Coregonus lavaretus

  • Scientific name
  • Coregonus lavaretus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Common whitefish

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 86%
Total data189
References55
Image of Coregonus lavaretus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Slightly adhesive [Stick to gravel and sand] Adhesive Skurdal, 1985
4 Egg adhesiveness Slightly adhesive [Stick to gravel] Adhesive Coad, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Slightly adhesive and stick to each other Adhesive Bagenal, 1970
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
5 Incubation time 190 190.0 days Bogdanov, 1984
5 Incubation time 90-100 95.0 days Coad, 2006
5 Incubation time 45-125 [340 degree days [At 2.7°C], 420 [4.9°C] and 363 [7.9°C]] 85.0 days Bagenal, 1970
5 Incubation time About 100 100.0 days Maitland, 1977
5 Incubation time The eggs were stripped from broodstock in November and incubated in jars. Hatching took place on 4-5 April 4.5 days Koskela and Eskelinen, 1992
5 Incubation time The time of the onset and average duration (days) of the same stages of embryonic development of Coregonus lavaretus baunti 78-81 and duration : 79, and Coregonus lavaretus 200-220, and duration 210. 79.5 days Chernyaev, 2007
7 Degree-days for incubation 230-350 290.0 °C * day Zuromska, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 340 [At 2.7], 420 [4.9°C] and 363 [7.9°C] 340.0 °C * day Bagenal, 1970
7 Degree-days for incubation Hatching began at highest salinity (6.2 ppt) at 220 degree-days after fertilisation. Time of hatching at 50% of larvae decreased from 616 degree-days at 0.2 ppt to 470 degree-days at 4.8 ppt and 239 degree-days at 6.2 ppt […] Percentage of abnormal free embryos was ~ 20 at 0.2-2.5 ppt but increased rapidly at higher salinities 1.35 °C * day Albert, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation "Optimum range is 3-7 [Can be incubated successfully at 1°C (""cold breeding""), but such eggs have to be trasnfered to 5-10°C before hatching, Upper lethal incubation is 10°C]" 5.0 °C Rösch, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation 7 7.0 °C Beltran and Champigneulle, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation Starts at 7-8°C then 2-3°C 7.5 °C Beltran and Champigneulle, 1992
6 Temperature for incubation 0.4-5.2 2.8 °C Piironen, 1987
6 Temperature for incubation 9.5-10 [Precocious hatching] and 1.5 [Delayed hatching] 9.75 °C Luczynski and Kolman, 1987
6 Temperature for incubation 1.2-3.3 [Temperature of incubation in natural conditions] 2.25 °C Zuromska, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal 6, range 4-8 6.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum temperature of 6°C or less 6.0 °C Coad, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 4-6 [Total mortality occured at 10°C, and a very high mortality prior to, and during hatching in those at about 8°C] 5.0 °C Bagenal, 1970
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 5°C 5.0 °C Keinänen, 2003
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at a constant temperature of 9°C 9.0 °C Luczynski, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation "Incubated at 5-7°C until the ""eyed stage"", then they were gradually transferred to 10°C" 6.0 °C Champigneulle, 1988
6 Temperature for incubation Hatching occured at about 8°C 8.0 °C Segner, 1988
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs were incuabted in Zoug bottles with untreated lake water at 5-8°C which is a temperature close to natural conditions for incubation 6.5 °C Champigneulle and Rojas-Beltran, 1990
6 Temperature for incubation Best temperatures: 1.5-4, range 0.1-8 2.75 °C Mack and Billard, 1984
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 6-8°C 7.0 °C Rojas Beltran, 1992
6 Temperature for incubation Hatching was accelerated by increasing the water temperature to 2.0°C on 25 February and 5-6°C on 28 March 5.5 °C Koskela and Eskelinen, 1992
6 Temperature for incubation Water temperature was 4°C in November-December, and then it increased gradually up to 6°C in late March-April. These temepratures are in the range of optimal temperatures for C. lavaretus embryos. 4.0 °C Albert, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation The eggs of coregonids are adpated to development under extremely low values of water temperature (0.1-0.5°C) and even when embebded in the ice 0.3 °C Chernyaev, 2007
