Mills, 2004



Citation


Mills, T.J. (2004) Matrix of life history and habitat requirements for feather river fish species - American shad.
Sp-F3.2 task 2

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Most spawning occurs after dark, taking place between 2100 and 0700 hours, peaking at 2300-2400 Night
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Usually spawn over sand and gravel Ambiguous
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Broadcast their eggs in the water Open water/substratum scatter
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Diffrente temperatures according to authors: 8-26, 12-17, 14-21, 17-24, 18.5, prefer 16.7-20.0 17.0 °C
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning water type In the main channels of rivers, preferred moderate current for spawning, about 0.3-0.93 or 0.15-0.61 m/s Flowing or turbulent water
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning depth Near the surface: 0.9-12.2, or less than 3 meters 6.55 m
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg adhesiveness Initially adhesive and later become non-adhesive Non-Adhesive
Alosa sapidissima Egg Incubation time 4-6 [15-18°C], 6-8 [17°C], 8-12 [11-15°C] 5.0 days
Alosa sapidissima Female Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Males] 3.5 years
Alosa sapidissima Egg Temperature for incubation 17 is considered optimal [The survival rate decreases at 24°C] 17.0 °C
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg size after water-hardening 2.5-3.8 [Not specifed] 3.15 mm
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg Buoyancy Slightly heavier than water and are carried by the currents and gradually sink Semi-Pelagic
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Up stream migrations in southern streams reportdly occur early in the spring and progressively later northward [the upstream migration of Amrican shad in the Sacramento river estuary reportdly takes about 3 months occuring in March, April and May). Migrate upstream in the spring [Take place when water is about 16.0-19.5°C ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June']
Alosa sapidissima Egg Oocyte diameter 1.8 [Unfertilized egg] 1.8 mm
Alosa sapidissima Female Absolute fecundity From various sources, American shad produce 2-300 eggs [Also 116-468 and 98.6-225.6] 151.0 thousand eggs
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning season May or early June ['May', 'June']
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Temperature during larval development 17-25 for juveniles 21.0 °C
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Homing To their natal streams to spawn Present
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption [About 4 to 7 days after hatching, 9-12 mm or 12.2 when yolk is absorbed] 10.5 °C * day
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Initial larval size Either 9-10, 6-10 9.5 mm
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Larvae behaviour Larvae are planktonic for about 4 weeks Demersal
Alosa sapidissima Female Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Female] 4.5 year
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Parity Iteroparous, spawn annualy Iteroparous