Lota lota

  • Scientific name
  • Lota lota (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Burbot

  • Family
  • Lotidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 96%
Total data254
References36
Image of Lota lota

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Not sticky, free on the ground Non-Adhesive Spillmann, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Free, then stick to the ground Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Free on the ground Non-Adhesive Billard, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Not sticky Non-Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Egg stickiness is weak Adhesive Kujawa, 2002
4 Egg adhesiveness non-adhesive Non-Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time 30-60 45.0 days Persat, 2001
5 Incubation time 30 days at 5.5°C 30.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 30 [6.1°C], 71 [0-3.6°C] 1.8 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time Eggs incubate for 3-4 months 3.5 days Bradbury, 1999
5 Incubation time Takes about 30 days to hatch 30.0 days Anonymous, 2003
5 Incubation time Last about 3 months at 1°C, also described as 27-60 days, 77-78 days. 43.5 days Kujawa, 2002
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 30 days at 43°F 30.0 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 112-200 156.0 °C * day Van Houdt, 2003
7 Degree-days for incubation 200 200.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
7 Degree-days for incubation 200 200.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 150 150.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 180-200 190.0 °C * day Fishbase, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation Mass hatching occur at 117-131 124.0 °C * day Hudd and Kjellman, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-200, also descried as 109.4 140.0 °C * day Kujawa, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation 5.5 5.5 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 0-6.1 3.05 °C Fishbase, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 0-2 1.0 °C Hudd and Kjellman, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation At a mean temperature of incubation of 3.5°C, burbot hatched after 30 days 3 hours. Eggs of burbot can be incubated in Weiss jars at 0.5 to 3.5°C. During the first week of incubation water temperature can not exceed 4-5°C 4.5 °C Kujawa, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation Embryonic development occurs within a narrow temperature range of 2-6°C 4.0 °C Harzevili, 2004
2 Egg size after water-hardening 0.5-1.70 [Not specified] 1.1 mm Brylinska, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.25-1.77 [Not precised] 1.51 mm Mellinger, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening 0.5-1.7 [Mode 0.9] 1.1 mm Fishbase, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 0.8-1.2 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 1.0 mm Bonislawska, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Semi-buoyant [easily transported by slight water movements] Ambiguous Van Houdt, 2003
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal, and carried by the current Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Semi-pelagic, fall slowly on the ground No category Persat, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy On the bottom, demersal No category Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Semibuoyant Ambiguous Hudd and Kjellman, 2002
3 Egg Buoyancy Eggs are semi-buoyant when first laid, but become demersal within a few days and settle into interstices into the substrate Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs are semipelagic (partially float) and sink slowly to the bottom Ambiguous Anonymous, 2003
3 Egg Buoyancy Eggs are demersal, but the presence of a large fat droplet makes the eggs remain near the bottom in a suspended condition No category Kirillov, 1989
3 Egg Buoyancy Eggs develop inthe water column, but others described it at on the bottom. 24 hours after fertilisation eggs sink to the bottom. Before sinking eggs are transported downstream with water. At water current speed of 0.2 m/s eggs sink to the bottom and remain. On the rough ground, at the current speed of 4 m/s eggs start to float, and all eggs are washed out by a water current of 8 m/s Ambiguous Kujawa, 2002
3 Egg Buoyancy Semi-buoyant eggs settle to the bottom in quiet water, may be carried from spawning site by slight current Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
1 Oocyte diameter 0.80 to 1.00-1.12 [Ooocytes prior to spawning] 1.06 mm Brylinska, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 0.96-1.14 1.05 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter Slightly above 1 1.0 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1 1.0 mm Persat, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 0.5 before extrusion, but up to 1.25 and 1.77 0.5 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter Small: 0.95-1.15 1.05 mm Kujawa, 2002

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature was constant during rearing No data Harzevili, 2003
11 Temperature during larval development Range from 10-11°C for the apperance of erythrocytes to 13°C for the onset of active swimming, and 15-16°C for the beginning of feeding 10.5 °C Kujawa, 2002