6 Temperature for incubation The aquaria were supplied with filtered lake water. Water temperature increased gradually from 7°C in February to 19.5°C in June 1986 7.0 °C Dlugosz and Demska-Zakes, 1989
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.61 ± 0.15, n=186 [Eggs stripped from mature females, fertilized and incubated in water: hydrated eggs] 2.61 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.98 mean diameter of fertilized egg 2.98 mm Bagenal, 1970
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2-3 [Not specified] 2.5 mm Gerdeaux, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2-3 [Not specified] 2.5 mm Coad, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3-3.7 [Oocyte] 3.35 mm Mack and Billard, 1984
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.4 [Fully hardened eggs] 2.4 mm Penaz, 1981
2 Egg size after water-hardening Diameter range for wild breeders from 2.0 +/- 0.05, 2.4 +/- 0.04, 2.6 +/- 0.07 2.0 mm Rojas Beltran, 1992
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Sink to the bottom] Ambiguous Skurdal, 1985
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter Diameter of eggs from wild spawners range for precocious 2.0-2.6 and for delayed : 1.9-2.1 2.3 mm Rojas Beltran, 1992

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 12-18 [Most suitable for growth and survival] 15.0 °C Rösch, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development 9-12 [Better results at 13°C] 10.5 °C Beltran and Champigneulle, 1991
11 Temperature during larval development 10-16 13.0 °C Beltran and Champigneulle, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Starts at 10 to 15 10.0 °C Luczynski and Kolman, 1987
11 Temperature during larval development 7-13.5 10.25 °C Davis and Todd, 1998
11 Temperature during larval development 16 16.0 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Aquarium heaters maintained the temperatures at 11 ± 1 and 14 ± 1°C 11.0 °C Rösch and Appelbaum, 1985
11 Temperature during larval development After hatching, when 50% of the fish has started to feed on exogeneous food, they were acclimated to 15°C 15.0 °C Luczynski, 1986
11 Temperature during larval development 10°C 10.0 °C Champigneulle, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature was held at 12 ± 0.5°C 12.0 °C Segner, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 10°C 10.0 °C Rojas Beltran, Champigneulle, Gillet and Le Rouilly, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development For 5 days old, preferred temperature of 14-16°C and a lethal of 28.6°C, for 15 days old, a preferred temperature of 15-17°C and a lethal one of 29.5°C 15.0 °C Jezierska, 1979
11 Temperature during larval development Water was obtained from a spring, and the temperature was 10.5 +/- 0.5°C 10.5 °C Rojas Beltran, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development The optimum temperature for growth was between 19.3 and 20.6°C depending on the calculation method and the parameters measured, the rate of net biomass gain reaching its maximum at a temperature of about 19.3°C 19.3 °C Koskela and Eskelinen, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Reared in spring water 10.5 +/- 0.5°C 10.5 °C Rojas Beltran, 1992b
11 Temperature during larval development Mean temperature in the different growth periods ranged from 4.6 to 19.8°C 4.6 °C Koskela, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development The tanks were provided with aerated tap water (12 +/-0.5°C) 12.0 °C Rösch, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Water in in the tanks was changed continuously with pre-conditioned tap water at 12 +/- 1°C 12.0 °C Schlechtriem, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature was measured in every aquarium once a day and remained similar in the different treatments 13.1 +/- 0.9°C 13.1 °C Ylönen and Karjalainen, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development La température de l'eau, au cours de la vie précoce des corégones, excède rarement 15°C, et la plupart des auteurs ont experimenté à une température de l'eau ressemblant à celle des lacs, c'est-à-dire 10°C 15.0 °C Dabrowski, 1984
10 Reaction to light Newly hatched European whitefish larvae have a positive phototactic reponse and aggregate in surface waters Photopositive Ylönen and Karjalainen, 2004
10 Reaction to light Having a positive phototaxis, larval coregonids migrating dowstream from the spawning grounds move to this high-productive grounds Photopositive Chernyaev, 2007
