Goodyear, 1982



Citation


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Mating system Disperse to deeper water several weeks after spawning No category
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Parental care Males remain at spawning site to guard nest No category
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Parental care Male guards nests and newly hatched larvae fry for maximum of 9 day and then begins return to deeper water Male parental care
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Parental care Male guards nest and fry Male parental care
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Parental care Male guards nest and newly hatched fry Male parental care
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Parental care Males guard nest and newly hatched fry Male parental care
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Parental care Male guards nest and fry until fry are about 1 inche long. Adults move downstream or offshore to depths of 36-42 ft as water temperature approaches 77°F, usually by July Male parental care
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Parental care Little movement from spawning site, male guards nest and fry until fry are about 1 inche long, may move to somewhat deeper water after spawning Male parental care
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Parental care Adults guard fry in weedy shallows for 2-3 weeks Biparental care
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Parental care One or both adults guard nest and fry until they are about 1 inche long Biparental care
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are scattered over thick vegetation and mud, sand, clay, or gravel, also deposited on undersides of boats and harbor pilings Ambiguous
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are broadcast at random near the surface over mud, muck, silt, sand, matted roots or dead grass, and abundant emergent, submergent, and floating vegetation, also over gravel, rock and rubble Ambiguous
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are laid in a nest hollowed out in mud or sand under submerged objects, such as rocks, sticks or cans. They are deposited in a mass on the underside of the objects Ambiguous
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Over mud, muck, clay, or sand with decayed vegetation and woody debris, including brush, logs and stumps Ambiguous
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggsare scattered over soft bottom, with abundant emergent and submergent vegetation, may also spawn over gravel and rock Ambiguous
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are scattered in mid-water over rock, gravel, shale, sand, clay, or mud Ambiguous
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in nest built on vegetation, rock, or rubble, or inhighly organic mud or sand Ambiguous
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel, rock, sand, clay, marl or vegetation to expose fibrous plant roolets Ambiguous
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in conspicuous depression made in sand, gravel, or marl, or in mid or detritus excavated to expose gravel or plant roots, nest is always among vegetation, mau spawn over nests of other centrarchids Ambiguous
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Nest usually built close to boulders, logs, docks or other such structures, sometimes among rooted macrophytes, in an area with good water movement that is protected from wave action Pelagophils
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Nest is usually among vegetation or near structures, such as logs or stumps Phytophils
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are scattered at random at surface or in mid-water usually over firm bottom of rock, gravel, rubble, sand, or clay, occassionally over mud, abundant vegetation may be present Ambiguous
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate "Over hard, clean bottom, including stone, rubble, honeycombed rock, gravel, sand, and clay, used a variety of substrate types than lake trout, vegetation suaully not present, but spawning over ""moss"" has been reported" Ambiguous
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are dpeosited in redd dug in medium-sized gravel Lithophils
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean, small or mediu-sized gravel, fine sediment detrimental to reproductive success Lithophils
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Fine gravel, alson in sand along lake shore Ambiguous
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in redd dug in gravel and small rubble with good interstitial water flow, little mud or silt Ambiguous
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean coarse gravel and small stones with good interstitial water flow, eggs may also be deposited directly on impenetrable susbtrate where redd construction is impossible Ambiguous
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean, coarse gravel and rubble or in firm sand or hard play if gravel not available Ambiguous
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean rubble, marl, or gravel Lithophils
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are broadcast by shallow-water races over rough, silt-free bottom, including honeycomb rock, rubble, boulders, and gravel, deep-water races spawn over clay, sand, mud, and silt, planter varieties spawn over all substrates Ambiguous
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Hollow logs, undercut banks, or stumps, on bottom of rock, rubble, gravel, mud, sand, clay, or vegetation, also on rock breakwalls Ambiguous
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are laid in a nest hollowed out in mud or sand under submerged objects, such as rocks, sticks or cans. They are deposited in a mass on the underside of the objects Susbtrate chooser
