Cobitis taenia

  • Scientific name
  • Cobitis taenia (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Spined loach

  • Family
  • Cobitidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 90%
Total data172
References24
Image of Cobitis taenia

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Nonadhesive eggs Non-Adhesive Bohlen, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are stuck to the stones Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are found attached to gravel and weed in shallow, flowing water Non-Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
5 Incubation time 2-4 at 21°C 3.0 days Bohlen, 1999
5 Incubation time 2-3 [22-25°C] 2.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 2-4 [17-21°C] 3.0 days Vaino and Saat, 2003
5 Incubation time Data about a very long hatch time are also confusing: instead of some weeks we observed, in natural rearing conditions, fry hatched in two days [Eggs hatch in nature in few weeks, depending upon temperature, while at laboratory temperature (22-25°C) they hatch 42-48 hours after spawning.] 23.5 days Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
5 Incubation time 8 days at 15°C 8.0 days Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
5 Incubation time 3-4 days at 17.4°C 3.5 days Rasotto, 1992
5 Incubation time 2.5 days at 20-24°C 22.0 days Bohlen, 1999b
7 Degree-days for incubation 45-68 56.5 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 42-68 55.0 °C * day Vaino and Saat, 2003
7 Degree-days for incubation 43-52 [At 21°C] 47.5 °C * day Bohlen, 1999
7 Degree-days for incubation 120 [8 days at 15°C] 120.0 °C * day Perrin, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation Eggs hatch in nature in few weeks, depending upon temperature, while at laboratory temperature (22-25°C) they hatch 42-48 hours after spawning. 23.5 °C * day Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs were incubated at temperatures between 20 and 25°C 20.0 °C Bohlen, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation 17-21 19.0 °C Vaino and Saat, 2003
6 Temperature for incubation 22-25 23.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs hatch in nature in few weeks, depending upon temperature, while at laboratory temperature (22-25°C) they hatch 42-48 hours after spawning. 23.5 °C Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
6 Temperature for incubation 15 15.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation Temeprature was 20-24°C during the experiments 22.0 °C Bohlen, 1999b
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.54 ± 0.22 2.54 mm Bohlen, 1999
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.54 [2.40-3.12, activated eggs] 2.76 mm Vaino and Saat, 2003
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.80-2.80 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 2.3 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.5 mm in diameter 2.5 mm Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
2 Egg size after water-hardening Diameter of chorion mean of 2.49 ± 0.24, range 1.49-3.14 2.49 mm Bohlen, 2000
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Fall through the gauze into the box] Demersal Bohlen, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter About 1 1.0 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.5 [Large oocytes] 1.35 mm Vaino and Saat, 2003
1 Oocyte diameter 1.1-1.5 1.3 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.14 ± 0.07 only for yolk 1.14 mm Bohlen, 1999
1 Oocyte diameter 1 1.0 mm Perrin, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter Can reach 1.58 [Not specified] 1.58 mm Coad, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Large ripe yellowish eggs 1.3-1.6 mm 1.45 mm Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
1 Oocyte diameter About 1 1.0 mm Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002

Larvae (71%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 16-24 [Optimum temperature] 20.0 °C Vaino and Saat, 2003
11 Temperature during larval development 21°C [Rearing condition] 21.0 °C Bohlen, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development Fry reared at 17.4°C 17.4 °C Rasotto, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20-24°C 22.0 °C Bohlen, 1999b
10 Reaction to light After eye pigmentation, larvae became negatively phototactic. With the beginning of exogeneous feeding, phototaxis changed into a positive reaction. Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 120-140 [20°C]. Exogenous feeding started at 6-7 days at 20°C 130.0 °C * day Bohlen, 1999
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 120 [6 days at 21°C] 120.0 °C * day Bohlen, 2000
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding After the larvae had started exogenous feeding (usually on day 6-7) at 20-24°C 6.5 °C * day Bohlen, 1999b
8 Initial larval size 3-4 3.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 5.4 5.4 mm Vaino and Saat, 2003
8 Initial larval size 5.03 ± 0.34 5.03 mm Bohlen, 1999
