Willson, 1997



Citation


Willson, M.F. (1997) Variations in salmonid life histories: patterns and perspectives.
United States department of Agriculture Forest Service

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Coregonus lavaretus Spawning conditions Parental care Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care
Coregonus albula Spawning conditions Parental care Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Parental care Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Parental care Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Parental care Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Parental care Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Parental care Female steelhead reportdly do not nest-guard No category
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Parental care Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Parental care Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Parental care Arctic char females may defend the nest briefly, unlike brook char No category
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Parental care Arctic char females may defend the nest briefly, unlike brook char No category
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Parental care Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care
Thymallus thymallus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Egg-burial is a simple form of parental care No category
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning water type Lakes, streams Stagnant water
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams, intertidal No category
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams, intertidal No category
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams No category
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams, lakes Stagnant water
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams, lake shores Stagnant water
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams No category
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Lakes, river pools Stagnant water
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams, shoreline reefs Stagnant water
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning water type Lakes, streams Stagnant water
Stenodus leucichthys Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams No category
Coregonus clupeaformis Female Female sexual dimorphism Sexual dimoprhism is minimal Absent
Stenodus leucichthys Female Female sexual dimorphism The inconnu exhibits little external difference between the sexes, although females can be slightly bigger than same-age males Absent
Coregonus clupeaformis Male Male sexual dimorphism Whitefish males commonly develop breeding tubercles, especially on the flanks, but tubercles are less well developped and rarer on females Absent
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Male Male sexual dimorphism Male pink salmon normally develop a pronouced hump, but males adopting a satellite-male mating tactic have only a small hump [In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondary trait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males.] Present
Oncorhynchus keta Male Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present
Oncorhynchus kisutch Male Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present
Oncorhynchus mykiss Male Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present
Oncorhynchus nerka Male Male sexual dimorphism Hump size in sockeyes differ greatly among populations. Male mating success within some sockeye populations is positively correlated with hump size[In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males.] Present
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Male Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes and snouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondary trait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present
Salmo salar Male Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present
Salmo trutta fario Male Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present
Salvelinus alpinus Male Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present
Salvelinus fontinalis Male Male sexual dimorphism Pectoral and pelvic fins are longer in male than female brook char. [In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondary trait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males.] Present
Salvelinus namaycush Male Male sexual dimorphism Male lake char are capable of developing a kype, but they almost never do. Male lake char may be more iridescent than females, sport a black lateral stripe, or develop (in soem populations) breeding tubercles, but generally they show less sexual dimoprhism than other char do [In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth. An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout. Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes and snouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males.] Present
Thymallus thymallus Male Male sexual dimorphism Grayling males are brighter than females, sometimes larger, and have longer dorsal and pelvic fins Present
Coregonus albula Spawning conditions Spawning season Most whitefish spawn in fall No data
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning season Some species of Coregonus in summer or winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February']
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning season Among the species of Oncorhynchus, the salmon are typically late-summer spawners (the exact timing differing among locations and years), although southern chinook populations breed in psring, and some coho populations breed in late winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February']
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning season Among the species of Oncorhynchus, the salmon are typically late-summer spawners (the exact timing differing among locations and years), although southern chinook populations breed in psring, and some coho populations breed in late winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February']
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning season Among the species of Oncorhynchus, the salmon are typically late-summer spawners (the exact timing differing among locations and years), although southern chinook populations breed in psring, and some coho populations breed in late winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February']
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning season Rainbows (including steelhead) and cutthroats characteristically breed in late winter, spring and summer ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July', 'February']
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning season Among the species of Oncorhynchus, the salmon are typically late-summer spawners (the exact timing differing among locations and years), although southern chinook populations breed in psring, and some coho populations breed in late winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February']
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning season Among the species of Oncorhynchus, the salmon are typically late-summer spawners (the exact timing differing among locations and years), although southern chinook populations breed in psring, and some coho populations breed in late winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February']
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning season Salmo and most char are fall breeders No data
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning season Salmo and most char are fall breeders No data
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning season Salmo and most char are fall breeders, although a few populations of Arctic char breed in spring ['April', 'May', 'June']
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning season Salmo and most char are fall breeders, although a few populations of Arctic char breed in spring ['April', 'May', 'June']
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning season Salmo and most char are fall breeders, although a few populations of Arctic char breed in spring ['April', 'May', 'June']
Stenodus leucichthys Spawning conditions Spawning season In summer and early fall ['August', 'July', 'September']
Thymallus thymallus Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawn chiefly in spring and summer ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July']
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Parity Typically iteroparous, although reproduction does not occur every year for some individuals and populations No category
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Parity Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Parity Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Parity Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Parity Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Parity Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Parity Although many Atlantic salmon die after spawning, iteroparity (up to 5 or 6 times) also occurs. The interval between breeding differs, however, with the length or stream discharge of the river used for spawning. Repeat spawning is more common in females than males Ambiguous
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Parity Breeding is annual in some populations of Arctic charr (mostly freshwater, one anadromous population), but for most anadormous individuals, the interval between breeding is 2 to 4 years, especially in the north. Lifespan is potentially long, up to 40 years, but more often 15 years No category
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Parity Male brrok char often reproduce annually, but females in some populations only breed at 2 to 3 year intervals. This species tends to be short lived, with a maximum lifespan of less than 12 years, females tend to live longer than males No category
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Parity Lake char females commonly breed in alternate years, especially in the north. These fish are potentially long lived (>25 years), and indiduals may reproduce many times if maturity is not delayed No category
Thymallus thymallus Spawning conditions Parity Typically iteroparous, although reproduction does not occur every year for some individuals and populations No category