11 Temperature during larval development Five constant temperatures of 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24°C (range ± 0.5°C), all in duplicate, were employed in the experiment. The fastest larval growth, either in terms of total length or body weight, was recorded for the temperature of 21°C, whereas at 12°C the larvae grew the slowest. A final survival rate of at least 90% was observed for the burbot reared at 12 and 15°C, this figure was significantly higher than at the other water temperatures. The fish reared at 12°C had the second highest survival rate at 72%. 12.0 °C Wolnicki, 2002
11 Temperature during larval development Food intake by burbot larvae begins when water temperature is above 8°C. […] larvae could tolerate up to a temperature of 20°C. The temperature of spring water was 12 ± 1°C upon release of the larvae but gradually adjusted to 16 and 20°C. […] High survival of burbot larvae at a higher temperature in the first 10 days of the experiment suggests that embryos (incubation temperature before the hatching was 4 ± 1°C) and larvae differ in their physiological tolerances. [...] It seems that the most appropriate temperature for successful burbot larvae culture is ranged between 12 and 16°C, and represents a trade-off between faster growth with higher mortalities at higher temepratures and slow growth, but higher survival at lower temperatures. 12.0 °C Harzevili, 2004
10 Reaction to light Survival data reveal that burbot larvae survive better under light condition compared with dark. […] a positive reaction to light by burbot larvae would be replaced by a negative phototactic at the later stage of development. Photopositive Harzevili, 2004
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Sibling intracohort cannibalism is present Present Kujawa, 2002
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism No cannibalism occurred at any temperature throughout the experiment, although in this species it may appear at about 12 mm TL Absent Wolnicki, 2002
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Yolk-feeding burbot larvae resorb their yolk sac during almost two weeks after hatching No data Kujawa, 2002
13 Full yolk-sac resorption At the yolk stage they measure 3-4 mm. 3.5 °C * day Harzevili, 2004
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 270 DD at 15-16°C after fertilization, they begin feeding less than about 130-140 DD for incubation 15.5 °C * day Kujawa, 2002
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Burbot larvae, which were the pooled offpsring of many wild spawners, were reared from the first feeding (day 10 post-hatch) over a period of 20 days. Larvae of an initial size of 3.61 ± 0.27 mm (average TL ± SD, n = 15). 3.61 °C * day Wolnicki, 2002
8 Initial larval size 3-4 3.5 mm Persat, 2001
8 Initial larval size 3 3.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size Range from 3.5-3.9, depending of egg diameter, sporadically newly hatched larvae attain 4.3. mm 3.7 mm Kujawa, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour Pelagic until 6-7 mm then become benthic Pelagic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Small pelagic larvae Pelagic Van Houdt, 2003
9 Larvae behaviour Pelagic, gregarious, steadily remain under the surface of water Pelagic Persat, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour At hatching, the offspring are at first pelagic, threafter they are found in shallow littoral waters Pelagic Hudd and Kjellman, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour Buoyant larvae are carried downstream in water currents Demersal Mann, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour Immediate dispersion after hatching Demersal Urho, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour Upon hatching larvae are pelagic Pelagic Bradbury, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Dispersed earlier at the yolk-stage and ended up in the littoral Demersal Urho, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larvae repeatedly swim up and sink, later they sink to the bottom where they remain until final resoprtion of yolk sac. When a major part of the yolk sac is resorbed fish start swimming searching for food. They aggregate in the surface layers of shallow waters, where they fed on phytoplankton and rotifers. Demersal Kujawa, 2002

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females reach maturity at a lesser weight than males, possibly younger Absent Hewson, 1955
24 Maximum GSI value 8.8 (November 26) but also up to 16.9% 8.8 percent Brylinska, 2002
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 12, from 10-14.8 in December [Coefficient of sexual maturation] 12.4 percent Vedeneev, 2003
24 Maximum GSI value 10-11 [In beginning of January] 10.5 percent June, 1977
25 Oogenesis duration 5-6 [From July to November] 5.5 months Brylinska, 2002
19 Relative fecundity 448.8-1234.5 841.65 thousand eggs/kg Brylinska, 2002
19 Relative fecundity 400-1000 700.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 1000 1000.0 thousand eggs/kg Spillmann, 1961
19 Relative fecundity 500-1000 750.0 thousand eggs/kg Van Houdt, 2003
19 Relative fecundity 1000 1000.0 thousand eggs/kg Persat, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 49 49.0 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
