Salvelinus fontinalis

  • Scientific name
  • Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1815)

  • Common name
  • Brook trout

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 96%
Total data291
References53
Image of Salvelinus fontinalis

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive for a short period after extrusion which serves to prevent those not lodged in gravel from being washed away Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Initially the eggs are adhesive which helps them to stick to the gravel and not be carried downstream before they are covered by the female. After they become water-hardened, the eggs lose their adhesive qaulity Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
5 Incubation time 75 days at 9.4°C until emergence 75.0 days Mirza, 2001
5 Incubation time 100 days at 5°C 100.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 100 [5°C], 75 [6.1°C], 50 [10°C] 100.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time About 100 in natural conditions 100.0 days Fraser, 1985
5 Incubation time 47 [10°C] to 165 [2.8°C] 47.0 days Coad, 2006
5 Incubation time 50 [Uniform temperature of 10°C], 100 days [4°C] 50.0 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 91.7 [5°C], 64.2 [7.5°C], 46.5 [10°C] and 34.5 [12.5°C] for 50% hatch 91.7 days Jensen, 1997
5 Incubation time 52 days at 7.98°C 52.0 days Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
5 Incubation time Hatching started on day 55, and 50% hatching occured on day 58 55.0 days Bascinar, 2003
5 Incubation time 109.0 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 109.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time Estimates of the number of days required for 50% of egg to hatch: 74 [5°C], 44 [10°C], and not evaluated at 15°C [In different populations: 52-188 [At 1.4-15.4°C]] 120.0 days Humpesch, 1985
5 Incubation time 142.5 [1.64°C], 122 [3.02°C], 83 [5.65°C], 60 [7.86°C] and 31 [13.45°C] and numerous other examples 142.5 days Embody, 1934
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 32-165 days at 54-37°F, usually in February-March 98.5 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 416 416.0 °C * day Pennel and Barrington (79), 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 350-500 425.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 500 500.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation From 219 to 490 for temperatures of 1.5-6 3.75 °C * day Groot, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 430.8-481.8 [Between 5-12.5°C] 456.3 °C * day Jensen, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 415, at a mean of 7.98°C [Also in other studies: 235-444] 339.5 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
7 Degree-days for incubation 491 [Hatching started] to 523 [50% hatching] 491.0 °C * day Bascinar, 2003
7 Degree-days for incubation 370 [i.e. 74 days at 5°C at ca. optimum temperature] 370.0 °C * day Humpesch, 1985
7 Degree-days for incubation 503.9 ± 0.9 [But also These sampling corresponded approximatively to the end of the hatching period at 462 DD] 503.9 °C * day Dumas, 1995
7 Degree-days for incubation 559 [Effective day-degrees] 559.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation After 100% hatching occurred, varying 437 DD, 416 DD and 458 DD, water temperature was gradually increased to 8°C 100.0 °C * day Roche-Mayzaud, 1998
6 Temperature for incubation 6 [No hatch occured at 18°C, The incidence of abnormalities was highest at 15°C] 6.0 °C Hokanson, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 9.4 ± 0.19 9.4 °C Mirza, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 1.7-5 3.35 °C Fishbase, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 5-10 [Upper lethal temperature limit is about 11.7] 7.5 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 1.0-2.5 [Ambient natural temperature], 4.3-4.5 [Interstitial natural temperature] 1.75 °C Curry, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation 0.8 ± 0.3 [Natural conditions] 0.8 °C Bernier-Bourgault and Magnan, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal temperature range from 4.5-11.5 8.0 °C Groot, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 2.8-10 [Temperatures above 11°C will kill the eggs] 6.4 °C Coad, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 4-10 [The upper lethal temperature limit for developping eggs is 11.7°C] 7.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation 5-12.5°C 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation 7.98 ± 1.20, range 4.0-9.5 7.98 °C Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation 9.2 ± 1.92 [range 4.5-13°C] 9.2 °C Bascinar, 2003
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum temperature was about 5°C [The lower limit for hatching was < 1°C and the upper limit was between ca. 10 and 16°C] 5.0 °C Humpesch, 1985
