Barbus barbus

  • Scientific name
  • Barbus barbus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Barbel

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 88%
Total data212
References40
Image of Barbus barbus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Spillmann, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick to the ground Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Billard, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are attached to gravel and stones in flowing water Non-Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness The chorion of ripe eggs is only feebly sticky Adhesive Penaz, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Since barbel eggs are slightly sticky it was not necessary to remove stickiness Adhesive Krupta, 1988
5 Incubation time 3.5-6 [At 17-24°C] 4.75 days Philippart, 1989
5 Incubation time 7-21 according to temperature 14.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 7-14 10.5 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 4 days [At 23°C] 4.0 days Vandewalle, 1993
5 Incubation time Mean of 6 days at 17.5°C 6.0 days Krupka and Meszaros, 1993
5 Incubation time Mean of 4 days 3 hours 4.0 days Penaz, 1971
5 Incubation time The moment at which 50% of embryos are hatched was 194 hours at 16°C, 131.7 hours at 18°C, 98 hours at 19.67°C and only 91 at 20.52°C [in other stidy described as 6 days at 17.1°C] 50.0 days Penaz, 1973
5 Incubation time Their incubation at water temperature of 20.2°C lasted 3 days and 15 hours from insemination to hatching of the first embryos, and 4 days and 11 hours to the hatching of the last embryos 20.2 days Krupta, 1988
5 Incubation time Incubated for six days at a mean temperature of 18.2 ± 0.1°C (108 degree-days), with 85.7% hatching sucess 144 hours after fertilization 18.2 days Policar, 2007
7 Degree-days for incubation 85-105 [For 50% of embryos hatched between 17-24°C] 95.0 °C * day Philippart, 1989
7 Degree-days for incubation 31 [Effective day-degrees] 31.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 90-100 [4 days, 23°C] 95.0 °C * day Vandewalle, 1993
7 Degree-days for incubation 92-103 97.5 °C * day Krupka and Meszaros, 1993
7 Degree-days for incubation Mean of 74.6 74.6 °C * day Penaz, 1971
7 Degree-days for incubation 129.3 DD [At 16°C], 98.8 [At 18°C], 80.3 |At 19.67°C] and 77.8 [At 20.52°C], in other studies described as 97.6 DD at 17.1°C 129.3 °C * day Penaz, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 73.8 DD for the first embryos and 90 DD for the last embryos at 20.2°C. Others authors observed hatching at 17.1°C on the 6th day after insemination (97.6 DD) 73.8 °C * day Krupta, 1988
7 Degree-days for incubation Incubated for six days at a mean temperature of 18.2 ± 0.1°C (108 degree-days), with 85.7% hatching sucess 144 hours after fertilization 18.2 °C * day Policar, 2007
6 Temperature for incubation 17-24 20.5 °C Philippart, 1989
6 Temperature for incubation A temperature below 13.3 is considered lethal 13.3 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 17 ±2 17.0 °C Calta, 1998
6 Temperature for incubation 23 23.0 °C Vandewalle, 1993
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 17.5, considered as optimal for the barbel 17.5 °C Krupka and Meszaros, 1993
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated ar 21°C 21.0 °C Castelli and Philippart, 1993
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 16, 18, 19.67, and 20.52°C 16.0 °C Penaz, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation Viable range 16-20.5, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 12.1 18.25 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation The eggs were incubated in PVC incubators 250 ml in volume, based on the principle of the Zuh flask, at constant water temperature of 20.2°C. When the first embryos had hatched the water temperature was decreased to 19.2°C. 20.2 °C Krupta, 1988
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated for six days at a mean temperature of 18.2 ± 0.1°C (108 degree-days), with 85.7% hatching sucess 144 hours after fertilization 18.2 °C Policar, 2007
2 Egg size after water-hardening About 2.0 [Eggs captured in drifting nets] 2.0 mm Copp, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.88 after fertilization 2.88 mm Penaz, 1973
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.9 [Not specified] 2.9 mm Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening Having contacted with water, eggs increased to 2.4 mm in diameter (i.e. by 20%) within one hour. 2.4 mm Krupta, 1988
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2.3 1.9 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 3.00 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 3.0 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 2-2.5 2.25 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter The average size of the eggs was 1.95 prior to fertilisation 1.95 mm Penaz, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter The mean diameter of non-swollen barbel eggs is 2.0 mm 2.0 mm Krupta, 1988

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 17-24 20.5 °C Philippart, 1989
11 Temperature during larval development 25 25.0 °C Wolnicki and Gorny, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development 19-20 19.5 °C Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development 17 ±2 17.0 °C Calta, 1998
11 Temperature during larval development 23 23.0 °C Vandewalle, 1993
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 17.5 17.5 °C Krupka and Meszaros, 1993
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at temperature between 20-21°C, close to natural conditions 20.5 °C Penaz, 1971
