Laurila and Holopainen, 1990


Laurila, S. and Holopainen, I.J. (1990) Features of embryonic and larval development of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.) with a note on species identification. Annales Zoologici Fennici., pp. 361-367

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate The species is described as being phytophil, open substrate spawner Phytophils
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The species is described as being phytophil, open substrate spawner No category
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature The spawning of this species takes place at high temperatures (> 17°C) 17.0 °C
Carassius carassius Egg Egg adhesiveness The eggs attach singly to the vegetation Non-Adhesive
Carassius carassius Egg Incubation time The incubation depends on temperature being approx. 4 days at 20°C and 2 days at 25-27°C 26.0 days
Carassius carassius Egg Temperature for incubation Placed in jars kept at room temperature (20-25°C) 22.5 °C
Carassius carassius Egg Egg size after water-hardening After fertilization the eggs swell No data
Carassius carassius Egg Oocyte diameter The eggs of crucian carp are spherical and yellowish-orange. The diameter of the eggs were 1.37 mm (SD = 0.09, n = 62) in HL 1.61 mm (SD = 0.10, n = 62) in Varaslampi. […] Other author give a diameter of 1.05-1.35 mm for mature oocytes (eggs) of crucian carps in West Siberian waters. Also describes as 1.45-1.52 mm. 1.2 mm
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning season Between May and July ['May', 'July']
Carassius carassius Larvae Temperature during larval development Different stages of embryonic, larval and juvenile development were described from fish kept at 20°C in the laboratory 20.0 °C
Carassius carassius Larvae Reaction to light Positive phototaxis Photopositive
Carassius carassius Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption The yolk sac disappears completely at the length between 6.5-7.2 mm 6.85 °C * day
Carassius carassius Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding A few days (3 days at 20°C) after hatching the fish swim to the surface to fill the swim bladder and then switch to exogenous feeding and yolk reserves are reduced. 3.0 °C * day
Carassius carassius Larvae Initial larval size The total length of the larva is 4.5-5.5 mm at hatching. Other authors: 5.0-5.2, 4.2-4.9, 3.8-5.2 5.0 mm
Carassius carassius Larvae Larvae behaviour The newly hatched larvae are passive: they lie on the bottom of the aquarium, for example. In the second day after hatching they try to swimupwards, towards the light (positive phototaxis) and attach to plants Demersal
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning release The eggs are laid in 2-3 batches […] This species is a fractional spawner: the females release only part of their eggs at each spawning Ambiguous