6 Temperature for incubation Prior to eyed stage, eggs were incubated at a constant temperature of 8°C and then between 8-13°C 10.5 °C Dumas, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation The freshwater temperature was 9°C at the beginning of November and rapidly decreased to 1-0°C by the end of December, although heating systems kept the water temperature in the incubation trays above 3°C 0.5 °C Roche-Mayzaud, 1998
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.69-5.95 [Fully swollen egg, measured 1 hour after water contact] 4.82 mm Dlaboga, 1998
2 Egg size after water-hardening Ripe eggs from individual females varied in mean diameter from 3.35 to 5.0 3.35 mm Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
2 Egg size after water-hardening 4.6 [Fully hardened eggs] 4.6 mm Penaz, 1981
2 Egg size after water-hardening Means of diameter range from 4.65 +/-0.5 to 4.80 +/-0.04 4.65 mm Roche-Mayzaud, 1998
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Deposited into a nest] Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Eggs incubate under gravel and sand in redd Demersal Goodyear, 1982
1 Oocyte diameter 3.5-5 4.25 mm Groot, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 3-5 4.0 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 3.5-4.0 [The size of the mature ova] 3.75 mm Henderson, 1963
1 Oocyte diameter 4 [Ovule] 4.0 mm Rivier, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 3.5-5 4.25 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 3.5-5 4.25 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 4.8-4.9 4.85 mm Fraser, 1985
1 Oocyte diameter 3.5-5.0 [Not specified, seems to be unswollen] 4.25 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 5 [Not specified] 5.0 mm Coad, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Mean 4.58 ± 0.254, range 4.1-4.9 4.58 mm Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 4.3 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 4.3 mm Olden, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter The common size of mature eggs, ready to be shed, varies from 4.0 to 4.6 mm 4.0 mm Vladykov, 1956
1 Oocyte diameter The mean diameter of ripe ova was 4.05 4.05 mm Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
1 Oocyte diameter Range: 3.59-5.46, mean 4.67 4.525 mm Purtscher and Humpesch, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Diameter of oocytes in September, mean of 3.2 for aicd lakes and 2.9 for non-acid lakes 3.2 mm St-Pierre and Moreau, 1986

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development The groundwater temperature remained within the range 3.0-7.2°C, and during emergence within the range 4.0-6.0 5.1 °C Snucins, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development 2.5-9.5 [Ambient natural temperature], 4.3-6.0 [Interstitial natural temperature] 6.0 °C Curry, 1991
11 Temperature during larval development 12.7 ± 1.8 [Emergence period] 12.7 °C Bernier-Bourgault and Magnan, 2002
11 Temperature during larval development 12.4-15.4°C optimal for fry growth [17.5°C preferred by large fingerlings, 25.3°C upper incipient lethal for yearlings] 13.9 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 8-13 then 10-15°C for feeding 10.5 °C Dumas, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development After 100% hatching occurred, water temperature was gradually increased to 8°C 8.0 °C Roche-Mayzaud, 1998
10 Reaction to light Emergence from gravel nests in salmonids is largely nocturnal Photopositive Mirza, 2001
10 Reaction to light The trough was covered with black plastic sheeting since salmonid fry are negatively phototactic Photophobic Hausle and Coble, 1976
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Small, mature males were the most abundant of the egg eaters Absent Greeley, 1932
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 220 220.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The feeding experiment was initiated 112 days after fertilization (5 weeks after hatching). Sampling started when all fry from a given group hadesorbed started exogenous feeding, with the yolk sac being fully or partially resorbed 112.0 °C * day Roche-Mayzaud, 1998
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The first external feeding activities of the fish larvae start when the larvae swim up. Observations have demonstrated that the larva has a piece of yolk when swimming up, so in trout fisheries the first external feeding starts when over 30% of the larvae swim up. 30.0 °C * day Bascinar, 2003
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 82-188 [Samplings at 544 and 650 DD were conducted to approximatively coincide with the middle and end of yolk absorption period, i.e. 82 and 188 when substrated the DD of incubation (462)] 135.0 °C * day Dumas, 1995