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are scattered No category
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are scattered No category
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in nest built on mud, sand, vegetation, or flat surface of a rock, also scattered onto vegetation Susbtrate chooser
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs incubate in nest constructed of fine plant fragments held together by secretions of the male No category
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in shallow depression excavated Susbtrate chooser
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest is always among vegetation No category
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in a nest, a shallow depression excavated in cleaned gravel, rock, rubble, or sand, spawning may also occur on harbor breakwalls Susbtrate chooser
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in a nest made in almost any substrate, including gravel, rock, clay, sand, mud, detritus, or vegetation, soft substrate is excavated down to firm bottom, may spawn over nests of rock bass Susbtrate chooser
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are scattered at random at surface or in mid-water No category
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are broadcast near surface Open water/substratum scatter
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in redd Susbtrate chooser
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in redd dug in substrate Susbtrate chooser
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in depression or burrow, nest is excavated down, nests also made Susbtrate chooser
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in nest or burrow made in crevices Susbtrate chooser
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Beginning at about 55°F, spawning may continue throughout the summer if water temperature remains above 60°F 55.0 °C
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning temperature [60-85°F], 15.5-29°C 72.5 °C
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning temperature At 46-65°F, 8-18°C 55.5 °C
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Usually late March-late April at 40-50°F 45.0 °C
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 33-50°F 41.5 °C
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature At 50-73°F 61.5 °C
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature At 49-62°F, peak spawning occurs at 52-54°F 55.5 °C
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning temperature At 57-75°F, i.e., 14-24°C 66.0 °C
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Beginning at 55°F, occurs at water temperatures as high as 84°F 55.0 °C
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning temperature At 51-70°F, nest building may begin at water temperatures below 60°F, but spawning usually does not begin until the water temperature reaches about 62°F 60.5 °C
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning temperature At 58-70°F 64.0 °C
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 55-79°F 67.0 °C
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature About 53-33°F (i.e. 0.5-11.5°C), spawning at temperatures above 43°F (6°C) probably not successfull 43.0 °C
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning temperature At 60°F, i.e., 15.5°C 60.0 °C
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Falling from 57-40°F, i.e., 4.5-14°C 48.5 °C
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Falling from 61 to 41°F, 5-16°C 10.5 °C
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 50-37°F 43.5 °C
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 44°F 44.0 °C
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning temperature When the temperature is falling from 55 to 44°F 55.0 °C
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature When the temperature is falling from 55 to 36°F 55.0 °C
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 62-72°F 67.0 °C
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 65-85°F 75.0 °C
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawning occurs more than once, and the season extends most of the summer No data
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning period duration A period of 10-24 days 17.0 weeks
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 1 one week period 1.0 weeks
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Spawning period duration A period of 5-10 days 7.5 weeks
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 2-5 weeks 3.5 weeks
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning period duration A period of 3-5 days 4.0 weeks
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning period duration A 90-day period 90.0 weeks
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Last several weeks No data
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 5-14 days 9.5 weeks
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Current-free areas in lower reaches of rivers, bays, harbors, lagoons, marshes, and flooded lowlands Flowing or turbulent water
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning water type Protected areas of lakes and rivers, including bays, harbors, marshes, sloughs, flooded shorelines, and river mouths, also on shoals and reefs Stagnant water
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning water type Protected areas, such as lake margins and marshes Stagnant water
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning water type Protected bays, harbors, marshes, stream mouths, feeder streams, and flooded lowlands, also in current-swept areas at edges of channels Flowing or turbulent water
