Groot, 1996



Citation


Groot, C. (1996) Salmonid life histories., pp. 97-218

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Mating system Many courting pairs are attended by a number of satellite males (up to ten), which join the pair in the nest when the eggs are finally shed No category
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Mating system One male and one female, female mate with several male. Males remain sexually active for 10-14 d Ambiguous
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Mating system One couple defending a territory, salmon pairs tend to stay together for the total spawning period of about 7-9 d until the female has laid all the eggs No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Mating system By pair, one male and one female each time, but female mate with few males during the spawning season Ambiguous
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Mating system The male courts the female while she is digging the nest and defends the nesting territory against intrundinf males. When the nest is finished, female and male simultaneously deposit ova and sperm during a short spawning act No category
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Mating system The male may mate with several females during the spawning season No category
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Occur mainly at dusk and during darkness Dusk
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Actual spawning occur after darkness until about midnight Night
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occurs primarily during the day Day
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Primarily during daytime Day
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Parental care Nest construction and defence of territories appear to continue day and night No category
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Parental care Female continues to stay over the redd site to further shape the gravel mound and to defend the area against other females [Female stellhead do not guard their redds after spawning and tend to leave the spawning area] No care
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Parental care When the female is spent, she contines to finish the redd and defends the area aginast females searching for nest sites and males that are passing by until she die No category
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Parental care Female may defend the redd area against other females to 4 to 26 days Female parental care
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Parental care Soon after the spawning act, the female covers the eggs with about 10-25 cm of gravel by gently digging in front of the nest Female parental care
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Parental care The female defends the redd against other females searching for a place to spawn Ambiguous
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Parental care Females become very aggressive during the post-spawinng period and defend the redd against possible intruders No category
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel : 0.5 to more than 3.1 Lithophils
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel [acceptable gravel substrate-size ranges are 1.310.2 cm, 3.8-12.7 cm, and 7.5-15.0 cm for different salmon-spawning streams] Lithophils
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Optimal gravel size range from 1.5-6 for spawners smaller than 50 cm and 1.5-10 forfemales larger than 50 cm Lithophils
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel : 1.3-5.1 [80% of the optimal gravel], full range 1.3-10.2 Lithophils
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel Lithophils
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravels: range : 0.3 to 10 cm with a preference for sizes 1 to 7 cm Lithophils
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Spawning substrate ranges from coarse sand to gravel with boulders [Sand botooms are utilisez when density of spawning fish is high or when gravel substrates are limited] Ambiguous
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Suitable spawning gravel range from 3 to 8 cm Lithophils
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Starts defending nesting territories as soon as they have moved on breeding grounds No category
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Female dig nest Susbtrate chooser
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Female prepared nets in area with ground water seepage at the head of a riffle No category
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest building continues day and night and genrally the female gis several nests (two to five) in succession No category
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation In the afternoon, females prepare the nest No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female selects a suitable gournd, and then digs a nest of about 15 cm deep Susbtrate chooser
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female chooses the nest site and prepares the nest No category
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Female dig as many as 8 to 10 nests before all the eggs have been laid Susbtrate chooser
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Most spawning at 10-12°C [Range 7-19°C] 11.0 °C
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Usually between 6-12 [Ranging from 0.8-7.7 in Kamchatka and 5.6-13.3 in California] 9.0 °C
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning temperature From 4 to 13°C with a peak at 8°C 4.0 °C
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 20 [Upper limit, above which spawning will not occur] 20.0 °C
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 4.4-5.6 [Preferred temperature] 5.0 °C
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 6-9 but may as high as 12.8 7.5 °C
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 2-7 4.5 °C
