Coregonus clupeaformis

  • Scientific name
  • Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill, 1818)

  • Common name
  • Whitefish

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 86%
Total data152
References29
Image of Coregonus clupeaformis

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Not sticky [The eggs fall into crevices where they develop over the winter] Non-Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs Adhesive Bradbury, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
5 Incubation time 140-150 days at 2.0-2.2°C 145.0 days Harris and Huslman, 2001
5 Incubation time 59 [7.8°C], 111.5 [4.0], 152.5 [2.0] 59.0 days Brooke, 1975
5 Incubation time 140 [0.5°C] 140.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 150-170 160.0 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 60.7 [5°C], 34.6 [7.5°C], 24.0 [10°C] and 18.2 [12.5°C] for 50% hatch 60.7 days Jensen, 1997
5 Incubation time About 140 days 140.0 days Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
5 Incubation time 4-6 months 5.0 days Bradbury, 1999
5 Incubation time Hatching occured between 84 and 101 days (mean of 94) at an average temperature of 3.4°C (± 0.3°C) 84.0 days Brown and Taylor, 1992
7 Degree-days for incubation About 300 300.0 °C * day Harris and Huslman, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 300-400 350.0 °C * day Brooke, 1975
7 Degree-days for incubation 227.4-303.3 [Between 0.5-12.5°C] 265.35 °C * day Jensen, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 320 [Hatching occured between 84 and 101 days (mean of 94) at an average temperature of 3.4°C (± 0.3°C)] 320.0 °C * day Brown and Taylor, 1992
7 Degree-days for incubation 305 [2°C], 446 [4°C], 500 [5.9°C], 460 [7.8°C], 417 [10°C] 305.0 °C * day Mack and Billard, 1984
6 Temperature for incubation "3-8 [Upper lethal incubation is 10°C, can be incubated successfully at 1°C (""cold breeding""), but such eggs have to be trasnfered to 5-10°C before hatching]" 5.5 °C Rösch, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation 3.2-8.1 5.65 °C Luczynski and Kirklewska, 1984
6 Temperature for incubation 2.0-2.2 2.1 °C Harris and Huslman, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 3.2-8 is the optimum range [The increased abnormalities at incubation temperatures of 0.5, 2.0 and 10.0] 5.6 °C Brooke, 1975
6 Temperature for incubation 6.5-9 7.75 °C Rinchard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Normal development occurs over a temperature range of 0.5-6.1, with the optimum close to 0.5 [Eggs incubated at 10°C, suffer 99% mortality] 3.3 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal temperature is 0.5-1.0°C [Variation tolerate 0.5-6.0] 0.75 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation 4-8 6.0 °C Czerkies, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation 3.4 ± 0.05 3.4 °C Davis and Todd, 1998
6 Temperature for incubation About 43°F, 6.1°C 6.1 °C Goodyear, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation 5-12.5°C 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation 0.6-6.1 is the optimal temperature 3.35 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
6 Temperature for incubation 1-8°C 4.5 °C Bradbury, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation Mass hatching survival averaged 97.6% for average incubation temperatures ranging from 1.7°C to 6.4°C 4.0 °C Drouin, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at an average temperature of 3.4°C (± 0.3°C) 3.4 °C Brown and Taylor, 1992
6 Temperature for incubation The best temperature seem to be 4°C 4.0 °C Mack and Billard, 1984
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3-3.2 3.1 mm Mellinger, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.0-3.2 [After 24 hours in water] 3.1 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.8-3.0 2.9 mm Sturn, 1994
2 Egg size after water-hardening Increase up to 3.2 mm after 24 hours in the water 3.2 mm Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [The eggs fall into crevices where they develop over the winter] Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal eggs incubate on spawning substrate, often in crevices between and under rocks Demersal Goodyear, 1982
3 Egg Buoyancy Settle in rocky crevices where they remain No category Bradbury, 1999
1 Oocyte diameter 2.3 [After extrusion] 2.3 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter Initially 2.3 in diameter 2.3 mm Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
1 Oocyte diameter 2-2.7 [Oocyte ?] 2.35 mm Mack and Billard, 1984

