Micropterus dolomieui

  • Scientific name
  • Micropterus dolomieui (Lacepède, 1802)

  • Common name
  • Smallmouth bass

  • Family
  • Centrarchidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 66%
Total data165
References21
Image of Micropterus dolomieui

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive initially after fertilization, attach to rocky surfaces in the nest Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Billard, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Usually found attached to clean stones near the centre of the nest] Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are adhesive in nature and stick to the nest substrate Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs adhere to stones, short stems, or roots on bottom of nest Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time 2.5 [25.6], 10 [12.8] 2.5 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 4-10 [Natural conditions in Canada] 7.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 2-4 days 3.0 days Rue, 2001
5 Incubation time 12 days [12.8°C], 2-3 days [23-25°C] 2.5 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 5.5 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 5.5 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time 2-4 [Between 20-25°C] 3.0 days Siefert, 1974
5 Incubation time About 3 days at 21°C 3.0 days Meyer, 1970
5 Incubation time Egg incubation asted 4 days at water temperatures ranging between 15.2 and 18.2°C in natural conditions) 4.0 days Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 2-15 days at 70-55°F 8.5 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 60 up to 120 60.0 °C * day Internet, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation 40-50 DD for the beginning of hatching and 75-80 DD for 90% of at least 90 percent hatched 45.0 °C * day Siefert, 1974
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-65 [About 3 days at 21°C] 62.5 °C * day Meyer, 1970
6 Temperature for incubation 12.8-25.6 [Not specified the optimum] 19.2 °C Internet, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation Hatching success occurs when temperatures range from 15.5-23.8°C 19.65 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation 20-25°C 22.5 °C Siefert, 1974
6 Temperature for incubation Reared at a constant temperature of 70°F or 21.1 21.1 °C Meyer, 1970
6 Temperature for incubation Water temperatures observed in different lakes during incubation: 15.2-18.2, 16.7-20.0, 18.1-21.1 16.7 °C Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
6 Temperature for incubation 55-70°F 17.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.0 [Ferlitized eggs] 2.0 mm Internet, 2005
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean of 2.0 with n=10 [Fertilized eggs] 2.0 mm Meyer, 1970
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal in the nest Demersal Rue, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-2.5 [Unfertlized egg] 1.85 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-2.5 [Not specified] 1.85 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 1.8-2.2 [Not specified, but seems unswollen] 2.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 2.3 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 2.3 mm Olden, 2006

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Optimal growth at 25-29°C 27.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20 and 25°C 20.0 °C Siefert, 1974
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 21°C 21.0 °C Meyer, 1970
11 Temperature during larval development 17.2-19.5 observed temperature in natural conditions 18.35 °C Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Present Present Chodorowski, 1975
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 120 [The larvae became free-swimming 6 days after hatching at 21°C, at a length of approximatively 8.7 millimeters] 120.0 °C * day Meyer, 1970
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 160 [Postlarval bass, rose off the nests in 1966 at 8-11 days after hatching, between June 17 and 20, when water temperatures ranged between 17.2 and 19.5°C] 9.5 °C * day Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 120 [6-7 days at 20°C and 4-5 days at 25°C] 6.5 °C * day Siefert, 1974
8 Initial larval size 4.6 4.6 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size 5.6-5.9 5.75 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size 5.6-5.9 5.75 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 5.8 5.8 mm Olden, 2006
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the nest for several days and them swim in dense schools, protected by male for 2-3 weeks Demersal Internet, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the nest until the resorption of the yolk and then rise off the bottom Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour The larvae became free-swimming 6 days after hatching at a length of approximatively 8.7 millimeters Demersal Meyer, 1970
9 Larvae behaviour After rising from the nest, the young free-swimming bass remained in a dense mass close to the bottom and directly over the nest. Demersal Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
9 Larvae behaviour Fry gradually disperse from nest when 1-2 weeks old and are then found along edges of vegetation beds Demersal Goodyear, 1982

Female (42%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism The female developed a pattern of dark vertical bars on her side that remained throughout both phases. This feature was used to distinguish between both sexes Absent Ridgway, 1989
19 Relative fecundity 7000 eggs per pond of female 7000.0 thousand eggs/kg Scott and Crossman, 1973
19 Relative fecundity 6-15 10.5 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Sex not specified] 3.0 years Internet, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Male] 3.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 [Male] 4.0 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 years [Sex not specified] 3.5 years Kerr and Grant, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity 3.5 [Both sex] 3.5 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Bass of both sexes began to mature at age IV (18.7-26.0 cm) with 33% of the males and 9.1% of the fremales mature. Of fish of age V, 88% of males and 82% of females were mature. All fish of age VI (26.4-36.6 cm) examined were mature 4.0 years Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
27 Age at sexual maturity Individuals reach maturity at 3-4 years in North temperate populations 3.5 years Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
20 Absolute fecundity 2-21 11.5 thousand eggs Internet, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity 5-14 9.5 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity 4.1 [Total number of eggs or offsprings per breeding season] 4.1 thousand eggs Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 22 [Female] 22.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 20.5 [Both sex] 20.5 cm Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Sex not specified] 3.0 year Internet, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 [Female] 4.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-6 [Female] 5.0 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 years [Sex not specified] 3.5 year Kerr and Grant, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity 3.5 [Both sex] 3.5 year Olden, 2006