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Preferred temperature is from 4.5 to 10, and spawning does not occur above 16°C 4.5 °C
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 6-8 [that long when spawning ground availibility is limited] 7.0 weeks
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawn over a long seasonal period No data
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawning times of females range from 5 to 14 days 5.0 weeks
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Males usually arrive first on the spawning ground No data
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning water type Velocities 30 to 140 cm/sec Flowing or turbulent water
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning water type Prefer to spawn immediatly above turbulent areas, or where there is upwelling Flowing or turbulent water
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning water type Numerous small coastal streams, in large rivers, and in remote tributaries [water velocities vary from 18 to 76 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning water type Spawning occurs in many small streams: cool, clear and well-oxygenated waters, with water velocities of 23-155 cm/sec Flowing or turbulent water
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning water type From large river system to small tributaries 2 to 3 m wide No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning water type Usually above or below a pool at the downstream end of riffles or upwellings of ground water No category
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning water type Small streams at the head of riffle areas or on the downstream end of pools, where the gravel slopes upward [water freely flowing through the gravel and upwelling water, suitable velocities range from 15 to 90 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Current velocities range from 0.2 to 0.8 cm/sec Flowing or turbulent water
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning water type Typically spawn in streams or in gravel surronding sprin-up-welling areas of lakes and ponds Stagnant water
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning depth Usually 30 to 100 cm in depth [In dry years, spawning can occur at 10-15 cm] 12.5 m
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning depth Average depth of nests ranges from 21.5 to 42.5 21.5 m
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning depth Range from 10 to 45 cm 10.0 m
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning depth Between 10 and 150 cm 10.0 m
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning depth Several meters depth, but also only a few centimetres of water No data
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning depth Shallow, about 30 cm 30.0 m
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning depth 15-90 cm [Optimal depths are from 24-46 cm with the preferred depth arounf 31-32] 52.5 m
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning depth 3-6 [up to 100 in european lakes] 4.5 m
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Female Female sexual dimorphism Morphological changes are minor in mature females but they show the same color changes as males Absent
Salmo salar Female Female sexual dimorphism Female change colour and shape :become tusty-brown on the sides and yellowish brown on th back and head Present
Salvelinus fontinalis Female Female sexual dimorphism The female are less bright than males and have swollen abdomens full of ripening eggs Present
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Male Male sexual dimorphism Marked hump and a large kype, colour changes Absent
Salmo salar Male Male sexual dimorphism Male change colour and shape, the male more pronounced than female: become tusty-brown on the sides and yellowish brown on th back and head. The head of male elongates and the lower jaw becomes enlarged and develops a hook of kype Present
Salvelinus fontinalis Male Male sexual dimorphism Male developp a small kype on the lower jaw Present
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Egg Egg adhesiveness During water hardening the egg capsule becomes highly adhesive for about 20 minutes Adhesive
Salmo salar Egg Egg adhesiveness Upon release in the water, they are adhesive for a short time Adhesive
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Egg Incubation time 103 [10°C], 139 [7°C], 195 [4°C] 103.0 days
Oncorhynchus kisutch Egg Incubation time 137 [In natural conditions with T ranging from 0-3.5°C] 1.75 days
Oncorhynchus mykiss Egg Incubation time 28-49 38.5 days
Salmo salar Egg Incubation time 160 [1.1°C], 110 [3.9°C], 90 [7.2°C] 160.0 days
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Female Relative fecundity 0.472 0.472 thousand eggs/kg
Salmo salar Female Relative fecundity 1.3-1.7 [average] 1.5 thousand eggs/kg
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Egg Degree-days for incubation 780-1030 905.0 °C * day
Oncorhynchus keta Egg Degree-days for incubation 400-600 500.0 °C * day
Salvelinus fontinalis Egg Degree-days for incubation From 219 to 490 for temperatures of 1.5-6 3.75 °C * day
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Egg Temperature for incubation 7-10°C [Deformities occur when eggs are incubated at low temperatures : 3-4.5°C 8.5 °C
Oncorhynchus keta Egg Temperature for incubation Mortality increases significantly when temperatures are lower than 1.5°C during early development 1.5 °C
Oncorhynchus kisutch Egg Temperature for incubation 4-11 [Optimal temperature] 7.5 °C
Oncorhynchus mykiss Egg Temperature for incubation 7-12 = optimal temperature [Regimes of rising temperatures] 9.5 °C
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Egg Temperature for incubation 5.8-14.2 [lower temprature is 0.6°C and lower] 10.0 °C
Salmo salar Egg Temperature for incubation Eggs incubate in the gravel during the winter No data
