Carassius carassius

  • Scientific name
  • Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Crucian carp

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 78%
Total data143
References21
Image of Carassius carassius

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhere to submerged plants Adhesive Holopainen, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhere to submerged plants Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhere to plants Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Naca, 1989
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs attach singly to the vegetation Non-Adhesive Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
5 Incubation time 6 [18-19°C], < 3 days [24-28°C] 18.5 days Holopainen, 1997
5 Incubation time 3-7 5.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 4-8 [6 days at 18.5°C] 6.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time Eggs incubate during 4-7 days 5.5 days Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
5 Incubation time The incubation depends on temperature being approx. 4 days at 20°C and 2 days at 25-27°C 26.0 days Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-110 [i.e. 6 days at 18-19°C, and < 3 days at 24-28°C] 95.0 °C * day Holopainen, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-100 [6 days at 18-19°C in natural conditions, or 3 days at 24-28°C] 90.0 °C * day Laurila, 1987
7 Degree-days for incubation 29 [Effective day-degrees] 29.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 95-100 97.5 °C * day Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Develop normaly at 15-28 [Die at 5, 10 and 30°] 21.5 °C Holopainen, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation 24-28, temperature for the shortest embryonic development [Eggs hatched normally at 15-28°C, but died at 5-10, and above 30°C] 26.0 °C Laurila, 1987
6 Temperature for incubation 18.5°C 18.5 °C Fishbase, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation Placed in jars kept at room temperature (20-25°C) 22.5 °C Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1-2 [Fertilized eggs] 1.5 mm Holopainen, 1997
2 Egg size after water-hardening After fertilization the eggs swell No data Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Holopainen, 1997
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [On the bottom] Demersal Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 0.62-1.34 [Egg diameter in ovarium: ripe with yolk] 0.98 mm Holopainen, 1997
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.3-1.7 1.5 mm Persat, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4-1.7 [Not specified] 1.55 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Crucian carp eggs just before spawning have 0.8-1.2 mm in diameter. They are much larger than the eggs from the anterior part of the ovary, which are depostied later, before the first spawning they have 0.2-0.7 mm in diameter. Detailed observations and measurements revealed that the diameter of the eggs from the polder Novo-Marievskij was 0.91, 0.98, 0.93, 0.80-0.91 and 0.90 mm in March, April, May, June and August, respectively, mean egg diameter in the population studied was 0.903 mm 1.0 mm Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter The eggs of crucian carp are spherical and yellowish-orange. The diameter of the eggs were 1.37 mm (SD = 0.09, n = 62) in HL 1.61 mm (SD = 0.10, n = 62) in Varaslampi. […] Other author give a diameter of 1.05-1.35 mm for mature oocytes (eggs) of crucian carps in West Siberian waters. Also describes as 1.45-1.52 mm. 1.2 mm Laurila and Holopainen, 1990

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 20-25, maximum size obtained and highest yolk utilization efficiency [At 5°C, no increase but the larvae were deformed and all died after 8 days] 22.5 °C Laurila, 1987
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 22°C 22.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Different stages of embryonic, larval and juvenile development were described from fish kept at 20°C in the laboratory 20.0 °C Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
10 Reaction to light Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light Positive phototaxis Photopositive Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
13 Full yolk-sac resorption At 20 and 25°C, a maximum size of 7.6 mm, and at 30°C, 7.4 mm was achieved. The survival time (50% mortality) on yolk sac energy was 8 days both at 5 and 25-30°C, 9 days at at 20°C, and 14 days at 10-14°C. Even when Artemia nauplii were available on the fourth day, feeding (food in the gut) was noted at 15°C only, but its importance even here is not known since all died at the embryonic stage 27.5 °C * day Laurila, 1987
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The yolk sac disappears completely at the length between 6.5-7.2 mm 6.85 °C * day Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding When food are available from the start, larvae began mixed feeding at lengths of 6.5-7.2 mm, after 2-4 days of development at 20-30°C, when much of the yolk was present 6.85 °C * day Laurila, 1987
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding A few days (3 days at 20°C) after hatching the fish swim to the surface to fill the swim bladder and then switch to exogenous feeding and yolk reserves are reduced. 3.0 °C * day Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5.5 5.0 mm Holopainen, 1997
8 Initial larval size 4 4.0 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5.5 5.0 mm Laurila, 1987
8 Initial larval size Length of newly hatched larvae is about 5 mm, body mass 10 mg 5.0 mm Szczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
8 Initial larval size The total length of the larva is 4.5-5.5 mm at hatching. Other authors: 5.0-5.2, 4.2-4.9, 3.8-5.2 5.0 mm Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
9 Larvae behaviour In nature, the free embryo are passive and often attach themselves to plants, where they stay hiding for the first 1-2 days of the endogenous feeding period Demersal Laurila, 1987
9 Larvae behaviour Eggs are deposited on plants to which they remain fixed during endogeneous feeding Demersal Szczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour The newly hatched larvae are passive: they lie on the bottom of the aquarium, for example. In the second day after hatching they try to swimupwards, towards the light (positive phototaxis) and attach to plants Demersal Laurila and Holopainen, 1990