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Whitefish to a large extent cannibalize their own eggs Absent Skurdal, 1985
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Never observed Absent Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism NO INFORMATIONS Absent Ylönen and Karjalainen, 2004
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The yolk is used 7 days after the start of feeding (which is four days after hatching), and the oil globule of the yolk sac persists about 10 days longer at 12°C for Coregonus fera !! 7.0 °C * day Loewe and Eckmann, 1988
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Feeding begin 4 days after hatching at 10-10.5°C 10.25 °C * day Beltran and Champigneulle, 1992
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding After a 2-days period of adaptation, the feeding experiment was begun with larvae 1-2 days old at T of 11 or 14°C. Living zooplankton was consumed immediatly afteits initial introduction 1.5 °C * day Rösch and Appelbaum, 1985
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Four days at 10°C, at a size of 11.2 ± 0.1 mm 11.2 °C * day Champigneulle, 1988
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Feeding started 4 days after hatching at 12 ±0.5°C 12.0 °C * day Segner, 1988
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 4 days after hatching at a size of 11-12 mm 11.5 °C * day Champigneulle and Rojas-Beltran, 1990
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding At 14-16°C, larvae begin to feed on the 2nd-3rd day after hatching. At lower temperatures (5-11.8°C) active feeding begins later, and according to various authors its beginning fluctuates between the 5th and 8th day 15.0 °C * day Jezierska, 1979
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Food was found in all yolk-sac larvae 10 mm and larger indicating that feeding is normal for yolk-sac larvae 10.0 °C * day Hudd, 1992
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Fish larvae were fed nematodes ad libitum starting on day 1 after hatching.Nematodes are readily ingested by 2-day-old whitefish larvae. In comparison with the ingestion of nematodes, the onset of dry diet intake by Coregonus lavaretus is clearly delayed, starting around 8 days after hatching 1.0 °C * day Schlechtriem, 2004
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Feeding commenced on 13 February (three days after hatching) 13.0 °C * day Dlugosz and Demska-Zakes, 1989
8 Initial larval size 11.7-12.3 12.0 mm Beltran and Champigneulle, 1991
8 Initial larval size 9-13 11.0 mm Champigneulle and Beltran, 1996
8 Initial larval size 8.3-11.3 [Mean 9.89, n=915] 9.8 mm Bogdanov, 1984
8 Initial larval size 11-12 11.5 mm Luczynski and Kolman, 1987
8 Initial larval size 11.6 [with n=50] 11.6 mm Beltran and Champigneulle, 1992
8 Initial larval size 12.4 after 4 days post-hatching 12.4 mm Rösch and Appelbaum, 1985
8 Initial larval size 11.7 11.7 mm Mack and Billard, 1984
8 Initial larval size From wild breeders, mean size ranged from 12.1 to 12.5 and for domestic breeders from 11.2 to 11.8 mm 12.1 mm Rojas Beltran, 1992
8 Initial larval size Peipsi whitefish has TL at hatching of 10.8-12.4 mm. In the present study the maximum TL (> 11 mm) was observed at 1.9-3.5 ppt. At the salinity with the highest embryonic survival (0.5 ppt) average TL was 10.6 mm 11.6 mm Albert, 2004

Female (75%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value 15.77 [Not specified when] 15.77 percent Mack and Billard, 1984
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 16%, up to 21% [In December] 16.0 percent Fuller, 1976
24 Maximum GSI value Up to 29-30% [End of November] 29.5 percent Heese, 1990
19 Relative fecundity 30 30.0 thousand eggs/kg Gerdeaux, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 21.427 ± 1.577 [For Circumneutral populations] and 28.278 ± 1.288 [Highly acidified populations] 21.427 thousand eggs/kg Vuorinen, 2004
19 Relative fecundity 10-21 15.5 thousand eggs/kg Mack and Billard, 1984
19 Relative fecundity Mean 45721.2, range 29012-63468 [Other studies: 20000-45000] 46240.0 thousand eggs/kg Heese, 1990
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-6 [Sex not specified] 4.0 years Skurdal, 1985
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Male] 3.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Male] 3.0 years Bagenal, 1970
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [sex not specified] 3.5 years Maitland, 1977