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 11-15 [Most suitable for growth and survival] 13.0 °C Rösch, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development 6.0-8.0 [During the initiation of feeding], then 14-15°C [Fourth to fifth week of rearing] 7.0 °C Harris and Huslman, 2001
11 Temperature during larval development Larvae most abundant in water of 4°C 4.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
11 Temperature during larval development 10°C 10.0 °C Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
11 Temperature during larval development Immediatly prior to egg hatching 100 eggs groupings were counted and placed in a series of 20 l aerated aquaria cooled to 12°C 12.0 °C Taylor and Freeberg, 1984
11 Temperature during larval development Trial 1: Rearing temperatures ranged from 11.0 to 13.5°C from days 1 to 20 and from 13.5 to 14.5°C from days 20 to 50. Trial 2: rearing temperatures ranged from 7.2 to 12.2°C from days 1 to 36 and from 12.2 to 17.2°C from days 36 to 50 1.0 °C Zitzow and Millard, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 6.9 ± 0.6°C 6.9 °C Brown and Taylor, 1992
10 Reaction to light React negatively to light Photopositive Kerr and Grant, 1999
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Never observed, no larval cannibalism was ever observed either in fish reared on artificial feed or on natural food Absent Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 150-160 [There were essentially no differences in survival among feeding regimes until day 15 [at 12°C], when yolk sac was complete and the larvae had to feed on exogeneous food resources.] 155.0 °C * day Taylor and Freeberg, 1984
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 150-170 [Yolk-sac absorption occured between 23 and 25 days post-hatch (at 6.9°C). Yet, water temperatures in their this experiment were maintained at relatively low temperatures to simulate temperatures normally encountered in the Laurentian Great Lakes, while in early study was conducted at 12°C. At this higher temperature, larval lake whitefish exhausted energy reserves between 12 and 15 days post-hatch] 160.0 °C * day Brown and Taylor, 1992
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding In trial (at 11-13.5°C), lake whitefish were feeding in all tanks by day 3. In trial 2 (at 7.2-12.2°C), lake whitefish larvae were feeding in all tanks by day 3, but feed was not observed in the digestive tract until day 5 12.25 °C * day Zitzow and Millard, 1988
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Larvae were not fed until just prior to yolk sac absorption (21 after hatching) [Yet under natural conditions, larval lake whitefish are capable of feeding within 48 h after hatching 21.0 °C * day Brown and Taylor, 1992
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Upon acclimatization to 10 and 5°C, a lethal temperature of 22.6°C and 20.6°C, respectively. 10.0 °C * day Jezierska, 1979
8 Initial larval size 12.8 ± 0.4 12.8 mm Harris and Huslman, 2001
8 Initial larval size 12.4-13.5 12.95 mm Brooke, 1975
8 Initial larval size 10.8-11.5 11.15 mm Sturn, 1994
8 Initial larval size 14.5 [Not trully specified if at hatching] 14.5 mm Davis and Todd, 1998
8 Initial larval size About 12 mm at 1 week 12.0 mm Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
8 Initial larval size 10.5-11.5 [At hatching, deduced from graph] 11.0 mm Taylor and Freeberg, 1984
8 Initial larval size 10.8-11.3 [Deduced from graph, at haching] 11.05 mm Brown and Taylor, 1992
8 Initial larval size 11.84 [After 231 days of incubation], 11.03 [After 183 days of incubation] and also 13.5 [At hatching] 11.84 mm Mack and Billard, 1984
9 Larvae behaviour Tend to remain in the spawning gravel Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Rise to surface soon after hatching Demersal Goodyear, 1982
9 Larvae behaviour Young typically hatch from mid-May to mid-June and remain within the general vicinity of the spawning area Demersal Bradbury, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour After the third week, the larvae swam incessantly in tight formation in a circular motion from feeding station to feeding station. There, they congregated and swarmed around the point of entry of nauplii. Displaced larvae swam rapidly to the opposing feeding station where they strived aggressively to regain and advantageous feeding position. Between feedings the larvae continued swimming in tight schools near the surface. Demersal Drouin, 1986
9 Larvae behaviour Throughout the trial, larvae in all tanks formed a school only when startled but then soon disassociated Demersal Zitzow and Millard, 1988