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 17-26 21.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 22-28°C 25.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 19°C 19.0 °C Krupta, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development 21.5 ± 0.5°C 21.5 °C Hadi Alavi, 2009
11 Temperature during larval development 21.0 ± 0.6 21.0 °C Policar, 2007
10 Reaction to light Post-emerging fry are photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
10 Reaction to light Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light The behaviour of the embryos and their response to light changes agasint the preceding, i.e. hatched, developmental stage. Their response to light is negative, the mebryos gathering in the darkest places of the aquarium, if the latter was provided with a simple shelter, the embryos gathered in this space. Towards the end of this stage, the movement activity of the mebryos increases. They rise to the water surface by rapid and intensive movements and then slowly sink passively dow to the bottom of the tank where they rest motionless, lying one one side. Photopositive Penaz, 1973
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 130-140 [8 days at 17 ± 2°C] 17.0 °C * day Calta, 1998
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The yolk sac is complety resorbed before ca. 10 days at 23°C at a size of 13.7 mm 10.0 °C * day Vandewalle, 1993
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Termination of the yolk sac resorption 142 DD, or 8 days after hatching 142.0 °C * day Penaz, 1971
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The change to exclusively exogenous nutrition took place on the 15th to 17th day of the development, at 19°C 15.0 °C * day Krupta, 1988
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Acively swimming larvae were transported to USB RIFCH, and the rearing study with exogenous nutrition started after absorption of the yolk sac one day later (19 days, 344 degree-days after fertilization and 13 days, 236 degree-days post-hatch) 19.0 °C * day Policar, 2007
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 113-150 131.5 °C * day Philippart, 1989
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About 130-140 [7 days at 19.2-20] 135.0 °C * day Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 180 [11 at 17.5°C] 180.0 °C * day Krupka and Meszaros, 1993
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Beginning of the exogeneous feeding at 102 DD, or 6 days after hatching 102.0 °C * day Penaz, 1971
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding In the barb, the embryos pass to pelagic life habits and to exogenous food as late as between the 17th and 28 th day of developement, that is on the 11th to 19th day after hatching, depending on water temperature, about 16°C 17.0 °C * day Penaz, 1973
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The larva at the age of 12 days and 14 hours (Tl=12.9 mm, w=13.5 mg) was observed to ingest food for the first time (at that time the number of degree-days from the beginning of development was 245.8) at 19°C 12.0 °C * day Krupta, 1988
8 Initial larval size 7.6 [At hatching] 7.6 mm Vandewalle, 1993
8 Initial larval size 12.2 [6 days old] 12.2 mm Wolnicki and Gorny, 1995
8 Initial larval size L=9.0, for eleuterembryo in developmental stage A, 2days after hatching (6 days from the beginning of development) 9.0 mm Penaz, 1971
8 Initial larval size Mean total length at the time of maximum hatching: 8.99 [When incubated at 18°C], 8.82 [At 19.67°C], 8.31 [At 20.52°C] and 8.96 [At 16.0°C] 8.99 mm Penaz, 1973
8 Initial larval size Embryo hatched at the beginning of the hatching period were 7.0 mm in total length, those hatched at the end 7.4 mm total length. The total length and weight of hatched embryos were 7.0-7.4 mm and 5.8-6.0 mg, respectively. 7.2 mm Krupta, 1988
9 Larvae behaviour The hatched embryos lie on one side motionless, showing quite isolated, feeble movements. However, they respond to external stimuli (by light or touch) by very rapid movements along the bottom of the tank. They show no tendency towards hiding in shelters or dark places Demersal Penaz, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour After hatching the embryos rested on the bottom of the hatching apparatus, performing only occassional short movements, most frequently when disturbed by handling the apparatus Demersal Krupta, 1988

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism The difference in age at first spawing betwen males and females is 3-4 years Absent Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
24 Maximum GSI value About 11%, up to 12 [In beginning of June] 11.0 percent Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
24 Maximum GSI value 6.15 ± 2.14 [In April] 6.15 percent Lefler, 2006
24 Maximum GSI value GSI reaches its maximim value at the beginning of May (11.00%) 11.0 percent Lefler, 2008
19 Relative fecundity 12 12.0 thousand eggs/kg Philippart, 1987
19 Relative fecundity 8-12 10.0 thousand eggs/kg Environment agency, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 6 6.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
27 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 4.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 years Philippart, 1987
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Male] 3.5 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Male] 3.5 years Poncin, 1984
27 Age at sexual maturity 6% of males are mature in their second year, 92% in their third year and 100% in their > fourth 6.0 years Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
26 Resting period There seems to be a two-month quiescent period (July-August) No data Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