Salvelinus fontinalis Egg Temperature for incubation Optimal temperature range from 4.5-11.5 8.0 °C
Oncorhynchus mykiss Male Main spermatogenesis activity 2 No data
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Spawning grounds can be as far as 700 km, but generally are within 100 km of the coast 700.0 km
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Migrations are generally short because the main spawning grounds are mostly in coastal streams not far from sea [However, in some systems, spawning has been observed as far as 2000 to 3000 km from the sea] 2000.0 km
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance From the tidal limit to locations over 1000 km 1000.0 km
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Most fish travelled less than 25 km from their stream of origin, but some travel 100, 400, 500 and 940 away 25.0 km
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Only make a few habitat changes during their life history [Do not migrate far from spawning grounds] No data
Oncorhynchus keta Egg Egg size after water-hardening Can reach 7.1-9.5 8.3 mm
Salvelinus namaycush Egg Egg size after water-hardening 3.7-6.8, with a mean of 5.0 [Size of ripe egg] 5.25 mm
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Egg Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Between June and September ['June', 'September']
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Enter streams when temperatures drop to 15°C and the majority move upstream at temperatures from 10 to 12°C. Arrive on the spawning ground as early as July ['July']
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Vary between populations : June July or later in the season ['June', 'July']
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Many river systems have salmon spawning runs that return at diffrent (one to three) times during a year No data
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period The upstream migration begin in late July or early August, and peaks between mid-August and early September ['August', 'July', 'September']
Oncorhynchus kisutch Egg Oocyte diameter 4.5-6 [Bigger than for most other Pacific salmon] 5.25 mm
Oncorhynchus nerka Egg Oocyte diameter 5.3-6.6 5.95 mm
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Egg Oocyte diameter 6.3-7.9 7.1 mm
Salmo salar Egg Oocyte diameter 5-7 6.0 mm
Salvelinus alpinus Egg Oocyte diameter 3.2-5 4.1 mm
Salvelinus fontinalis Egg Oocyte diameter 3.5-5 4.25 mm
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Female Absolute fecundity 1.2-1.9 1.55 thousand eggs
Oncorhynchus keta Female Absolute fecundity 0.909-7.779 [average means 1.8-4.297 in Asia], 2.018-3.977 [average means 2.017-3.629 in North Amrica] 4.344 thousand eggs
Oncorhynchus kisutch Female Absolute fecundity 2-5 3.5 thousand eggs
Oncorhynchus mykiss Female Absolute fecundity 0.2-12.7 [generally from 0.5-3.2, average =2] 6.45 thousand eggs
Oncorhynchus nerka Female Absolute fecundity 2.2-2.4 [Average for sockeye], 5 [high in Kamchatka], 0.3-2 [low in small kokanee females] 2.3 thousand eggs
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Female Absolute fecundity 2-17 wide mean range ! [ Average fecundity of female of the seame size (74 cm) can vary from 4.4 to 9.4] 9.5 thousand eggs
Salvelinus fontinalis Female Absolute fecundity Varies from 0.1 to 5 0.1 thousand eggs
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning season Late August to early October ['October', 'August']
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning season July [Nothern and central areas], September to January [Southern areas] ['January', 'July', 'September']
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning season Can last from October to March, but most populations spawn between November and January [Spawn over a longer period than other Pacific slamon] ['October', 'November', 'March', 'January']
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning season January to July [Mainly from mid-April to June] ['April', 'January', 'June', 'July']
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning season Late summer [Nothern and central areas] and Autumn [More southern areas] ['August', 'July', 'September']
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning season May to July and September to October : all year round ['October', 'May', 'July', 'September']
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning season October to November [Sometimes in September or until January] ['October', 'November', 'January', 'September']
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning season Late autumn to early winter ['March', 'January', 'December', 'February', 'October', 'November']
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning season In autumn in either lakes or rivers. Non-migratory fish may spawn in lakes in autum and spring, but only in autum in rivers, September-October [Nothern regions], November-december [Southern regions] ['April', 'May', 'September', 'December', 'June', 'October', 'November']
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning season Over most of the range, October is the usual time of spawing [Occurs in late summer (late August or September) in the nothern part of their rnage to early december in the southern part] ['October', 'August', 'July', 'September']
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Larvae Reaction to light "If salt water is not reach during the first night, the fry will hide in the gravel during daylight hours: thus only nightly ""jumps"" [Once in the estuary, the behavior change, the fry become light-adapted and start to swim around during daylights in schools]" Photophobic
Oncorhynchus keta Larvae Reaction to light Photonegative from day 6 to 25 after hatching, then photopositive Photopositive
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Homing Return to the home river Present