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Not specified] 2.5 years Mack and Billard, 1984
26 Resting period After spawning, the gonadosomatic ratio of females fell suddenly and remained low, about 1% of body weight, for 6 months until July[From March to May ovaries contained only primary (pre-vitellogenic) oocytes. Secondary oocytes, wihc chorion and yolkk precursors, appeared in May] 1.0 months Fuller, 1976
26 Resting period After spawning, the gonads were basically resting until April and May No data Heese, 1990
22 Onset of oogenesis July ['July'] Fuller, 1976
22 Onset of oogenesis July (?) ['July'] Heese, 1990
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Mainly September-October [From July until December there was a progressive increase] ['October', 'December', 'July', 'September'] Fuller, 1976
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity September-October ['October', 'September'] Heese, 1990
20 Absolute fecundity 82.250 82.25 thousand eggs Coad, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 1-28 14.5 thousand eggs Maitland, 1977
20 Absolute fecundity Mean of 64945.6, range 23650-131418, for female of 39.5-59.2 cm 77534.0 thousand eggs Heese, 1990
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.207 0.207 kg Bagenal, 1970
16 Length at sexual maturity 27.9 27.9 cm Bagenal, 1970
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-6 [Sex not speicifed] 4.0 year Skurdal, 1985
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Female] 3.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 [Female] 4.0 year Bagenal, 1970
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex not specified] 3.5 year Maitland, 1977
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 years [Not specified] 2.5 year Mack and Billard, 1984
15 Age at sexual maturity Fermales were mostly aged 2+, less numerous were age groups 3+ and 4+. The youngest and oldest females were aged 1+ and 10+ 2.0 year Heese, 1990

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism May bear rows of elongate tubercules on the scales Absent Coad, 2006
31 Onset of spermatogenesis July ['July'] Fuller, 1976
31 Onset of spermatogenesis June ['June'] Heese, 1990
33 Maximum GSI value 2 [Not specified] 2.0 percent Mack and Billard, 1984
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 2%, up to 2.5% [In September until January, with no significant change during this period] 2.0 percent Fuller, 1976
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 3% [In the end of October] 3.0 percent Heese, 1990
32 Main spermatogenesis activity August and September ['August', 'September'] Fuller, 1976
32 Main spermatogenesis activity September-October ['October', 'September'] Heese, 1990
35 Resting period It fell gradually from January to a minimum of 0.4% in June and July 0.4 months Fuller, 1976
35 Resting period Below 1%, between February and May 1.0 months Heese, 1990
28 Length at sexual maturity About 24.0 24.0 cm Bagenal, 1970
29 Weight at sexual maturity About 0.127 0.127 kg Bagenal, 1970

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Exhibit no permanent pair-binding [Males and females swim close to each other towards the surface while ejecting eggs and milt. Males are more active than females] No category Skurdal, 1985
47 Mating system Group: communal spawning, 1-4 males/female, aggregating in shallow water to spawn Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning takes place at night Night Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Does not protect their eggs No category Skurdal, 1985
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care No protection No care Coad, 2006
50 Parental care Care not mentionned No category Ah-King, 2004
50 Parental care Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care Willson, 1997
50 Parental care Individual females migrate to the spawning-grounds as ovulation takes place, spawn, and return to deep water No category Fuller, 1976
44 Spawning substrate Large stones with coarse gravel and send embebded Lithophils Skurdal, 1985
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Sand Psammophils Gerdeaux, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Bottons being hard, stony and gravelly, or gravelly and sandy, sometimes with scarce vegetation [Sometimes on plants] Ambiguous Zuromska, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Graves, but also over sand or even mud Psammophils Coad, 2006