Female (75%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Sexual dimoprhism is minimal Absent Willson, 1997
18 Female sexual dimorphism No change for female Absent Mack and Billard, 1984
24 Maximum GSI value Female whitefish in Lake Erie habe been calculated to lose approximatively 11% of their weight at spawning 11.0 percent Scott and Crossman, 1973
19 Relative fecundity Estimated at 16.1 eggs per pound of fish 16.1 thousand eggs/kg Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
19 Relative fecundity 14.3 to 27.6 14.3 thousand eggs/kg Mack and Billard, 1984
19 Relative fecundity "The number of eggs per pound of fish bas been calculated to be 16100 for Lake Erie (possibly high since counting was done in Augts on ""green"" eggs), 9900 for Lake Ontario and 8200 for Lake Huron" 16100.0 thousand eggs/kg Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity Reach at 2 [Not specified] 2.0 years Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
27 Age at sexual maturity Males mature at an ealier age than females and die ealier No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity In labrador, lake whitefish usually attain sexual maturiy in 5-11 years, although dwarf populations may mature as early as 2 years of age [Sex not specified] 8.0 years Bradbury, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity Vary between 5 to 8 years [male] 5.0 years Mack and Billard, 1984
22 Onset of oogenesis Initiated in early summer ['August', 'July', 'September'] Rinchard, 2001
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Fall [Decreasing daylength triggers final maturation] No data Rinchard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity The equation describing the relationship between fecundity and fork length for these populations was : Fecundity=0.0404 length 3.527 (cm), e.g. vary between 20000 and 40000 for total length of 40 to 50 cm respectively 0.0404 thousand eggs Healey and Nicol, 1975
17 Weight at sexual maturity Vary between 0.29 to 0.600 depending on the area 0.29 kg Mack and Billard, 1984
16 Length at sexual maturity 23-27 [Sex mixed] 25.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Reach at 2 [Not specified] 2.0 year Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
15 Age at sexual maturity In labrador, lake whitefish usually attain sexual maturiy in 5-11 years, although dwarf populations may mature as early as 2 years of age [Sex not specified] 8.0 year Bradbury, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity Vary between 6 or 9 years for female 6.0 year Mack and Billard, 1984

Male (78%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Whitefish males commonly develop breeding tubercles, especially on the flanks, but tubercles are less well developped and rarer on females Absent Willson, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercles on the head Present Mack and Billard, 1984
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Initiated in early summer ['August', 'July', 'September'] Rinchard, 2001
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Fall [Decreasing daylength triggers final maturation] No data Rinchard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 23-27 [Sex mixed] 25.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
29 Weight at sexual maturity Vary between 0.26 to 0.500 [Male] 0.26 kg Mack and Billard, 1984

