5.5 mm
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Egg Egg size after water-hardening After the eggs have been fertilized and have absorbed water, the egg membrane expands to about 5-6 mm 5.5 mm
Mylopharyngodon piceus Egg Egg size after water-hardening After the eggs have been fertilized and have absorbed water, the egg membrane expands to about 5-6 mm 5.5 mm
Aristichthys nobilis Egg Egg Buoyancy Having a greater specific gravity than water, eggs sink to the bottom in still water, yet, they are semi-buoyant in a current, floating until the fry hatch Ambiguous
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Egg Buoyancy Having a greater specific gravity than water, eggs sink to the bottom in still water, yet, they are semi-buoyant in a current, floating until the fry hatch Ambiguous
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Egg Egg Buoyancy Having a greater specific gravity than water, eggs sink to the bottom in still water, yet, they are semi-buoyant in a current, floating until the fry hatch Ambiguous
Mylopharyngodon piceus Egg Egg Buoyancy Having a greater specific gravity than water, eggs sink to the bottom in still water, yet, they are semi-buoyant in a current, floating until the fry hatch Ambiguous
Aristichthys nobilis Female Absolute fecundity Average fecundity: 1,925,000 1.0 thousand eggs
Carassius carassius Female Absolute fecundity A 0.5-1 kg crucian carp has an average fecundity of 200,00 - 300,000 pieces 0.75 thousand eggs
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Absolute fecundity Average 830,000 830.0 thousand eggs
Cyprinus carpio Female Absolute fecundity The average fecundity of a 3-year-old, 44-48 cm, 1.9-2.75 kg, common carp is around 224,000 pieces. For a 5-year-old, 54 cm, 3.5 kg common carp, the fecundity is around 447,000 pieces. 46.0 thousand eggs
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Female Absolute fecundity Average absolute fecundity: 1,035,000 1.0 thousand eggs
Mylopharyngodon piceus Female Absolute fecundity Average 2,131,000 2.0 thousand eggs
Aristichthys nobilis Spawning conditions Spawning season In the Changjiang River drainage, bighead carp begins to spawn in middle or late May ['May']
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawn from the end of March to early April in Central and central eastern part of China, from April to May in Northern China, and in June on northeastern China. ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June']
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning season In the Changjiang River drainage, silver carp and grass carp generally starts spawning in late April or early May ['April', 'May']
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawn from the end of March to early April in Central and central eastern part of China, from April to May in Northern China, and in June on northeastern China. ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June']
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Spawning conditions Spawning season In the Changjiang River drainage, silver carp and grass carp generally starts spawning in late April or early May ['April', 'May']
Aristichthys nobilis Female Weight at sexual maturity Average weight of 19,900 kg for fishes in the Changjiang River 19.0 kg
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Weight at sexual maturity Average weight of 9,200 kg for fishes in the Changjiang River 9.0 kg
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Female Weight at sexual maturity Average body weigth 7,900 kg in the Changjiang 7.0 kg
Mylopharyngodon piceus Female Weight at sexual maturity Average weight of 22,900 kg for fishes in the Changjiang River 22.0 kg
Aristichthys nobilis Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 °C * day
Ctenopharyngodon idella Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 °C * day
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 °C * day
Mylopharyngodon piceus Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 °C * day
Aristichthys nobilis Larvae Initial larval size 8.1 mm at 2 days old 8.1 mm
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Larvae Initial larval size 7.2 mm for 2 days old larvae 7.2 mm
Carassius carassius Female Age at sexual maturity In the Changjiang River and Yellow River basins, generally reach maturity at 2 years. In northeastern China, sexual maturity arrives later when the fish is larger 2.0 year
Cyprinus carpio Female Age at sexual maturity In the Changjiang River and Yellow River basins, generally reach maturity at 2 years. In northeastern China, sexual maturity arrives later when the fish is larger 2.0 year