Fleming, 1998



Citation


Fleming, I.A. (1998) Pattern and variability in the breeding system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), with comparisons to other salmonids. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci., pp. 59-76

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Hucho hucho Spawning conditions Parental care No defence by females No care
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Parental care Nesting defence by females after No category
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Parental care Female defence after Female parental care
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Parental care Female defence after Female parental care
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Parental care No protection by female No care
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Parental care Nest defence after No category
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Parental care Females defence after Female parental care
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Parental care None after nesting No care
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Parental care None after nesting No care
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Parental care None for the anadromous populations and rarely for resident populations No category
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Parental care No defence No care
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Parental care No defence No care
Hucho hucho Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest by females Best build by female
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest by female Best build by female
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest built by female No category
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest made by females No category
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest by female Best build by female
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest by female Best build by female
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nesting by females No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nesting by female No category
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest by female Best build by female
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest by female Best build by female
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No nest Open water/substratum scatter
Hucho hucho Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 15.5% for different populations 15.5 percent
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 16.8 (range 16.1-17.4%) for different populations 16.75 percent
Oncorhynchus keta Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 17.4 for different populations 17.4 percent
Oncorhynchus kisutch Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 20.7 (range 19.4-24.0) for different populations 21.7 percent
Oncorhynchus mykiss Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 14.9 (range 14?5-15.3) for anadromous populations, mean of 14.6 (range 8.3-22.6) for resident populations 10.15 percent
Oncorhynchus nerka Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 17.8 for anadromous populations, and 12 (11.4-12.8) for resident population 12.1 percent
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 19, range 17.8-21.1, for different populations 19.45 percent
Salmo salar Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 22.2 (range 20.1-25.7%) for anadromous populations, and Mean of 17.3 (range 17.2-17.4) for resident populations 22.9 percent
Salmo trutta fario Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 18.5 (range 15-25.4) for anadromous population, mean of 12.9 (range 9.9-15.8) for resident population 20.2 percent
Salvelinus alpinus Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 16.4 (range 12.8-18.6%) for anadromous populations, and 18.4 (range 11.9-24.3) for resident populations 15.7 percent
Salvelinus fontinalis Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 13.9 for anadromous populations, and 13.2 (range 10-16.8%) for resident populations 13.4 percent
Salvelinus namaycush Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 14.6 (range 12.3-17.6%) for different populations 14.95 percent
Hucho hucho Male Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Male Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent
Oncorhynchus keta Male Male sexual dimorphism Males bigger than females Absent
Oncorhynchus kisutch Male Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent
Oncorhynchus mykiss Male Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent
Oncorhynchus nerka Male Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger for both resident and anadromous populations Absent
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Male Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent
Salmo salar Male Male sexual dimorphism Male bigger than female Absent
Salmo trutta fario Male Male sexual dimorphism Male bigger than female Absent
Salvelinus alpinus Male Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent
Salvelinus fontinalis Male Male sexual dimorphism Males bigger than females Absent
Salvelinus namaycush Male Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent
Hucho hucho Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 3 for different populations 3.0 percent
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 5.2 (range 4.9-5.4%) for different populations 5.15 percent
Oncorhynchus keta Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 3.7 (range 3.2-4.1%) 3.65 percent
Oncorhynchus kisutch Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 5.8% (range 5.2-6.4) for different populations 5.8 percent
Oncorhynchus mykiss Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 5 for resident population 5.0 percent
Oncorhynchus nerka Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 3.0 (range 2.1-3.4%) for anadromous populations, and Mean of 2.7 (range 2.6-2.8) for resident populations 2.75 percent
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 6.1 (range 5.4-6.7%) 6.05 percent
Salmo salar Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 4.1 (range 2.3-5.8%) for anadromous populations, and Mean of 8.0 (range 4.7-10) for mature male parr 4.05 percent
Salmo trutta fario Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 2.9 (range 2.7-3.0) for anadromous population, mean of 2.3 (range 1.9-2.6) for resident population 2.85 percent
Salvelinus alpinus Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 4.4 for anadromous populations (mean of 6.7% for mature male parr) and 2.8 for resident populations 4.4 percent
Salvelinus fontinalis Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 1.5 for resident populations 1.5 percent
Salvelinus namaycush Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 3.1 for different population 3.1 percent
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning release Mean of 34 (range 5-69%) of repeat spawning for anadromous populations, Mean of 64.6% for resident populations No category
Hucho hucho Spawning conditions Parity Mean of 64 (range 51-77%) of repeat spawners No category
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Parity 0% of repeat spawners No category
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Parity 0% of repeat spawners No category
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Parity 0% of repeat spawners No category
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Parity Mean of 10 (range 0.6-31.3%) of repeat spawners for anadromous populations, and 26 (range 18-33%) for resident populations No category
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Parity 0% or repeat spawning for both anadromous and resident populations Iteroparous
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Parity 0% of repeat spawners (mature male parr may survive to breed again) No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Parity 11 (0.7-42.5 %) or repeat breeding for anadromous populations, and 30% for resident populations No category
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Parity Mean of 41 (range 32-50%) of repeat spawners for anadromous populations and 61 (range 33684%) for resident populations No category
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Parity Mean of 21% of repeat spawners for anadromous populations, and 24 (range 12-32%) for resident populations No category
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Parity Mean of 53 (range 6-79%) of repeat spawners in different populations No category