8 Initial larval size Hatching lengths of 4.9-5.8 mm were reported [Hatching lengths of 3.5-4.0 for hybrids with the mud loach] 5.35 mm Robotham, 1981
9 Larvae behaviour Live on the bottom, at the age of 3-4 days their activity increases Demersal Vaino and Saat, 2003
9 Larvae behaviour After the onset of negative phototaxis, the free-embryos will accumulate at the darkest point in the surrounding, i.e. the bottom beneath the centre part of the vegetation Demersal Bohlen, 2000
9 Larvae behaviour Benthic Demersal Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism The sexual dimorphism in size between males and females was evident Absent Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
18 Female sexual dimorphism No Absent Bohlen, 2000
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 0.28, range 0.24-0.30 [Mid June but for GSR, which is the gonad weight/total weight minus gonad weight] 0.27 percent Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
24 Maximum GSI value 13-24 [Late June and early July, GSI depending on the fish length] 18.5 percent Vaino and Saat, 2003
19 Relative fecundity RF (per Total weight) is 113-193, mean 148 ± 12 eggs per g 148.0 thousand eggs/kg Vaino and Saat, 2003
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 years Vaino and Saat, 2003
27 Age at sexual maturity Most males and females become sexually mature in their second spring after hatching No data Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
27 Age at sexual maturity Maturation of males begins in the second year No data Robotham, 1981
26 Resting period Reduction in weight between June and september No data Robotham, 1981
26 Resting period Decrease between August and November No data Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
26 Resting period A phase or relative quiescence in gonad development follows preceeding until the next spring [From July to May] No data Vaino and Saat, 2003
22 Onset of oogenesis Futher elaboration occured in September and December ['December', 'September'] Robotham, 1981
22 Onset of oogenesis Based on graph, could be in November-December ['November', 'December'] Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
22 Onset of oogenesis In late July GSI decline rapidly to 3-6%. From this month a phase of relative quiescence in gonad development follows proceeding until the next spring ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Vaino and Saat, 2003
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Mature females displayed gonad elaboration and growth between March and June, with a large reduction in weight between July and September ['March', 'June', 'July', 'September'] Robotham, 1981
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Based on GSI graph, GSI varied from 12% in beginning of April to 22% in the end of April to 26% in the end of May ['April', 'May'] Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity In females from South Estonian rivers (Vohandu, Ahja) a rapid increase in gonad weight occurs during May and June ['May', 'June'] Vaino and Saat, 2003
21 Oocyte development In mature females, the ovary is asynchronous, with oocytes in different stages of vitellogenesis Asynchronous Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
21 Oocyte development Two well-separated size classes of oocytes : small (0.5 mm) and large (1.2-1.5 mm). In addition some medium-sized oocytes can be found No category Vaino and Saat, 2003
20 Absolute fecundity Average of 1600 eggs per individual 1600.0 thousand eggs Robotham, 1981
20 Absolute fecundity Estimation of fecundity gives a value of 1012 eggs for a 90 mm female, lower than 1600 eggs per females already reported 1012.0 thousand eggs Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
20 Absolute fecundity 2.905 ± 0.071- 4.282 ± 0.954 2.905 thousand eggs Bohlen, 1999
20 Absolute fecundity 0.321-1.314 0.8175 thousand eggs Vaino and Saat, 2003
20 Absolute fecundity 5.072, up to 10 5.072 thousand eggs Coad, 2006
17 Weight at sexual maturity 2.81-2.95 g ! 2.88 kg Vaino and Saat, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity 8.83 8.83 cm Robotham, 1981
16 Length at sexual maturity Follicular growth began at 28-30 mm in females 29.0 cm Rasotto, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity 7.7-7.9 7.8 cm Vaino and Saat, 2003
15 Age at sexual maturity Most males and females become sexually mature in their second spring after hatching No data Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 4.0 year Vaino and Saat, 2003

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Growth of the Canestrini organ Absent Vaino and Saat, 2003
30 Male sexual dimorphism The second ray of the pectoral fin is enlarged, and at the base of the fin (Internal face) there is a bony process with a scale-spahe calle the Canestrini organ. Pectoral fin are relatively longer Absent Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism The second ray of pectoral fin is sticker and nuptial tubercles apperas on pelvic fins during breeding season Present Billard, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism No Absent Bohlen, 2000