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system A female and one or more males rise to the surface, release eggs and milt and descend separately toward the bottom No category Fishbase, 2006
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning fish are active and may jump and thrash about, especially at night Night Scott and Crossman, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occurs at night Night Fishbase, 2006
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning activity occurs at night Night Kerr and Grant, 1999
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Probably at night Night Mack and Billard, 1984
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care No parental care is provided to the eggs or young No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care After spawning, adullts return to deeper water No category Bradbury, 1999
50 Parental care Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care Willson, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Hard or stoney bottom but sometimes over sand Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Bottom type is often flat rock, stone or gravel or sometimes sand [Spawning shoals could also be composed of cobble-boulder limestone over a sand, clay or bedrock base located from the shoreline out to a depth of several metres] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate "Over hard, clean bottom, including stone, rubble, honeycombed rock, gravel, sand, and clay, used a variety of substrate types than lake trout, vegetation suaully not present, but spawning over ""moss"" has been reported" Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Over rocky, hard, or sandt susbtrate Ambiguous Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
44 Spawning substrate Preferred spawning susbrate appears to be gravel, cobble or boulder, but spawning may occasionally occur over sand [Mud botoms are generally avoided by both river and lake spawners] Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Pebbles or big rocks Lithophils Mack and Billard, 1984
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited more or less randomly over the spanwing grounds by the parents Susbtrate chooser Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are broadcast near surface Open water/substratum scatter Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are brodcast into the water column No category Bradbury, 1999
41 Spawning temperature Dropped below about 7.8 7.8 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 4.4-10.0°C, even 3-4°C, most at less than 7-8°C [Most successful spawning occurs at temperatures <6.1°C] 7.2 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature About 53-33°F (i.e. 0.5-11.5°C), spawning at temperatures above 43°F (6°C) probably not successfull 43.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
41 Spawning temperature >8°C 8.0 °C Bradbury, 1999
40 Spawning period duration Last for a week or ten days [Eggs being deposited over a period of several days] No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
40 Spawning period duration 2-5 weeks 3.5 weeks Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration The breeding season for an individual female does not probably last more than 10 days 10.0 weeks Mack and Billard, 1984
42 Spawning water type Spawning shoals of lakes Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type Inshore areas, bays, ledges, shoals, reefs, often same sites used by lake trout Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Unlike many other species, flowing water is not required for spawning Flowing or turbulent water Bradbury, 1999
42 Spawning water type Lakes, streams Stagnant water Willson, 1997
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters at depth of less than 7.6 m 7.6 m Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth Spawn at depths between 1.8-18.3 m [Either at 9 m, 6-14 m deep, or 7.6 m ] 10.05 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth Several inches-100 feet, but usually less than 30 feet, often spawn in shallower portions of same reefs used by lake trout 100.0 m Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Shallow water at depth of less than 7.6 m 7.6 m Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
43 Spawning depth Spawning in small lakes occurs most frequently at depths <5m, while it may occur uo to 30 m in larger lakes 5.0 m Bradbury, 1999
43 Spawning depth Usually 2-4 m deep, or less than 5 m 3.0 m Mack and Billard, 1984
37 Spawning migration period Migrate to spawning grounds around mid-October when water temperatures begin to drop ['October'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Move inshore to spawning grounds, migration begins in September-October, but occasionally as early as August, historically also ascend rivers to spawn ['October', 'August', 'September'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Last 2 weeks of November ['November'] Harris and Huslman, 2001
39 Spawning season November [Mainly] and December ['November', 'December'] Rinchard, 2001
39 Spawning season November and December, but also from late September to October ['October', 'November', 'December', 'September'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season November to December ['November', 'December'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season For the most part, spawning occurs in late October and early November [There have been instances where spawning has occured into mid-December] ['October', 'November', 'December'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season October-January, peak spawning usually occurs in late November-earlt December ['October', 'November', 'January', 'December'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Spawn in the autumn, usually in November and December ['October', 'November', 'December'] Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
39 Spawning season In Labrador, spawning usually takes place in lakes in mid-September or October ['October', 'September'] Bradbury, 1999
39 Spawning season Some species of Coregonus in summer or winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February'] Willson, 1997
39 Spawning season From Ocotber to January, but usually from the end of October to the end of December ['October', 'January', 'December'] Mack and Billard, 1984
48 Spawning release Eggs being deposited over a period of several days Mutliple Kerr and Grant, 1999
49 Parity Breeds annually in the southern parts of the range, but only every other year or even third year in the arctic and sib-arctic region No category Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity Lake withefish have a maximum life spawn of about 18 years No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
49 Parity Return to deep water occurs soon after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
49 Parity After spawning, adullts return to deeper water Iteroparous Bradbury, 1999
49 Parity Typically iteroparous, although reproduction does not occur every year for some individuals and populations No category Willson, 1997