Female (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism The head and scales develop tubercules in the epithelium Absent Holopainen, 1997
18 Female sexual dimorphism During the spawning season, both males and females developped small tubercles in the epithelium when ready to spawn. At both sites some sexual dimorphism was observed. In males, the tubercles were most abundant, covering both head and body, but in females they were limited to the head region only. Nearly all ripe male crucian carps had tubercles. At the beginning of the reproudction period, tubercles covered only the head (forehead and operculum), but a few days later they were found on the body as well. In female fish the tubercles were found only on teh head and tuberculum. by the end of the ripe period tubercles were absent in both sexes Absent Aho and Holopainen, 2000
24 Maximum GSI value About 20% 20.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value GSI range from an average of 5.51 ± 1.36 (range 3.92-7.91), to 8.59 ± 1.80 (range 5.60-11.8), and 11.56 ± 5.78 (range 3.63-20.98) in three fifferent regions in May 5.51 percent Aho and Holopainen, 2000
24 Maximum GSI value Total mass of eggs related to body mass ranged from 11.7-20.3%, which is much higher than the data of other authors (0.9-12.8%) 16.0 percent Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 150-240 195.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity Fecundity varies with age, body length and, above all, with body mass. Females age 3+ to 7+ produce 16 460 eggs on the average,which is equivalent to about 163 eggs per g of body mass. Relative fecundity was very variable: 15-700 thousand eggs per kg of body mass. 357.5 thousand eggs/kg Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-5 [Not specified] 3.5 years Scholfield, 2005
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Non-synchronous maturation No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous Asynchronous Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
20 Absolute fecundity 100-250 175.0 thousand eggs Persat, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 100-250 per females 175.0 thousand eggs Environment agency, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 130-250 per female 190.0 thousand eggs Fishbase, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 22-24 23.0 thousand eggs Wisniewolski, 1988
20 Absolute fecundity A 0.5-1 kg crucian carp has an average fecundity of 200,00 - 300,000 pieces 0.75 thousand eggs Naca, 1989
20 Absolute fecundity Fecundity varies with age, body length and, above all, with body mass. Females age 3+ to 7+ produce 16 460 eggs on the average,which is equivalent to about 163 eggs per g of body mass. Also described as for females of of 18-22 cm long, ranged from 137 to 224 thousand eggs. In Poland absolute fecudity of crucian carp females reached maximally 400 000 eggs per female, but is is usually much lower. In the lake Pogorzelisko fish (size: 11-21 cm and 34-320 g) produced 0.7-81-5 thousand eggs per female. Fecundity of crucian carp females of similar length (11.0-20.2 cm) and mass (53-313 g) from the lake Girijal ranged from 5-155.6 thousand, and that of females from the lake Ilmen (body mass 278-500 g) ranged from 137-207 thousand eggs, from which the first batch contained 24.0-90.4 thousand eggs 20.0 thousand eggs Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.085-0.100 0.0925 kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
17 Weight at sexual maturity Mean of females range from 31.2 ±20 g in Pond Hermanninlampi, and 933.3 ± 339.4 and 311.7 ± 100.1 in lake Varaslampi 31.2 kg Aho and Holopainen, 2000
16 Length at sexual maturity 11-13 12.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean of females range from 11.69 ± 2.2 (range 7.8-19.1) in Pond Hermanninlampi, and 32.86 ± 6.2 (range 14.9-39.7) and 23.39-+/ 2.3 (range 19.3-27.5) in lake Varaslampi 11.69 cm Aho and Holopainen, 2000
15 Age at sexual maturity From 2 to 4 according to latitudes 2.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-5 [Not specified] 3.5 year Scholfield, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity In the Changjiang River and Yellow River basins, generally reach maturity at 2 years. In northeastern China, sexual maturity arrives later when the fish is larger 2.0 year Naca, 1989
15 Age at sexual maturity Crucian carp mature at the age of 3-5 years, usually 4 years. Typically males mature a year earlier than females. Maturation is reached earlier in the regions situated near the sourthern limit of the distribution area. In Roumania fish maturing in their second year of life were observed, whereas in Northern Russia - in fifth. Because of better nutritional conditions in ponds, maturation is earlier than in natural water bodies 4.0 year Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996

Male (56%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism The head and scales develop tubercules in the epithelium Absent Holopainen, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on head and first rays of fins Present Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male bears nuptial tubercules over the head, opercules, and first rays of pectoral fins Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male bears nuptial tubercules over the head, opercules, and first rays of pectoral fins Present Billard, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males generally mature one year earlier Absent Scholfield, 2005
30 Male sexual dimorphism Thre is a popular belief that crucian carp have no externally visible secondary or tertiary sexual dimorphisms. However, several authors report on higher weight of females than males at same length. Females live longer than males in the same environment. Absent Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean of males range from 8.95 ± 1.8 (range 6.3-15.2) in Pond Hermanninlampi, and 28.90 ± 5.5 (range 13.9-35.7) and 23.28-+/ 4.6 (range 14.8-28.5) in lake Varaslampi 8.95 cm Aho and Holopainen, 2000
29 Weight at sexual maturity Mean of males range from 10.5 ±6.1 g in Pond Hermanninlampi, and 640.2 ± 288.7 and 302.7 ± 137.2 in lake Varaslampi 10.5 kg Aho and Holopainen, 2000