30 Male sexual dimorphism The second ray of male pectoral fin is thickened and there is an enlarged scale at the base (Canestrini scale) Absent Coad, 2006
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male were identified in the field by the presence of a lamina circularis, a plate-like ossification on the base of the second pectoral fin ray. This structure de velops in males of 45-50 mm TL and is present in all males > 50 mm TL Present Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
30 Male sexual dimorphism Sexual dimoprhism is clearly marked: females can be 13 cm long, males do not exceed 9 cm. The male pectoral fin is slighter because of the longer and thicker secondary ray. A blade-like osseous appendage stems from the base of the ray : it is Canestrini's organ, also known as lamina circularis Absent Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
30 Male sexual dimorphism The spined loach is a gonochoristic species with some males occassionnaly containing a small number of oocytes in their testes Absent Rasotto, 1992
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Autumn No data Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
33 Maximum GSI value 2.8 [June-July] 2.8 percent Vaino and Saat, 2003
33 Maximum GSI value About 5 but for GSR which is the gonad weight/total weight minus gonad weight 5.0 percent Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
32 Main spermatogenesis activity April-May ['April', 'May'] Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
35 Resting period Late June and early July [similar to female cycle] No data Vaino and Saat, 2003
35 Resting period September No data Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
34 Spermatogenesis duration Spermatogenesis occurs in males not onyl from May to July, but also in autumn. During winter, the testes were still filled with spermatozoa, with spermatogonia located in the wall of the lobules. Therefore the winter phase of quiscence is not folled by the depletion of the testes which remain full of sperm throughout the year No data Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
28 Length at sexual maturity 5.7-6 5.85 cm Vaino and Saat, 2003
28 Length at sexual maturity 6.4-7.5 6.95 cm Robotham, 1981
28 Length at sexual maturity Spermatogenesis began at 38-40 mm in males 39.0 cm Rasotto, 1992
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.00098-0.000107 [0.98-1.07 g !] 0.000543 kg Vaino and Saat, 2003

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system By pair, but mate with several males and females Monogamy Bohlen, 1999
47 Mating system All males in the tank followed the female, the female penetrated into dense vegetation, spotted and one male embraced the female. The female started swimming and the circle began again, often with another male embracing the female No category Bohlen, 2000
47 Mating system Durnig spawning season, females spawn in a 6 days interval and each spawning act lasts 3-5 H. Consequently each male in the population would have spawn each day with three to four females, on average 14 h per day during the whole spawning season No category Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
47 Mating system In pair, one male and one female, described in detailled [Note: wide range of sexual patterns, due to unbalanced protandrous hermaphroditic and gonochoric populations. Futhermore, there are arrhenoid females, like those obersevd in other species, along with intersexual males referred to as gynoid males] Ambiguous Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
47 Mating system Despite the occurrence of some hermphrodite specimens, data do not support functional protandrous hermaphroditism among males. The study of gonadogenesis and gonads showed that in the population under study only accidental and non functional hermaphroditism occurs No category Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Second half of the night : between 0000 h and 0600 h Night Bohlen, 1999
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Reproduction is achieved mainly at dawn but in some cases during the morning or at night [other studies indicated that eggs are mostly deposited and fertilized at dawn] Ambiguous Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Nocturnal spawning habits Night Bohlen, 1999b
50 Parental care No brood protection No category Vaino and Saat, 2003
50 Parental care Male guard eggs until hatching Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Do not express parental care No category Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care No parental care is shown No category Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