44 Spawning substrate The bottom was found to consist of a witish clay covered by a layer of sand. There were a few scattered stones and patches covered with a growth Fontinalis antipyretica [Schelly eggs were found round the stones, on the sand and more plentifully on and amongst the weed] Ambiguous Bagenal, 1970
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Over gravel Lithophils Maitland, 1977
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Kamler, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Gravel banks Lithophils Fuller, 1976
45 Spawning site preparation Non-territorial species where males neither fight for females nor dig spawning ditches Susbtrate chooser Skurdal, 1985
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatteres Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Male do not defend territories No category Ah-King, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation Open susbstratum spawner No category Kamler, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 3-3.5 3.25 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Lower than 6 6.0 °C Zuromska, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 0.4-0.5 0.45 °C Salojarvi, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 2.5-6 4.25 °C Kamler, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 2-6 4.0 °C Mack and Billard, 1984
40 Spawning period duration Males appear at the spawning area earlier than females No data Skurdal, 1985
40 Spawning period duration Usually about one month No data Salojarvi, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 4 [From 15 January to 15 February] 4.0 weeks Bagenal, 1970
40 Spawning period duration Spawning takes place during the first 3 weeks of January in Loch Lomond, Scotland 3.0 weeks Fuller, 1976
42 Spawning water type The spawning area is located below waterfall being 4.5 km upstream No category Skurdal, 1985
42 Spawning water type Shore of lakes Stagnant water Billard, 1997
42 Spawning water type Shore of lakes Stagnant water Gerdeaux, 2001
42 Spawning water type Shallow areas and rivers No category Salojarvi, 1982
43 Spawning depth 0.5-2 m deep 1.25 m Skurdal, 1985
43 Spawning depth 0.3-1 up to 1.5 [Less than 10 m, except in very big and deep lakes] 0.65 m Zuromska, 1982
43 Spawning depth 0.5-10 5.25 m Salojarvi, 1982
43 Spawning depth Summer spawning takes place in deeper water than winter spawning No data Coad, 2006
43 Spawning depth Less than 7.6 m 7.6 m Bagenal, 1970
43 Spawning depth Seem to be 7 m 7.0 m Mack and Billard, 1984
37 Spawning migration period Late autumn on their spawning run, males arrive earlier than females and occupied the spawning area for a longer period ['October', 'November', 'December'] Skurdal, 1985
37 Spawning migration period There is a spawning migration which may occur in summer but more usually peaks in autumn ['September', 'August', 'December', 'July', 'October', 'November'] Coad, 2006
37 Spawning migration period During the first 2-3 weeks of January, ripe males migrated to the spawning grounds, where they remained until the end of the spawning period ['January'] Fuller, 1976
39 Spawning season October-December ['October', 'November', 'December'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season October to December ['October', 'December'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season Late October to late November ['October', 'November'] Skurdal, 1985
39 Spawning season December to January ['January', 'December'] Gerdeaux, 2001
39 Spawning season Some in autum, and some in winter December to March ['February', 'March', 'January', 'December'] Zuromska, 1982
39 Spawning season November to December ['November', 'December'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Spawning takes place in summer, autumn or winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'December', 'July', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Coad, 2006
39 Spawning season From 15 th January to 15 February ['February', 'January'] Bagenal, 1970
39 Spawning season October to January ['October', 'January'] Maitland, 1977
39 Spawning season Spawning takes place during the first 3 weeks of January in Loch Lomond, Scotland ['January'] Fuller, 1976
39 Spawning season Late November-early December ['November', 'December'] Heese, 1990
48 Spawning release Females move in each night as they rippen No category Coad, 2005
49 Parity Can live up to 10 years No category Maitland, 1977
49 Parity The youngest and oldest females were aged 1+ and 10+ No category Heese, 1990