19 Relative fecundity 1000 1000.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
19 Relative fecundity 957.48 ± 180.27 957.48 thousand eggs/kg Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
27 Age at sexual maturity 3+ 3.0 years Van Houdt, 2003
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 1.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity Usually in the 3-4 [Both sex] 3.5 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 5 [Lowest age] 5.0 years Vedeneev, 2003
27 Age at sexual maturity In Canada, burbot generally reach sexual maturity between 2-8 years of age [sex not specified] 5.0 years Bradbury, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex not specified] 3.5 years Anonymous, 2003
27 Age at sexual maturity Some burbot are probably sexually mature when 2 years old, and immaturity seems to be associated more with size than with age 2.0 years Hewson, 1955
27 Age at sexual maturity Burbot attain sexual maturity in the Vilyuy basin in the 7th year, mostly 8th of life. Most probably, the males mature one year earlier 7.0 years Kirillov, 1989
27 Age at sexual maturity First spawning males are 3 years old 3.0 years Kujawa, 2002
27 Age at sexual maturity Burbot matured in Lake Cle Elum at 2-4 years (28-43 cm TL). In Palmer Lake, all mature males were six years or older and mature females seven years or older (54 and 64 cm TL, respectively). Most burbot matured at 3-4 years of age in three Wyoming lakes, and two years in Lake Winninpeg 3.0 years Bonar, 2000
26 Resting period 0.5 -1.3 [July 29] 3.15 months Brylinska, 2002
26 Resting period April to August No data Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
22 Onset of oogenesis July [Increase from July to November] ['November', 'July'] Brylinska, 2002
22 Onset of oogenesis August ['August'] Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
22 Onset of oogenesis The onset of ovarian recrudescence was first evident in early June ['June'] June, 1977
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity November-December ['November', 'December'] Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity November-December ['November', 'December'] June, 1977
20 Absolute fecundity 32.2-1453 742.6 thousand eggs Brylinska, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 33-5000 2516.5 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity From 45.6 for a 343-mm female to 1,362.077 to a 643-mm female 45.6 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity Mean 1417, from 1014 to 2383 1417.0 thousand eggs Vedeneev, 2003
20 Absolute fecundity The maximum absolute fecundity in the Vilyuysk Reservoir is 777000, individual absolute fecundity of Ob' burbot reaches 5 million eggs 777000.0 thousand eggs Kirillov, 1989
20 Absolute fecundity Mean of 89 692, range 60 728-159 613 79.5 thousand eggs Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
20 Absolute fecundity A female produces 10000-800000, up to 5000000 405000.0 thousand eggs Kujawa, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 300-400 350.0 thousand eggs Billard, 1997
17 Weight at sexual maturity 2.5 [Lowest weight] 2.5 kg Vedeneev, 2003
17 Weight at sexual maturity 1.3 pounds [Age 3], 2.2 [Age 4], 2.4 [Age 5] both sex in Winnipeg Beach. The largest immature female weighed 1.5 pounds 1.3 kg Hewson, 1955
17 Weight at sexual maturity Mean 1.724, range 0.62-3.73 [Age 6+], Mean 2.53, range 0.8-3.12 [Age 7+], and mean 3.080, range 1.1-6.1 [Age 8+] 2.175 kg Kirillov, 1989
17 Weight at sexual maturity Burbot matured in Lake Cle Elum at 2-4 years (28-43 cm TL). In Palmer Lake, all mature males were six years or older and mature females seven years or older (54 and 64 cm TL, respectively). Most burbot matured at 3-4 years of age in three Wyoming lakes, and two years in Lake Winninpeg 3.0 kg Bonar, 2000
16 Length at sexual maturity 32-34 [Sex not specified] 33.0 cm Van Houdt, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity 30-40 35.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 28-48 [Both sex] 38.0 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
16 Length at sexual maturity 35-40 37.5 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 65 [Lowest size] 65.0 cm Vedeneev, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity 28-48 [Sex not specified] 38.0 cm Anonymous, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity 16.2 [Age 3], 19.3 [Age 4], 20.7 [Age 5] both sex in Winnipeg Beach 16.2 cm Hewson, 1955
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean 57, range 45.5-77 [Age 6+], Mean 55.4, range 49-75 [Age 7+], and mean 71.3, range 55-87 [Age 8+] 61.25 cm Kirillov, 1989
16 Length at sexual maturity The mean length of mature males and females was the same 49 ± 3 cm 49.0 cm Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 22.95, range 21.2-25.9 for females studied 23.55 cm Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
16 Length at sexual maturity Burbot mature at a length of 30 cm [Sex not specified] 30.0 cm Kujawa, 2002
16 Length at sexual maturity The length of adult burbot is normally in the range 300-500 mm 400.0 cm Slavik and Bartos, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 4+ 4.0 year Van Houdt, 2003