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The feeding experiment started 16 weeks after fertilization (21 February 1992 for SWF2 and FWF2, and 28 February 1992 for FWF3), when all the free-swimming fry were feeding (mouths and complete digestive tracts functional). This corresponded to 658.2 degree-days from time of fertilization for FWF2 and SWF2, and 622.5 degree-days for FWF3 16.0 °C * day Roche-Mayzaud, 1998
8 Initial larval size 20.4 ± 0.3 [Newly-hatched larvae, but not sure to be the size at hatching !] 20.4 mm Fraser, 1985
8 Initial larval size About 20-25 [For emerging fry] 22.5 mm Snucins, 1992
8 Initial larval size 20 [Not sure because obtained from a different sTudy] 20.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 15.1 15.1 mm Olden, 2006
8 Initial larval size Normal alevin incubated at 9°C measured 13 mm total length 9.0 mm Hokanson, 1973
8 Initial larval size Range: 9.00-15.50, mean 12.08 12.25 mm Purtscher and Humpesch, 2006
9 Larvae behaviour Alevins emerge from the redd after absorbing most of their yolk sac and then rest on the substrate outside the redd reabsorbing of the yolk sac before dispersing in the stream or the lake Demersal Mirza, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour When hatched, the larvae or sac fry remain in the gravel within the redd until the yolk is absorbed Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the substrate after hatching before emerging Demersal Snucins, 1992
9 Larvae behaviour After hatcing, alevins remain in the gravel, deriving nourishment from their yolk sacas until March, when they emerge as new fry Demersal Fraser, 1985
9 Larvae behaviour Alevins remain in the nest until the yolk sac is absorbed Demersal Bradbury, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched sac fry remain in the gravel within the redd for between 30 and 80 days until the yolk is absorbed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Swim-up from fertilization: 675 degree-days, also from 387-618 [From hatching 675 less 415] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
9 Larvae behaviour Emerge from gravel in January-March Demersal Goodyear, 1982

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism The female are less bright than males and have swollen abdomens full of ripening eggs Present Groot, 1996
24 Maximum GSI value 16-18% [Mid-October] 17.0 percent Tam, 1986
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 9.74, range 9.04 to 12.92 [Not specified] 9.74 percent Vladykov, 1956
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 10-11% [September/October] 10.5 percent Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
24 Maximum GSI value Maturity indices were higher at 19 and 21 C since these fish did not spawn. The decoded-mean-maturity index (8.6) for female brook tout at 19C was derived from only three fish (0.5, 15.6, and 17.7) on November 7 the female maturity indices were 19.7 at 19°C and 16.2 at 21°C 19.0 percent Hokanson, 1973
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 13.9 for anadromous populations, and 13.2 (range 10-16.8%) for resident populations 13.4 percent Fleming, 1998
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 8.37 for acid lakes and 5.73 for non-acid lakes in September 8.37 percent St-Pierre and Moreau, 1986
19 Relative fecundity About 4 4.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 4-7 5.5 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
19 Relative fecundity 2.843 ± 0.479, range 2.006-3.572 2.843 thousand eggs/kg Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
19 Relative fecundity Mean of 3.448 for acid lakes and 2.960 for non-acid lakes 3.448 thousand eggs/kg St-Pierre and Moreau, 1986
27 Age at sexual maturity Mostly 3-4, few at 2 [Both sex] 3.5 years Fraser, 1985
27 Age at sexual maturity Usually reach at 3, but could be 2 [Both sex] 3.0 years Kerr and Grant, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity 2.0 [Both sex] 2.0 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Sexual maturity was attained by the majority of the brrok trout at the end of their 3rd year of life, although many males and females were mature in 2 years 3.0 years Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
26 Resting period Oocyte development and yolk formation is relatively low from November until May No data Tam, 1986
26 Resting period November to June, < 1% 1.0 months Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
22 Onset of oogenesis May-June ['May', 'June'] Tam, 1986
22 Onset of oogenesis Development begins in June for both sexes and reaches a peak in September ['June', 'September'] Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity August-Sepember ['August'] Tam, 1986