26 Resting period Following early spring spawning oocytes in the stage of primary growth are in majority in the ovary. Mitotically dividing oogonia, non-ovulated oocytes and eggs that were not released during spawning are also present in the ovaries. The latter two groups of cells undergo the process of resorption. Continuous atresia is also in process in the ovary that affects primarily the least developed functioning oocytes during the post-spawning period, i.e., those in the stage of primary growth. In all probability their number will further decrease immediatly after the spawning season No data Lefler, 2008
22 Onset of oogenesis New increase in the gonad weight is noted from September, especially in females ['September'] Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
22 Onset of oogenesis Data collected in the orfe and nase show that the transition of oocytes in the stage of primary growth into the stage of cortical alveoli takes place in July-August and vitellogenesis already starts in August-September. Thus the formation of cortical alveoli is intensive in the second half of summer and is terminated at the end of October. Vitellogenesis starts at the end of summer and lasts until the beginning of spawning season ['October', 'August', 'July', 'September'] Lefler, 2008
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity During spring (March-May) a rapid frowth of the gonads occurs until the next spawning ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity 2.58 ± 1.29 [October] to 6.15 ± 2.14 [In April] ['April', 'October'] Lefler, 2006
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity As vitellogenesis in the barvel does not stop in winter months, the number of oocytes in the stage of vitellogenesis in samples collected in December alsmot reaches that of cells in the stage of cortical alveoli ['February', 'March', 'January', 'December'] Lefler, 2008
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 30-50 40.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 9.904 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 9.904 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Categorized as between 2000 and 100000 eggs per reproductive cycle 2000.0 thousand eggs Cattanéo, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 35 35.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity Above 35 35.0 cm Philippart, 1987
16 Length at sexual maturity Females became mature at 18-20 19.0 cm Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
15 Age at sexual maturity 7-8 7.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 8 8.0 year Philippart, 1987
15 Age at sexual maturity 6 [72 months, age at maturation] 6.0 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Female] 4.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 5-8 [Female] 6.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 7-8 [Female] 7.5 year Baras and Philippart, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity 7-8 [Female] 7.5 year Baras, 1993
15 Age at sexual maturity 8-9 [Female] 8.5 year Poncin, 1984
15 Age at sexual maturity 50% of the female are mature in their sixth year, 40% in their seventh year and 100% in their > eighth 7.0 year Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984

Male (78%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercles on head on on three lines on the back Present Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on head and sides Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male and female barbels reach approximatively the same value of Gi in the reproductive period, hich is very uncommon in cyprinid fishes Absent Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
31 Onset of spermatogenesis A new increase in gonad weight, seems to be in February ['February'] Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
33 Maximum GSI value About 11 [Beginning of June] 11.0 percent Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
32 Main spermatogenesis activity April-May ['April', 'May'] Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
35 Resting period No differences in term of GSI between September till January No data Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
28 Length at sexual maturity Above 13 13.0 cm Philippart, 1987
28 Length at sexual maturity Males become mature at 7 7.0 cm Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system One female and two males but a sex-ratio of 50:1 for males on the spawning grounds Polyandry Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system One female and two or three males were present during most successful spawning events No category Hancock, 1976
47 Mating system By pair, but large schools Monogamy Berrebi, 2001
47 Mating system 3 or 6 males per females in captivity Polyandry Poncin, 1993
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Diurnal spawner but also daytime and night [Nocturnal spawning may thus be dependent on high daily thermal amplitudes] Ambiguous Baras, 1995
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the day but avoid high light intensity : mainly during morning and then end of the day, and also during the night : 2-3 hours after darkness Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Takes place in the morning Day Baras and Philippart, 1999
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the day, mainly in the morning Day Baras, 1993
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous spawner, which lays eggs onto gravelly bottom Lithophils Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil : gravels or pebbles 4-20 mm Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous spawner which lay eggs onto gravelly bottoms Lithophils Philippart, 1989
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous: gravels and pebbles Lithophils Philippart, 1987
44 Spawning substrate Small pebbles Lithophils Hancock, 1976