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning water type Areas with sluggish water current, including shore line weeds beds and marshes, sloughs, bays and harbors, river mouths, ditches, feeder streams, and temporarily flooded lowlands Ambiguous
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning water type Nearshore areas, including shorelines, river mouths, bays, and harbors, offshore bars and reefs, swift, open water in streams Stagnant water
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Sheltered, current-free / areas along lake shore and in bays, creek mouths, and tributaries, usually close to shore Ambiguous
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning water type Quiet areas in vegetated bays and creeks, 1-5 feet from shore, may also spawn along exposed shoreline but this is not as successful Stagnant water
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning water type Sheltered nearshore areas, including bays, harbors, lagoons, marshes, creek mouths, and lower reaches of tributaries, current-swept lake shoals and ledges, moderateswift water in streams, Ambiguous
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Quiet nearshore areas, including bays, harbors, marshes, laggoons, backwaters, and creek mouths, also running waters of tributaries Stagnant water
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning water type Clear water in tributaries, river mouth, bays, harbors, lake shores or shoals Stagnant water
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning water type Protected litoral areas in lakes or tributaries, including marshes, bays, harbors, sloughs, lagoons, and creek mouths Stagnant water
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Spawning water type Clear, swift tributaries, if tributaries are not available, will spawn on current-swept lake shores or shoals or in bays Ambiguous
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning water type Inshore areas, bays, ledges, shoals, reefs, often same sites used by lake trout Stagnant water
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning water type Usually in brush-choked streams in shoal area nearest stream mouth where there is a suitable substrate and water velocity of 0.75-3.25 Flowing or turbulent water
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning water type Riffles, with water velocity of 0.25-2.5fps, in mid-reaches or headwaters of streams, also reported along shore in St. Lawrence River Ambiguous
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning water type Mid-reaches and headwaters of tributaries in areas with water valocity of less than 2.2 fps, if access tributaries is denied spawning occurs along lake shore, suually on wave-swpet beaches or on bars near stream mouth Stagnant water
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning water type Riffle areas with water velocity of 1-3 fps, in high gradient mid-reaches or headwaters of tributaries, spawning may also occur along lake shore or on shoals Ambiguous
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning water type Fast-water areas in clear, cold streams, with steep gradient, early runs usually spawn in the upper reaches, late runs in lower reaches, also on lake shoals which have seepage from springs Stagnant water
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning water type Fast water in headwaters or mid-reaches of cool, shaded streams, if denied access to tributaries, spawning occurs on shoals near stream mouths, or elsewhere along shore Stagnant water
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning water type Riffles or pools near headwaters of clear, well-shaded streams, in spring-fed areas with gradient not more than 2%, also along lake shores with moderately swift current, usually near sites of upwellings Ambiguous
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning water type Areas with current, including shorelines, reefs, shoals, ledges, bars, channels, bays, river mouths, and rivers Ambiguous
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Marches in bays, harbors, coves, creek mouths, and lower reaches of creeks, also rivers with overhanging banks and abudant deadfall No category
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Nearshore areas, including wetlands, marshes, bays, harbors, and creek mouths, backwaters, pools, and shoals in rivers, especially areas of strong current Ambiguous
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning depth 2-12 feet 7.0 m
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning depth To 20 Ft, but usually less than 3 feet, and often 3 inches-1 feet 20.0 m
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning depth 3-18 inches 10.5 m
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning depth 6 inches 15 feet, usually less than 3 feet 6.0 m
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning depth To 24 feet, but usually less than 6 feet and often less than 2 feet 24.0 m
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning depth 1-480 feet, bh deepwater and shallow-water are reported 240.5 m
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning depth About 10 inches, but as shallow as 1-2 inches 1.5 m
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning depth To 144 feet, but usually less than 60 feet, usually nests 1-8 inches above substrates 4.5 m
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning depth To 20 feet, usually less than 6 feet 20.0 m
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning depth 3 inches to 7 feet 3.0 m
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning depth To 20 ft, usually less than 6 ft 20.0 m
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning depth To 15 ft, usually less than 6 ft 15.0 m
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Spawning depth To 36 feet 36.0 m