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity The secondary growth phase normally begins in early July, and is completed by mid-October ['October', 'July'] Henderson, 1963
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity July-August ['August', 'July'] Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Frantzen, 1997
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 0.5-3 1.75 thousand eggs Pennel and Barrington (77), 1996
20 Absolute fecundity About 1 for a female of 30 cm 1.0 thousand eggs Rivier, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 0.1-5 2.55 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity Mean 2.3, range 0.8-3.8 2.3 thousand eggs Fraser, 1985
20 Absolute fecundity Varies from 0.1 to 5 0.1 thousand eggs Groot, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 0.919 ±0.324, range 0.521-1.569 0.919 thousand eggs Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
20 Absolute fecundity The average number of egg spanwed varied from 90 to 4,800, according to the size of the female 90.0 thousand eggs Vladykov, 1956
17 Weight at sexual maturity Spawning females were: in 1994, n=45, 656 ±395 g, in 1995, n=42, 705 ± 381 g 656.0 kg Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean 41, range 29.5-53.3 [Both sex] 41.4 cm Fraser, 1985
16 Length at sexual maturity 15.0 [Both sex] 15.0 cm Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Spawning females were: in 1994, n=47, 37.2 ±6.5, in 1995, n=42, 37.6 ± 6.4 37.2 cm Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
16 Length at sexual maturity The extreme variation in the size of female trout, which would spawned during the year of collection, ranged from 114-559 mm 336.5 cm Vladykov, 1956
16 Length at sexual maturity 87 percent of the anadromous fish which were mature were over 30 cm, whereas 51% of the maturing freshwater fish were under 24 cm 87.0 cm Castonguay, 1982
16 Length at sexual maturity Means of female sizes involved in spawing range from 36.5 ±1.2 to 41.1 ± 1.3 36.5 cm Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 year Pennel and Barrington (77), 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sex not specified] 2.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity Mostly 3-4, few at 2 [Both sex] 3.5 year Fraser, 1985
15 Age at sexual maturity Usually reach at 3, but could be 2 [Both sex] 3.0 year Kerr and Grant, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity 2.0 [Both sex] 2.0 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Sexual maturity of females usually arrives at the age of 3 or 4 years 3.0 year Vladykov, 1956
15 Age at sexual maturity Sexual maturity was attained by the majority of the brrok trout at the end of their 3rd year of life, although many males and females were mature in 2 years 3.0 year Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
15 Age at sexual maturity The youngest maturing fish were 3+ and 1+ for anadromous and fresshwater forms respectively 3.0 year Castonguay, 1982

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male developp a small kype on the lower jaw Present Groot, 1996
30 Male sexual dimorphism Spawning males develop a hooked lower jaw or kype Present Coad, 2006
30 Male sexual dimorphism Pectoral and pelvic fins are longer in male than female brook char. [In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondary trait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males.] Present Willson, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism There is some evidence that male matures earlier in the season than the females do Absent Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males bigger than females Absent Fleming, 1998
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Development begins in June for both sexes and reaches a peak in September ['June', 'September'] Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 2.9 and 3.4 at 19 and 21°C respectively [November] 2.9 percent Hokanson, 1973
33 Maximum GSI value Between 1.5 and 2% [August/September] 1.5 percent Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 1.5 for resident populations 1.5 percent Fleming, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 2.78 for acid lakes and 2.50 for non-acid lakes in September 2.78 percent St-Pierre and Moreau, 1986
32 Main spermatogenesis activity June-July ['June', 'July'] Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
35 Resting period From November to June No data Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean 41, range 29.5-53.3 [Both sex] 41.4 cm Fraser, 1985
28 Length at sexual maturity 15.0 [Both sex] 15.0 cm Olden, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Spawning females were: in 1994, n=50, 33.4 ±7.7, in 1995, n=65, 33.7 ± 6.5 33.4 cm Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