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity Usually in the 3-4 [Both sex] 3.5 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 4.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 7+ [Lowest age] 7.0 year Vedeneev, 2003
15 Age at sexual maturity In Canada, burbot generally reach sexual maturity between 2-8 years of age [sex not specified] 5.0 year Bradbury, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex not specified] 3.5 year Anonymous, 2003
15 Age at sexual maturity Some burbot are probably sexuallu mature when 2 years old, and immaturity seems to be associated more with size than with age 2.0 year Hewson, 1955
15 Age at sexual maturity First spawning females are 4 years old, a year older than males 4.0 year Kujawa, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity Burbot matured in Lake Cle Elum at 2-4 years (28-43 cm TL). In Palmer Lake, all mature males were six years or older and mature females seven years or older (54 and 64 cm TL, respectively). Most burbot matured at 3-4 years of age in three Wyoming lakes, and two years in Lake Winninpeg 3.0 year Bonar, 2000

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism GSI in burbot is higher for the testes than the ovaries !!! Absent Brylinska, 2002
31 Onset of spermatogenesis July [Increase from July to November] ['November', 'July'] Brylinska, 2002
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Slight increase in June, clear increase in November ['November', 'June'] Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
33 Maximum GSI value 20.6 [November 26] but up to 25.8% 20.6 percent Brylinska, 2002
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 11.1, from 9.5-16.0 in December [Coefficient of sexual maturation] 12.75 percent Vedeneev, 2003
33 Maximum GSI value The maturity index of males sharply increases in November to 14.55 14.55 percent Kirillov, 1989
32 Main spermatogenesis activity October-November ['October', 'November'] Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
35 Resting period 0.5-2.7 [July 29th] 1.6 months Brylinska, 2002
35 Resting period No difference in term of GSI between April and July, and even up to October No data Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
28 Length at sexual maturity 32-34 [sex not specified] 33.0 cm Van Houdt, 2003
28 Length at sexual maturity 28.0-48.0 [For female but males usually mature at a smaller size] 38.0 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
28 Length at sexual maturity 27-30 28.5 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity 51 [Lowest size] 51.0 cm Vedeneev, 2003
28 Length at sexual maturity 28-48 [Sex not specified] 38.0 cm Anonymous, 2003
28 Length at sexual maturity 16.2 [Age 3], 19.3 [Age 4], 20.7 [Age 5] both sex in Winnipeg Beach 16.2 cm Hewson, 1955
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean 56.1, range 46.5-71 [Age 6+], mean 57.5, range 49.5-77 [Age 7+] 58.75 cm Kirillov, 1989
28 Length at sexual maturity The mean length of mature males and females was the same 49 ± 3 cm 49.0 cm Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
28 Length at sexual maturity Burbot mature at a length of 30 cm [Sex not specified] 30.0 cm Kujawa, 2002
28 Length at sexual maturity Burbot matured in Lake Cle Elum at 2-4 years (28-43 cm TL). In Palmer Lake, all mature males were six years or older and mature females seven years or older (54 and 64 cm TL, respectively). Most burbot matured at 3-4 years of age in three Wyoming lakes, and two years in Lake Winninpeg 3.0 cm Bonar, 2000
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.9 [Lowest weight] 0.9 kg Vedeneev, 2003
29 Weight at sexual maturity The largest immature male weighed 2.2 pounds 2.2 kg Hewson, 1955
29 Weight at sexual maturity Mean 1.381, range 0.8-3.065 [Age 6+], and mean 1.411, range 0.85-3.56 [Age 7+] 1.9325 kg Kirillov, 1989

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Communal process, up to 20 or so individuals Promiscuity Van Houdt, 2003
47 Mating system The actual spawning activity is said to take place at in a writhing ball about 2 feet in diameter, which moves over the bottom and is made up of 10-12 intertwined and constantly moving individuals No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system Pairspawning for Lota lota lota and by group for Lota lota maculosa: group spawn, a tangled globular mass of moving males and females, spawing 10-12 ind interwined Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
47 Mating system Spawning activity is quite a sight. They are known to form writhing masses of 10-12 constantly moving individuals that can get as large as 2 feet in diameter. This writhing mass of spawners moves over the bottom and frop eggs. No category Anonymous, 2003
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Always occur at night Night Van Houdt, 2003
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night Persat, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning activity takes place only at night and the grounds are deserted in the daytime Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Occurs at night Night Anonymous, 2003
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Burbot spawners avoid strong light, typically they spawn at night Night Kujawa, 2002