44 Spawning substrate The eggs are placed precisely and exclusively inot one specific substrate : dense vegetation [Experimental conditions] Phytophils Bohlen, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Stones Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Plants and stones Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited on vegetation Phytophils Vaino and Saat, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Plants and stones Ambiguous Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Sand and roots Psammophils Perrin, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Dense vegetation Phytophils Bohlen, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Sand, stones and vegetation Ambiguous Coad, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Dense vegetation Phytophils Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Gravel and weed Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate In the field, eggs of spined loach were found nearly exclusively in the densest vegetation available. This exclusive use of dense vegetation was confirmed in the experimental aquaria Phytophils Bohlen, 2001
44 Spawning substrate The spined loach showed a strong preference for dense vegetation as spawning susbtrate, indicating this factor has great importance for its reproductive biology Phytophils Bohlen, 2003
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatteres Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation No, eggs are deposited on the bottom Susbtrate chooser Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
41 Spawning temperature 16-18 17.0 °C Vaino and Saat, 2003
41 Spawning temperature 18-28 23.0 °C Bohlen, 1999
40 Spawning period duration 2-3, but also 5 2.5 weeks Vaino and Saat, 2003
40 Spawning period duration 14-17 [Experimental conditions] but about 8 in Natural conditions [From End-May to End-July] 15.5 weeks Bohlen, 1999
40 Spawning period duration It appears that males enter the shallow littoral zone earlier in the season, and are joined later by the females during spawing. No data Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
40 Spawning period duration 10-12 11.0 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration The breeding season if from May to July [Larger females matured and spawned earlier than smaller ones] No data Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
42 Spawning water type Slow-flowing or stagnant places with rich vegetation Ambiguous Vaino and Saat, 2003
42 Spawning water type Well-oxygenated Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
42 Spawning water type Slow to still water Stagnant water Coad, 2006
42 Spawning water type Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
42 Spawning water type No eggs were found in the belt of rough detritus, which indicates a preference of vegetation in water of medium depth rather than detritus in shallow water by the spawning fish No category Bohlen, 2003
43 Spawning depth Shallow (0.3-0.8 m). 0.55 m Vaino and Saat, 2003
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Billard, 1997
43 Spawning depth Shallow water No data Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
36 Spawning migration distance Short-distance migrations prior to spawning have been suggested for some Japanese loaches but not for European populations No data Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season Mid-April to Mid-August [Experimental conditions] ['April', 'August'] Bohlen, 1999
39 Spawning season April until June ['April', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season End-April to June ['April', 'June'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season Late June-Middle of July [Estonia] ['June', 'July'] Vaino and Saat, 2003
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Perrin, 2001
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Coad, 2006
39 Spawning season From April to July ['April', 'July'] Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
39 Spawning season April to beginning of July ['April', 'July'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season April to July ['April', 'July'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season In Piedmont (Italy=, the reproductive period spans from April to June ['April', 'June'] Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
39 Spawning season The peak of spawning occured in early June when several running females were caught ['June'] Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
48 Spawning release Batch or fractional spawner, enables the fish to extend the reproductive period Ambiguous Bohlen, 1999
48 Spawning release Only a single batch of eggs during a few days Mutliple Vaino and Saat, 2003
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner: 100-500 eggs Mutliple Perrin, 2001
48 Spawning release Several batches Mutliple Coad, 2006
48 Spawning release Despite the eggs not being abundant, spawning can occur until 4-5 times each day and 100-400 eggs are emitted on the whole. Mating is repeated more than once in the reporductive period Mutliple Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
48 Spawning release If this species is a fractional spawner the actual number of eggs produced by each female may be greater Fractional Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
49 Parity Lives up to 5 years and is mature in its second year of life No category Coad, 2005