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning depth Several inches-100 feet, but usually less than 30 feet, often spawn in shallower portions of same reefs used by lake trout 100.0 m
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning depth 6 inches - 2 feet 6.0 m
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning depth Minimum depth reported as 6 in ches, and also as shallow as 2 inches 6.0 m
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning depth 1-30 feet 15.5 m
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning depth 1-6 feet 3.5 m
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning depth To 4 feet 4.0 m
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning depth To 4 feet 4.0 m
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning depth 10 inches to 5 feet in streams, to more than 8 feets in lakes 10.0 m
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning depth Few inches - 600 feet, depending on race of Lake trout, planted varieties usually at depths less than 30 feet 600.0 m
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning depth 3 inches - 5 feet 3.0 m
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning depth To 42 feet, usually less than 12 feet 42.0 m
Carassius auratus Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs adhere to substrate, usually vegetation at spawning site Adhesive
Cyprinus carpio Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs incubate on firm susbtrate including plants, dead grass, tree roots, stones, and Cladophora fronds (thalli) Adhesive
Pimephales promelas Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs incubate in the spawning substrate Adhesive
Esox masquinongy Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs incubate on vegetation and debris at spawning site Non-Adhesive
Esox lucius Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs adhere to vegetation or debris at spawning site Adhesive
Lota lota Egg Egg adhesiveness non-adhesive Non-Adhesive
Gasterosteus aculeatus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive masses of eggs incubate in nest constructed of sand grains and plant fragments held together by secretions of the male Adhesive
Ambloplites rupestris Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs incubate on rootlets or venegation in nest Adhesive
Lepomis gibbosus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs incubate on gravel, plants, or roots in nest Adhesive
Micropterus dolomieui Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs adhere to stones, short stems, or roots on bottom of nest Adhesive
Micropterus salmoides Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs adhere to roots and stones on bottom of nest Adhesive
Morone chrysops Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs incubate on rocks or vegetation, in flowing water, eggs may be carried out a short distance from spawning site Adhesive
Ameiurus nebulosus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs, often attached to exposed fibrous roots Adhesive
Ictalurus punctatus Egg Egg adhesiveness Mass of adhesive eggs Adhesive
Carassius auratus Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 2-1/2 to 7 days at 82-60°F 1.5 days
Cyprinus carpio Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 1-3 weeks 2.0 days
Pimephales promelas Egg Incubation time About 4-6 days at 77°F, at 25°C 5.0 days
Esox masquinongy Egg Incubation time 8-15 days at 50-62°F 11.5 days
Esox lucius Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 1-3-1/2 weeks, usually in 10-18 days at 52-42°F 2.0 days
Lota lota Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 30 days at 43°F 30.0 days
Gasterosteus aculeatus Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 4-27 days 15.5 days
Pungitius pungitius Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 9 days or less, in 4 or 5 days at 64-66°F 65.0 days
Ambloplites rupestris Egg Incubation time 3-4 days at 69-70°F or 10-12 days at 60°F 3.5 days
Lepomis gibbosus Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 10 days or less, in 3 days at 82°F 10.0 days
Micropterus dolomieui Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 2-15 days at 70-55°F 8.5 days
Micropterus salmoides Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 2-15 days 8.5 days
Morone chrysops Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 46 hours at 60°F 46.0 days
Oncorhynchus kisutch Egg Incubation time 2-5 months at 32-36°F 3.5 days
Oncorhynchus nerka Egg Incubation time 6-20 weeks at 59-39°F 13.0 days
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Egg Incubation time Eggs usually hatch in less than 4 months 4.0 days
Salmo salar Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 110-200 days at 39°F or less, in mid-March to early May but usually in April 155.0 days
Salmo trutta fario Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 1-5 months at 57-35°F, usually in early February-early May 3.0 days
Salvelinus fontinalis Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 32-165 days at 54-37°F, usually in February-March 98.5 days
Salvelinus namaycush Egg Incubation time Eggs hatch in 2-5 months at 47-35°F, in late January-May 3.5 days
Ameiurus nebulosus Egg Incubation time 5-20 days at 77°F 12.5 days
Ictalurus punctatus Egg Incubation time Hatch in 5 days at 72-82°F and in 10 days at 60°F 77.0 days
Ambloplites rupestris Egg Degree-days for incubation 3-4 days at 69-70°F or 10-12 days at 60°F 3.5 °C * day
Pimephales promelas Egg Temperature for incubation 77°F, i.e. 25°C 25.0 °C
Micropterus dolomieui Egg Temperature for incubation 55-70°F 17.0 °C
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Temperature for incubation About 43°F, 6.1°C 6.1 °C
Oncorhynchus kisutch Egg Temperature for incubation 32-36°F, i.e. 0-2.2 °C 1.1 °C
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Move inshore short distances into littoral areas or tributaries beginning at about 45°F 45.0 km
Cyprinus carpio