Male (22%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
28 Length at sexual maturity 20 [Male] 20.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity 20-42 [Guarding males] 31.0 cm Iguchi, 2004
28 Length at sexual maturity 20.5 [Both sex] 20.5 cm Olden, 2006

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system By pair. After spawning, the female leaves the nest and may spawn with another male in another nest Monogamy Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system Monogamy is often presumed to constrain mating variance [Female preferentially mate with relatively large males] Monogamy Iguchi, 2004
47 Mating system More than one female can spawn in the nest of a single male No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
47 Mating system We never observed more than one male and female at a nest site. We also did not detect any behavior by smaller smallmouth bass males that could be interpreted as sneaking or satellite spawning behavior No category Ridgway, 1989
50 Parental care Male guards the nest during incubation and after hatching until juvenile reach about 25 mm TL, or during 1-3 weeks Male parental care Internet, 2005
50 Parental care Males guard the eggs and young Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care The males guard the nest, fans the eggs, and guards the young after they hatch Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Site defense of guarding males is costly because of injury risk from interaction with intruders Male parental care Iguchi, 2004
50 Parental care Nest-guarding males Male parental care Cooke, 2003
50 Parental care The males guards the nest from predators and fans the eggs during the inbubation period Male parental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care There was no obvious explanation of why some nests failed and were deserted by the guarding male No category Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
50 Parental care Males provide sole parental care to offspring No category Ridgway, 1989
50 Parental care Parental care requires 24 h per day fanning up to 1 month with males rarely leaving the nest. Guarding males rarely leave the nest to feed. Filial cannibalism has never been observed. Females come to the nest to spawn and leave the area promptly after depositing eggs Male parental care Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
50 Parental care Male guards nest and fry until fry are about 1 inche long. Adults move downstream or offshore to depths of 36-42 ft as water temperature approaches 77°F, usually by July Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Sandy to rocky bottom, gravel and rock rubble, rocky river and creek bed Ambiguous Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Sand, gravel, or rocky bottoms Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Sandy, gravel or rocky bottom Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Gravel substrate with some current Lithophils Rue, 2001
44 Spawning substrate The bottom material may be comprised of gravel, rock or less frequently, sand [The preferredsize of gravel or rock bubble is 3.3-6.0 cm in diameter] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Nest substrate range from silt to gravel [Seventeen out of a total of 18 were in close association with stumps or boulders] Lithophils McNeill, 1995
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Nest were constructed typically on sand and gravel. When adequate gravel was not available, the bottom of the concave bowl of each nest was usually covered with woody debris or broken clam shells, or both Ambiguous Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
44 Spawning substrate Nest usually built close to boulders, logs, docks or other such structures, sometimes among rooted macrophytes, in an area with good water movement that is protected from wave action Pelagophils Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Male constructs a nest 30-60 cm diameter in shallow water Nest built by male Internet, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation Male builts a nest Nest built by male Billard, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation The male builts the nest Nest built by male Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation The male builts a nest (18.3-30.5 cm) in diameter Nest built by male Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Nest-building species No category Rue, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation The male sweeps the nest clean with his tail and occasionally carries stones and othe rmaterials from the nest area No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Nest spawner No category Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Sweep out a nest site in the substrate with their caudal fin No category Ridgway, 1989
45 Spawning site preparation Breeding adult males inhabit the littoral zone and built large, conspicuous nests No category Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in a nest, a shallow depression excavated in cleaned gravel, rock, rubble, or sand, spawning may also occur on harbor breakwalls Susbtrate chooser Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Although most males spawned once in a single nest, one male spawned in two nests (about 0.5 m apart) simultaneously and four males renested and spawned while their initial brood was at the juvenile interval Susbtrate chooser Knotek and Orth, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 16.1-18.3 are the optimal temperature [13-16°C] 17.2 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature Nest building and spawning (in some areas) commences over a range of 12.8-20°C [Egg deposition takes place mostly at 16.1-18.3°C] 16.4 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 15.9-17.4 at noon 16.65 °C Iguchi, 2004
41 Spawning temperature About 15, peak spawning at 16 15.0 °C Cooke, 2003