28 Length at sexual maturity Means of male sizes involved in spawing range from 37.5 ±2.0 to 42.4 ± 1.2 37.5 cm Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1999
29 Weight at sexual maturity Spawning females were: in 1994, n=48, 480 ±407 g, in 1995, n=63, 507 ± 351 g 480.0 kg Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system When the redd is completed, the pair entered the nest and deposit eggs and milt, once the eggs are completely covered, she moves to the upstream end of the redd and begins digging a new redd No category Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system The actual spawning act is performed by one male and one female, but each may spawn with different mates during the reproductive period Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system By pair, but both sex may spawn again with other fish Monogamy Coad, 2006
47 Mating system The male, a larger fish then the female at all observed instances of spanwing, darts to a position agasint one side of the female and curves his body toward hers in such a manner as to hold her against the bottom [Both males and females participate in several mating acts before becoming entirelyfinished with the reprodcutive activities of a single season] No category Greeley, 1932
47 Mating system For males and females, tha mating costs of peripheral males were substantial because more than half (56%) of all observed brrok trout spawnings involved peripheral males. Males that paired with large females experienced a greater incidence of kleptogamy due to increase numbers of peripheral males present No category Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1999
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occurs during the daytime Day Scott and Crossman, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Primarily during daytime Day Groot, 1996
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning generally occurs during the day with peaks in spawning activity occuring between 1300 and 1400 Day Kerr and Grant, 1999
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition We observed spawning at all times of the day throughout both seasons, with a distinct peak in activity between 13:00 and 14:00. Eighthy-nine percent of all spawning toook place during the hours of daily observation (09:00-18:00), the remaining spawnings occured either just prior to our arrival (3%) or sometime after our departure (8%) Day Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Species were more active during the mid-day period when the light was bright than in early morning and late evening Day Greeley, 1932
50 Parental care The nests are not defended for extended periods No category Mirza, 2001
50 Parental care Nonguarders, the female covers the eggs and then leaves Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care On completion of spawning, the female covers the eggs with gravel in a manner resembling the excavation of the redd Female parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Females become very aggressive during the post-spawinng period and defend the redd against possible intruders No category Groot, 1996
50 Parental care Adults leave spawnig areas shortly after spawning No care Bradbury, 1999
50 Parental care No parental care is provided after the nest is covered No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care Arctic char females may defend the nest briefly, unlike brook char No category Willson, 1997
50 Parental care The female, throughout the long period of egg covering (a process continued for one to several hours) resents the presence of any fish at or just above the spot where the eggs lie [Male defence lasts only trough early stages of egg covering] No category Greeley, 1932
50 Parental care No defence No care Fleming, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Mirza, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Gravels or clear sand Ambiguous Rivier, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Small pebbles Lithophils Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Most often over gravels beds Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Snucins, 1992
44 Spawning substrate Gravel-sand shoal that extends about 25 m from shore Ambiguous Fraser, 1985
44 Spawning substrate Particle diameter mostly 8 -15.99 mm No category Bernier-Bourgault and Magnan, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Suitable spawning gravel range from 3 to 8 cm Lithophils Groot, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Gravel-bottomed [Preferred lake spawning substrate isgravel or a sand/gravel/small cobble mixture] Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Usually gravelly streams Lithophils Coad, 2006