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Homing The homing ability of sockeye salmon is well documented and straying is genrally 2% or less Present
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Homing Return to their home river to spawn Present
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Homing Homing is relatively strong and many return to the home stream for the first and subsequent spawnings Present
Oncorhynchus keta Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption 700-1000 [from egg fertilization ?] 850.0 °C * day
Oncorhynchus kisutch Female Weight at sexual maturity 3.0-5.5 4.25 kg
Oncorhynchus nerka Female Weight at sexual maturity 1.5-2 [Southern areas] and 2.5-3 [Nothern areas] 1.75 kg
Salvelinus alpinus Female Weight at sexual maturity 0.84 [Far east], 0.9-2.0 [Alaska], 3.4 [Nortwest territories], 0.55-2.05 [Arctic islands] 1.45 kg
Oncorhynchus kisutch Female Length at sexual maturity 41-67 54.0 cm
Salvelinus alpinus Female Length at sexual maturity 30-45 [Far east], 45-60 [Alaska], 62-80 [Nortwest territories], 38-69.5 [Arctic islands] 37.5 cm
Oncorhynchus kisutch Male Length at sexual maturity 41-67 [average] 54.0 cm
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Male Length at sexual maturity 58-70 [Age 1.2] and 73-89 [Age 1.3] 64.0 cm
Oncorhynchus keta Larvae Initial larval size 25-30 [Emerging fry !] 27.5 mm
Oncorhynchus kisutch Larvae Initial larval size 30 [Emerging fry] 30.0 mm
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Larvae Initial larval size 35-44 [Newly emerged fry] 39.5 mm
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Larvae Larvae behaviour The fry emerge from the gravel at night, mainly in April and May, and immediatly migrate to sea Demersal
Oncorhynchus kisutch Larvae Larvae behaviour After hatching, tha alevins move down into the gravel and then hold for several weeks [emergence primarily occur at night] Demersal
Oncorhynchus mykiss Larvae Larvae behaviour Fry remain in the gravel for about 2 to 3 weeks after hatching before emerging from the gravel at night Demersal
Oncorhynchus nerka Larvae Larvae behaviour Alevins stay in the gravel for varying amounts of time after hatching and then ermge as fry from the gravel at night. Fry migration generally peas before midnight with sometimes a small peak before dawn Demersal
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Larvae Larvae behaviour Inittially fry hide in the gravel and undr banks during daylight hours, then appear along open shorelines and finally move into higher velocity waters along the shore or farther in the sream Demersal
Salmo salar Larvae Larvae behaviour Benthic, the alevins hatch in March and April and the fry emergence from the gravel in May or June Demersal
Salmo trutta fario Larvae Larvae behaviour The alevins stay in the gravel until the yolk sac has almost been absorbed Demersal
Oncorhynchus kisutch Male Weight at sexual maturity 3.0-5.5 [average] 4.25 kg
Oncorhynchus mykiss Female Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 year
Salmo trutta fario Female Age at sexual maturity 2-5 or 3-6 [Not well established] 3.5 year
Salvelinus alpinus Female Age at sexual maturity 4-11 [Far east], 6-10 [Alaska], 10-18 [Nortwest territories], 11-25 [Arctic islands] 7.5 year
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning release Once a year Total
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning release 35% of eggs are deposited in the first nest and that the last few nests contain only one-half to one-quater of the number of eggsfind in the first [most females (>80%) completed spawning within 30-40 h after starting theri first nest No category
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning release Eggs are buried at depths ranging from 18 to 39 cm and aredd can contain four to five egg pockets No category
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning release Females lay about 800-1000 eggs in each nest pocket No category
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning release Eggs are released in three to four times No category
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning release Fertilized eggs are buried under 20-60 cm of gravel, in several times Mutliple
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning release The spawning is repeated several times until all eggs have been released Mutliple
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning release Several nests are generally completed in succession by the female during the spawning season before she is spent, with each nest containing a few hundred eggs Mutliple
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning release Females can release all the eggs over a period from 4 h to 3 d during which she can prepare ut to 8 nest pockets [Eggs can be buried under a layer of gravel 10-20 cm thick] No category
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning release During spawning, there are usually several extrusions of eggs and milt followed by resting periods before the nest is closed Mutliple
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Parity Semelparous : died soon after the end of the spawning season Semelparous
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Parity Not all rainbow trout die after spawning [The trend toward repeat spawning increases from north to south] Ambiguous
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Parity Nine to ten days after starting to spawn, male and female die Semelparous
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Parity Most die after spawning, although some precocious males have been reported to survive Semelparous
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Parity Many atlantic salmon die after spawning but some may survive and return for spawning one or more times Semelparous
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Parity Either once a year or not every year [May only spawn two or three times, and at the most four times in a lifetime] No category