41 Spawning temperature 16-18 17.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 18-27 22.5 °C Rue, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Varies: 15-18, 12.5-23.5, 12.8-20.0 16.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature Nest building starts at 16°C 16.0 °C McNeill, 1995
41 Spawning temperature 13 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 13.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Nest building started when water temperatures was 15-18°C 16.5 °C Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
41 Spawning temperature Spawning season generally begins in late May when water temperature reaches 15°C 15.0 °C Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
41 Spawning temperature At 51-70°F, nest building may begin at water temperatures below 60°F, but spawning usually does not begin until the water temperature reaches about 62°F 60.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration Spawns usually over a period of 6-10 days 8.0 weeks Scott and Crossman, 1973
40 Spawning period duration 4-5 [From April 29 to June-1-15, but peak spawning occured on one day (25%)] 4.5 weeks Cooke, 2003
40 Spawning period duration If temperatures remain stable, it is possible for smallmouth bass to occupy spawning sites as long as three to four weeks before spawning actually begins No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
40 Spawning period duration activity lasted for less than 1 week 1.0 weeks Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
40 Spawning period duration Continues for up to 1 month 1.0 weeks Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
42 Spawning water type From stream to lake, water with little current Ambiguous Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Lakes and rivers Stagnant water Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Lakes and rivers, usually near the protection of rocks, logs, or more rarely, dense vegetation Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Distance from the shore: 0-890 cm Stagnant water Iguchi, 2004
42 Spawning water type Shore of lake, or effluent canal Stagnant water Cooke, 2003
42 Spawning water type Mean distance from the shore 3.4 m Stagnant water McNeill, 1995
42 Spawning water type At a distance of 0.3-2.4 m from the leeward shore. Small lakes with controlled water levels may provide thermal and other environmental conditions suitable for natural reproduction Stagnant water Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
42 Spawning water type Littoral zones of lakes and rivers Stagnant water Ridgway, 1989
42 Spawning water type Clear water in tributaries, river mouth, bays, harbors, lake shores or shoals Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Reduced water velocity Flowing or turbulent water Knotek and Orth, 1998
43 Spawning depth Shallow water No data Internet, 2005
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth Spawns in 61-610 cm of water 335.5 m Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth 22-128 cm 75.0 m Iguchi, 2004
43 Spawning depth Average water depth at the nest was 104 cm 104.0 m McNeill, 1995
43 Spawning depth At wa water depth of 0.6-1.2 0.9 m Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
43 Spawning depth To 20 ft, usually less than 6 ft 20.0 m Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth At depths of 0.4 to 2.0 m 0.4 m Knotek and Orth, 1998
37 Spawning migration period Move into littoral zones of lakes and rivers in spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Ridgway, 1989
37 Spawning migration period Migrate inshore and enter bays and tributaries, movement begins when water temperature rises above 40°F, peak movement occurs at 55°F No data Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season May-July [Estimated also in April-May] ['April', 'May', 'July'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April-May [Also in March and June] ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Late May to early July ['May', 'July'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Late April to mid-June, spawning in the canal occurred approximatively 1 month earlier than in adjacent non-thermally influenced ragions ['April', 'June'] Cooke, 2003
39 Spawning season Late May-early June ['May', 'June'] Martin, 1998
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Rue, 2001
39 Spawning season During spring and early summer ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Nest building began in late May, egg deposition peaked around the middle of June and continued until the end of June ['May', 'June'] McNeill, 1995
39 Spawning season Nest building geban on June 3 in 1965 and June 5 in 1966 ['June'] Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
39 Spawning season North temperate populations of smallmouth bass reproduce shortly after winter ice-out, in late May ['February', 'March', 'January', 'May'] Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
39 Spawning season A period of 6-10 days in March to mid-August, usually May-July ['August', 'March', 'May', 'July'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Males spawned between 12 April and 14 May ['April', 'May'] Knotek and Orth, 1998
38 Homing Nest building usually occurs within 150 years of where his nest was built in previous years Absent Fishbase, 2006
38 Homing Some males return to the same nest in subsequent years and over 85% of them return to within 150 years of where they nested in previous years Present Scott and Crossman, 1973
38 Homing Homing tendencies are also displayed by smallmouth bass in stream environment Present Kerr and Grant, 1999
48 Spawning release Small clusters, becoming loose Fractional Internet, 2005
48 Spawning release Each nests receives only a single batch of eggs from a single female Mutliple Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
49 Parity One clear seasonnal peak per year No category Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity Female probably spawns every year No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
49 Parity May live up to 13 years No category Gillooly and Baylis, 1999