44 Spawning substrate "While ""pea"" gravel (0.4-2.0 cm) is the preferred substrate for spawning, brrok trout are know to used other loose bottom material [Areas of silt where upwellings are present are also commonly used, even in the absence of gravel" Lithophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Gravels [Fines (small and smaller particles) in spawning gravel can be deleterious to eggs Lithophils Hausle and Coble, 1976
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Greeley, 1932
44 Spawning substrate The stream bottoms were composed of large stones, broken pieces of shale, gravel and sand Ambiguous Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean rubble, marl, or gravel Lithophils Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Lay their eggs in gravel nests called redds Susbtrate chooser Mirza, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Lay eggs in nests and recovered by gravels No category Billard, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation Lay their eggs in gravel nests Susbtrate chooser Rivier, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation A receptive female chooses a spot and digs a redd Susbtrate chooser Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation The female clears away debris and silt from the nesting area by a series of repid fanning movements of the caudal fin made while on her side No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Redd, egg pocket Susbtrate chooser Snucins, 1992
45 Spawning site preparation Redd Susbtrate chooser Curry, 1991
45 Spawning site preparation During spawning, the female digs and cleans a shallow nest or redd in which the eggs are deposited Susbtrate chooser Bradbury, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation The female begins building a redd by fanning the finer particles of the substrate with her tail Susbtrate chooser Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Redds Susbtrate chooser Hausle and Coble, 1976
45 Spawning site preparation The digging of spawning pit is exclusively a phase of female behavior [Both male and female trout defend the redd against other fish in the period just preceding spawning] Susbtrate chooser Greeley, 1932
45 Spawning site preparation Nest by female Best build by female Fleming, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 2 (A voir ?) 2.0 °C Pennel and Barrington (79), 1996
41 Spawning temperature 10-16 13.0 °C Hokanson, 1973
41 Spawning temperature Starts at 11.6 and finished at 2.9 11.6 °C Snucins, 1992
41 Spawning temperature Declined to less than 12°C 12.0 °C Curry, 1991
41 Spawning temperature 2.9 ± 1.2 2.9 °C Bernier-Bourgault and Magnan, 2002
41 Spawning temperature Preferred temperature is from 4.5 to 10, and spawning does not occur above 16°C 4.5 °C Groot, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Spawning activity and success occurs at below 9°C [4.5-10°C] 7.25 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 4 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 4.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature During peak spawning periods, water temperature in the spawning area decreased from 11.3 to 8.8°C in 1994 and from 10.3 to 5.9°C in 1995 11.3 °C Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
41 Spawning temperature When the temperature is falling from 55 to 36°F 55.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 5 [First redd at October 20 and the last at November 26, i.e. 38] 5.0 weeks Snucins, 1992
40 Spawning period duration The spawning periods lasted as long as 4 weeks, but the greatest number of spawning charr were present for less than 2 weeks 4.0 weeks Curry, 1991
40 Spawning period duration 4-5 [From Mid-October to end of November, Males apparently spent a longer period of time on the spawning area, probably 15-20 days, while females seldom seen on the bed more than 10 days after their first appeareance] 4.5 weeks Fraser, 1985
40 Spawning period duration Males usually arrive first on the spawning ground No data Groot, 1996
40 Spawning period duration Males arrive on the spawning ground first and defend a territory No data Coad, 2006
40 Spawning period duration A 15 day peak within a spawning period of about 50 days [With a decline in water temperature below 11°C and increased rainfall] 15.0 weeks Kerr and Grant, 1999
40 Spawning period duration 5-6 5.5 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration 3-4: The seasonal peak in spawning activity: 1994, days 296-310, 1995, days 296-312 coincided with peak counts of males and females [Brook trout were observed on or near the spanwing grounds over a 64-d period in 1994 (30 September to 2 December) and a 61-d period in 1995 (25 September to 24 November). Peak number of males and females occured approximatively the same time, between 22 Ocotber to 8 November. The duration of time spent on the spawning grounds was longer for males in 1994 than in 1995 (31 ± 12 and 22 ± 9 d, respectively), although no difference was observed for females between years (11 ± 6 and 15 ± 7, respectively).] 31.0 weeks Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