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system In estrus, two or three males chase one female, the male repeatedly hits its head against the female's abdomen until the female is lying on its side adjacent to some aquatic plants. No category Naca, 1989
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Preferentially during the morning Day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Mating itself is likely to take place at night or early in the morning, whencrucian carps are known to be most active Ambiguous Aho and Holopainen, 2000
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning activity proceeds from midnight to dawn. If environmental conditions are favourable, however, these fish can spawn the whole day Ambiguous Naca, 1989
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Phytophilous, open substrates submerged twigs and macrophytes Phytophils Holopainen, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phytophilous : submerged plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Persat, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Plant substrate Phytophils Laurila, 1987
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Dense marginal weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Dense vegetation Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Vegetation Phytophils Scholfield, 2005
44 Spawning substrate The fundamental requirement for spawning is the presence of susbstrat (e.g. aquatic plants) that the eggs can adhere to Phytophils Naca, 1989
44 Spawning substrate Overgrown with vegetation Phytophils Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
44 Spawning substrate The species is described as being phytophil, open substrate spawner Phytophils Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
45 Spawning site preparation No, eggs are laid on plant susbtrates Susbtrate chooser Laurila, 1987
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/susbtratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Release over vegetation No category Scholfield, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation The species is described as being phytophil, open substrate spawner No category Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
41 Spawning temperature 17-20 18.5 °C Holopainen, 1997
41 Spawning temperature 15-20 17.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature >16 16.0 °C Persat, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 14-22 18.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Above 18 18.0 °C Scholfield, 2005
41 Spawning temperature Spawning is not likely to occur until the water temperature reaches 17-20°C, especially in harsh climatic conditions as those in Finland 18.5 °C Aho and Holopainen, 2000
41 Spawning temperature Although the spawning season begins at different times, water temperature requirements are identical, at least 20°C 20.0 °C Naca, 1989
41 Spawning temperature Spawning begins at temperature > 14°C 14.0 °C Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
41 Spawning temperature The spawning of this species takes place at high temperatures (> 17°C) 17.0 °C Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
40 Spawning period duration >2 months [including spawning and hatching] 2.0 weeks Holopainen, 1997
40 Spawning period duration Up to 4 4.0 weeks Persat, 2001
40 Spawning period duration The ready-to-spawn (ripe) fish (n=430) were captured between 19 May and 21 July, all within 64 days. In other sites: 32 dats and 60 days 430.0 weeks Aho and Holopainen, 2000
42 Spawning water type Ponds Stagnant water Laurila, 1987
42 Spawning water type Naturally reproduce in the still or running waters of Southern and Nothern China No category Naca, 1989
42 Spawning water type Near-shore parts of water bodies Stagnant water Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
43 Spawning depth Shallow areas of ponds No data Laurila, 1987
43 Spawning depth Shallow water No data Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth Shallow water No data Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Localised spawning migrations No data Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
36 Spawning migration distance Crucian carp are considered to be non-migratory fish. In spring, they move from deeper part of water bodies toshallower parts which are warmer and better endowed with oxygen. Crucian carp move slowly. In autumn they return to deeper waters No data Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
39 Spawning season March-June ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season June-July ['June', 'July'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season From late spring trough mid-summer ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Holopainen, 1997
39 Spawning season May-June, April-June [Southern Region] ['April', 'May', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season Starts in May-June and and continues in summer ['May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Persat, 2001
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Spawn from the end of March to early April in Central and central eastern part of China, from April to May in Northern China, and in June on northeastern China. ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Naca, 1989
39 Spawning season Spawn in May, June and July. Peak of spawning occurs between 20 May and 20 July, depending on geographic position ['May', 'July', 'June'] Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
39 Spawning season Between May and July ['May', 'July'] Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
48 Spawning release Mutiple No category Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Three periods of spawnings have been commoly observed from late May to mid-July, with female producing similar number of eggs Mutliple Holopainen, 1997
48 Spawning release Multiple (fractional) spawner Ambiguous Laurila, 1987
48 Spawning release Fractionnal spawner : 4 to 5 spawning during a period of 10-15 days [Polycycle] No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Batch spawner Mutliple Scholfield, 2005
48 Spawning release Crucian carp is one of the batch-spawning cyrpinids fround in nothern Europe Mutliple Aho and Holopainen, 2000
48 Spawning release Spawn in 3-5 batches during each summer Mutliple Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
48 Spawning release The eggs are laid in 2-3 batches […] This species is a fractional spawner: the females release only part of their eggs at each spawning Ambiguous Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
49 Parity The maximum lifespan of wild crucian carp is about 10 years No category Scholfield, 2005