50 Parental care No care is given to the young No care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Clear substrate of sand or gravel Ambiguous Van Houdt, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Sand or gravels Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Clear gravels Lithophils Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Sand or gravel bottom Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Gravel and sandy sites Ambiguous Vedeneev, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Stones/gravels Lithophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Over clean sand, gravel or cobble/rubble substrates Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Over rocky susbtrates Lithophils Anonymous, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Spawning grounds of burbot are typically river beds covered with stones and gravel Lithophils Kujawa, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are scattered in mid-water over rock, gravel, shale, sand, clay, or mud Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation No nest is built Open water/substratum scatter Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation No, eggs are laid on stones/gravels Susbtrate chooser Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are broadcast into the water column well above the substrate Open water/substratum scatter Bradbury, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation No nest is built Open water/substratum scatter Ah-King, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation No nests are built Open water/substratum scatter Anonymous, 2003
41 Spawning temperature 5-10 7.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature 0.5-4 2.25 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 0.5-4 2.25 °C Van Houdt, 2003
41 Spawning temperature 1 1.0 °C Billard, 1997
41 Spawning temperature <5°C 5.0 °C Persat, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Usually 0.6-1.7°C 1.15 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature < 4 4.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 0.5-4.0 2.25 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Burbot spawn in winter time at a temperature of 1-4°C 2.5 °C Harzevili, 2004
41 Spawning temperature 33-50°F 41.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration Males are usually present first in the spawning area No data Van Houdt, 2003
40 Spawning period duration Males arrive on the spawning ground first, followed in 3 or 4 days by the female 3.0 weeks Scott and Crossman, 1973
40 Spawning period duration 4-5 [From late December to January] 4.5 weeks Vedeneev, 2003
40 Spawning period duration Males reach spawning grounds first and females follow a couple of days later No data Anonymous, 2003
40 Spawning period duration Lasts about 3 weeks 3.0 weeks Hewson, 1955
40 Spawning period duration During 7-10 days males are able to fertilize eggs produced by subsequently arriving females. In controlled conditions, milt preserves its fertilizing capacity during a month. 8.5 weeks Kujawa, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 1 one week period 1.0 weeks Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type """Bras morts ou les annexes inondées en rivières"", 2-3 m in lakes" Stagnant water Persat, 2001
42 Spawning water type Shallow bays, usually spawn in the lake they are also know to move into rivers to spawn Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Lakes or rivers Stagnant water Vedeneev, 2003
42 Spawning water type Both lakes and rivers Stagnant water Bradbury, 1999
42 Spawning water type Spawning condition occured both inshore and offshore, but they were observed in greater numbers in the inshore nets Stagnant water Hewson, 1955
42 Spawning water type Typically in river beds. Spawning in lakes was reported as well. A part of burbot lacustrine populations in Sweden spawned in the lakes Stagnant water Kujawa, 2002
42 Spawning water type Nearshore areas, including shorelines, river mouths, bays, and harbors, offshore bars and reefs, swift, open water in streams Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Burbot can spawn either in lakes or rivers. In washington, burbot evidently spawn in lakes and reservoirs except for some Lake Roosevelt fish that spawn in a flowing section of the Columbia River near the Canadian border Ambiguous Bonar, 2000
43 Spawning depth Sometimes quite deep in lakes No data Spillmann, 1961
43 Spawning depth Shallow water: 2-3 deep 2.5 m Van Houdt, 2003
43 Spawning depth 0.5-1.5 [2-3 m in lakes] 1.0 m Persat, 2001
43 Spawning depth Usually at 0.3-1.20 m (1-4 feet) of water, but circumstantial evidence that burbit spawn in deep water 0.75 m Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth In lakes, spawning occurs in areas with little accumulation of silt or detritus, usually at depths of 0.3-3.0 m, but has been reported at depths of 18-20 m 1.65 m Bradbury, 1999
43 Spawning depth The spawning act was accomplished near the surface No data Hewson, 1955
43 Spawning depth Shallow lakes with well oxygenated water are selected by burbot for spawning No data Kujawa, 2002
43 Spawning depth 1-480 feet, bh deepwater and shallow-water are reported 240.5 m Goodyear, 1982