40 Spawning period duration From October 24 to december 6, 1931 [An individual may remain on the spawning grounds for a smuch as 25 days] 24.0 weeks Greeley, 1932
40 Spawning period duration Spawning begins late in September and extends into November No data Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
42 Spawning water type Near the shoreline (about 3 to 13 m) Stagnant water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Shallows of headwaters of streams but may successfully accomplished in gravelly shallows of lakes if there is a spring upwelling and a moderate current Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Lakes ans streams Stagnant water Snucins, 1992
42 Spawning water type Stream No category Curry, 1991
42 Spawning water type Current: 24.2 ± 19.3 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Bernier-Bourgault and Magnan, 2002
42 Spawning water type Typically spawn in streams or in gravel surronding sprin-up-welling areas of lakes and ponds Stagnant water Groot, 1996
42 Spawning water type Streams and occasionally in lakes Stagnant water Bradbury, 1999
42 Spawning water type Streams No category Coad, 2006
42 Spawning water type Both lakes and streams, and are closely associated with upwellings or seepages of ground water Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type Streams, shoreline reefs Stagnant water Willson, 1997
42 Spawning water type Spring streams, near sources of spring water No category Greeley, 1932
42 Spawning water type Spawn directly over areas of upwelling groundwater or near spring-fed tributaries No category Carline, 1980
42 Spawning water type Groundwater upwelling at redd sites No category Ridgway and Blanchfiled, 1998
42 Spawning water type Riffles or pools near headwaters of clear, well-shaded streams, in spring-fed areas with gradient not more than 2%, also along lake shores with moderately swift current, usually near sites of upwellings Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters, mostly below 1 m but range between 0.60-2.60 m 1.6 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth 20-55 cm deep 37.5 m Snucins, 1992
43 Spawning depth The depth of the water is mostly 50-75 cm, but can fluctuate up to 15 cm during the spawning season, and as much as 30 cm at other times of the season 62.5 m Fraser, 1985
43 Spawning depth In lakes, spawning has been observed at depths ranging from 0.1-8.0, but occurs most commonly at depth < 2 m 4.05 m Bradbury, 1999
43 Spawning depth Spawning sites are generally located near shore in water anywhere between 1.0 m or less and 2.4 m deep 1.0 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth Redds were located in the shallow littoral zone (1994, 1± 0.4 m, 1995, 1.6 ± 0.5 m) and near shore 1.0 m Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
43 Spawning depth Most redds were found in water approximatively 1 m deep 1.0 m Ridgway and Blanchfiled, 1998
43 Spawning depth 10 inches to 5 feet in streams, to more than 8 feets in lakes 10.0 m Goodyear, 1982
36 Spawning migration distance Mature fish may travel many miles upstream to reach the spawning grounds No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
36 Spawning migration distance Only make a few habitat changes during their life history [Do not migrate far from spawning grounds] No data Groot, 1996
37 Spawning migration period Upstream migrations have been observed as early as July in some Newfoundland rivers ['July'] Bradbury, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Enter their natal stream in spring and summer even though spawning occur in fall ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Coad, 2006
37 Spawning migration period "Lake-run fish (""coasters"") enter and ascend streams beginning in mid-August" ['August'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season October-November ['October', 'November'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season Begin on September, 28, reached its peal during October and early November ['October', 'November', 'September'] Hokanson, 1973
39 Spawning season October to January ['October', 'January'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season Normally spawns in late August or in September in the nothermost part of its range (60°N), and during November in the southermost areas ['August', 'November', 'September'] Henderson, 1963
39 Spawning season Autumn No data Rivier, 2001
39 Spawning season September to November, sometimes August to December ['August', 'November', 'December', 'September'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Usually during late September, October or November, but may take place as early as August or as late as December ['September', 'August', 'December', 'October', 'November'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season From October 20 to November 26 ['October', 'November'] Snucins, 1992