44 Spawning substrate Pebbles and gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Stones and gravel: 2-25 cm Lithophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Gravel, typically 10-40 mm diameter Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Berrebi, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Gravel beds Lithophils Baras and Philippart, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Gravel Lithophils Poncin, 1993
44 Spawning substrate 80% of gravel of 4-20 mm Lithophils Baras, 1993
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous Lithophils Poncin, 1989
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous fishes Lithophils Penaz, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Brood hiders lithophil Lithophils Cattanéo, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Kind of, females dig a depression in the ground Susbtrate chooser Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/ substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Lay their eggs in 5-8 cm pits [Male barbel do not defend territories] Susbtrate chooser Baras and Philippart, 1999
41 Spawning temperature Start at 13.5, but main activity at 15-20 17.5 °C Baras, 1995
41 Spawning temperature 14-18 16.0 °C Philippart, 1989
41 Spawning temperature Starts at 13.5 13.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 14-18 16.0 °C Philippart, 1987
41 Spawning temperature 13.5 13.5 °C Hancock, 1976
41 Spawning temperature 16-20 18.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 14-20 17.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Starts at > 13.5, between 14-19 [In each year, barbel started spawning under increasing temperatures] 16.5 °C Baras and Philippart, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 14-16 15.0 °C Poncin, 1987
41 Spawning temperature Starts at about 15°C 15.0 °C Poncin, 1984
41 Spawning temperature 15-18 16.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
40 Spawning period duration 1-2 twice within a spawning season 1.5 weeks Baras, 1995
40 Spawning period duration 2 [0.50 months, length of breeding season] 2.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 2-3 [Either from 28 Avril to 12 May in 1993 or From 21 May to 3 June in 1991] 2.5 weeks Baras and Philippart, 1999
42 Spawning water type Fast-flowing waters Flowing or turbulent water Philippart, 1989
42 Spawning water type 28-43 cm:s No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Philippart, 1987
42 Spawning water type Clear, flowing Flowing or turbulent water Hancock, 1976
42 Spawning water type Current velocity: 25-49 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
42 Spawning water type Water with current: 28-43 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Baras, 1993
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters: 15-24 cm 19.5 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth 30-40 cm deep 35.0 m Philippart, 1987
43 Spawning depth Shallow, less than 3 m 3.0 m Hancock, 1976
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Baras and Philippart, 1999
43 Spawning depth Shallow: 15-24 cm 19.5 m Baras, 1993
36 Spawning migration distance Both sedentary and non-sedentary populations, for which a spawning migration occur : >10km per day 10.0 km Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Migration is present: sometimes 303 km in 37 days 303.0 km Spillmann, 1961
36 Spawning migration distance Home range 2-20 km 11.0 km Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Holobiotique migration No data Agence de l'eau,
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season A first spawning activity starts 3 May. A second one on 10 May, and no further spawning activity was observed from 13 May till early summer (mid-July) ['August', 'May', 'July', 'September'] Baras, 1995
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Philippart, 1989
39 Spawning season May-June-Beginning of July and even April in southern region ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season End of April to Mid-June ['April', 'June'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season Mid-May to mid-June ['May', 'June'] Philippart, 1987
39 Spawning season Late May to June ['May', 'June'] Hancock, 1976
39 Spawning season April to July ['April', 'July'] Berrebi, 2001
39 Spawning season June ['June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season April to June up to July ['April', 'June', 'July'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season The earliest spawning activity took place in 1993 (28 April) and the latest in 1996 (30 May) ['April', 'May'] Baras and Philippart, 1999
39 Spawning season End of May, beginning of June ['May', 'June'] Poncin, 1987
39 Spawning season May-July (August) ['August', 'May', 'July'] Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Cattanéo, 2001
38 Homing Homing is present Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
38 Homing Homing is present Present Agence de l'eau,
48 Spawning release Females spawn only once within the season in the River Ourthen even under exceptionally high temperatures No category Baras, 1995
48 Spawning release Female reseased 50 egg and up to 280 releases during 10-11 hours No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release 3-8000 eggs per female No category Spillmann, 1961
48 Spawning release Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release Batch of 50 eggs each [Spawning each 8 days in captivity] Mutliple Poncin, 1993
48 Spawning release One bacth Mutliple Cattanéo, 2001
48 Spawning release Mutiple spawners No category Lefler, 2006
48 Spawning release Multiple spawners Mutliple Lefler, 2008
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Baras and Philippart, 1999
49 Parity High degree of iteorparity [Could live up to 25 years] No category Baras, 1993