36 Spawning migration distance Spawning is often preceed by a spawning migration over long distances: sometimes up to 400 km [but could be less than 10 km] 400.0 km Van Houdt, 2003
36 Spawning migration distance About 60-70 km 65.0 km Vedeneev, 2003
36 Spawning migration distance If possible lacustrine populations migrate to rivers for spawning. Burbot from Baikal Lake migrate several hundreds km to spawning grounds in rivers No data Kujawa, 2002
37 Spawning migration period The spawning migration began from the second half of October and continued until early January, i.e. in the period of the open water followed by the period of ice ['October', 'January'] Vedeneev, 2003
37 Spawning migration period They travel upstream 1.5-2 km (maximally 6 km per day), migration lasts 5-6 months (from September to January). Spawning migration are triggered by a decrease of water temperature in the lake 10-12°C. ['January', 'September'] Kujawa, 2002
37 Spawning migration period Move from deep water to nearshore areas and into harbors and rivers, usually beginning in early November ['November'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season December-January ['January', 'December'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season November to March [In February in Alpin lakes] ['February', 'November', 'March'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season During winter [February in France] ['February', 'March', 'January'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season November to March ['November', 'March'] Van Houdt, 2003
39 Spawning season Spawns in mid-winter under the ice: from November to May, but mainly in January to March in Canada ['March', 'January', 'May', 'February', 'November'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Mainly in December to January [But from November to March] ['November', 'March', 'January', 'December'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season From late December to January ['January', 'December'] Vedeneev, 2003
39 Spawning season Spawn in February and March in Northern Finland ['February', 'March'] Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1993
39 Spawning season November-March ['February', 'November', 'March', 'January'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season End of November to Beginning of March ['November', 'March'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season Spawn under the ice, usually between January and March ['March', 'January'] Bradbury, 1999
39 Spawning season Spawn in midwinter under the ice, from November to May, but generally they spawn in Janaury through March ['March', 'January', 'May', 'February', 'November'] Anonymous, 2003
39 Spawning season Male burbot were observed in a near-ripe condition about January 20 in each year, and actual spawning probably commenced about January 31. Many fish were spent by February 10, but ripe unspawned fish of both sex occurred as late as February 20. ['February', 'January'] Hewson, 1955
39 Spawning season Maximum feeding of burbot was observed during the prespawning (September-December) and postspawning (March-June) feeding periods ['March', 'December', 'June', 'September'] Kirillov, 1989
39 Spawning season In 1987, spawning males were found from 13 March to 5 April and females from 2 March to 27 March, whereas in 1988 spawning occured earlier: from 26 February to 20 March in the males and from 11 February to 11 march in the females. ['February', 'April', 'March'] Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
39 Spawning season From December to Marhc ['December'] Kujawa, 2002
39 Spawning season Mean peak spawning 14 January [Range: 12 January-1 February] in Lake Oahe, South and North Dakota ['February', 'January'] June, 1977
39 Spawning season Winter spawner. In the lakes of North America, activity of burbot increased until the period of reproduction in February and March ['February', 'March'] Slavik and Bartos, 2002
39 Spawning season A 1-week period in november-May, at 33-50°F, varies considerably with locality, eggs have also been collected in September ['May', 'September'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Burbot spawn in winter time at a temperature of 1-4°C ['February', 'March', 'January'] Harzevili, 2004
39 Spawning season Burbot spawn in the winter or early spring in most areas ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'February'] Bonar, 2000
38 Homing "Migrate to their ""home stream"" every year" Present Van Houdt, 2003
48 Spawning release One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity Spawning may not repeat every year No category Vedeneev, 2003
49 Parity Can live up to 10 to 15 years No category Anonymous, 2003
49 Parity Some mature fish do not spawn every year No category Hewson, 1955
49 Parity Burbot spending a rest year do not accumulate and store energy reserves over the summer for the next year, and that such rest years, if they exist, do not occur for nuttritional reasons No category Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
49 Parity After spawning, fish migrate downstream to lakes No category Kujawa, 2002
49 Parity Usually return to deeper water by April, may remain in harbors until mid-June before moving into lakes, often move from lakes into rivers after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982