39 Spawning season October ['October'] Curry, 1991
39 Spawning season October-November ['October', 'November'] Fraser, 1985
39 Spawning season Over most of the range, October is the usual time of spawing [Occurs in late summer (late August or September) in the nothern part of their rnage to early december in the southern part] ['October', 'August', 'July', 'September'] Groot, 1996
39 Spawning season Normally occurs between late September and early November in Newfoundland ['November', 'September'] Bradbury, 1999
39 Spawning season Spawning in Nort America takes place from August to December ['August', 'December'] Coad, 2006
39 Spawning season Spawn in the fall (when day length decreases) mainly in October and early December, or Late August to early September ['October', 'August', 'December', 'September'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Mid-November to December ['November', 'December'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season Salmo and most char are fall breeders, although a few populations of Arctic char breed in spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Willson, 1997
39 Spawning season Brook trout were observed on or near the spanwing grounds over a 64-d period in 1994 (30 September to 2 December) and a 61-d period in 1995 (25 September to 24 November) ['November', 'December', 'September'] Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
39 Spawning season Winter spawner [Other authors described between October and March] ['October', 'March'] Humpesch, 1985
39 Spawning season Normally spawn during October, November and december in new Hampshire ['October', 'November'] Hoover and Hubbard, 1937
39 Spawning season The spawning season on cold lakes (Grand lac Jacques Cartier and des Neiges), starts as early as August 20, while in othr lakes it typically limited to the moth of September, with the greatest activity taking place during the first two weeks. The latest date for spawning in the Laurentide Park is about October 20 ['October', 'August', 'September'] Vladykov, 1956
39 Spawning season August-March but usually October-December ['October', 'August', 'March', 'December'] Goodyear, 1982
38 Homing Tag recaptures from fish tagged several years suggest that brrok trout spawn each year at the same spawning bed Present Fraser, 1985
38 Homing Enter their natal stream in spring and summer even though spawning occur in fall Present Coad, 2006
48 Spawning release Females spawned an average of 2.7-3.4 times to deposit a total of 552-571 eggs each Total Hokanson, 1973
48 Spawning release There are usually several extrutions followed by a resting period Mutliple Scott and Crossman, 1973
48 Spawning release During spawning, there are usually several extrusions of eggs and milt followed by resting periods before the nest is closed Mutliple Groot, 1996
48 Spawning release Female brook trout continue to excavate new redds an deposits eggs until they are spent No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
48 Spawning release Repeat spawning has been reported for brrok trout, but the accounts of successive spawning indicate that such behavior may lead to the deposition of ova in seperate pockets within a redd No category Hausle and Coble, 1976
49 Parity Tag recaptures from fish tagged several years suggest that brrok trout spawn each year at the same spawning bed No category Fraser, 1985
49 Parity Adults leave spawnig areas shortly after spawning No category Bradbury, 1999
49 Parity Brook trout mature early in life but have a considerably shorter life span than other salmonids No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
49 Parity Male brrok char often reproduce annually, but females in some populations only breed at 2 to 3 year intervals. This species tends to be short lived, with a maximum lifespan of less than 12 years, females tend to live longer than males No category Willson, 1997
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Berejikian, 2000
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
49 Parity As soon as S, fontinalis of either sex attains sexual maturity, it can spawn several years in succession No category Vladykov, 1956
49 Parity Most of the brook trout in these infertile streams mature, spawn, and die before reaching 6 inches in total length Semelparous Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
49 Parity Mean of 21% of repeat spawners for anadromous populations, and 24 (range 12-32%) for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998
49 Parity May return to lake after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982