Kerr and Grant, 1999



Citation


Kerr, S.J. and Grant, R.E. (1999) Ecological impacts of fish introductions: Evaluating the risk.
Fish and Wildlife Branch, Ontation Ministry of Natural Resources

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Mating system Adults pair off at spawning time, usually one large female with one ot two smaller males No category
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Mating system One or two smaller males pair up with one larger, mature female No category
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Mating system Individulas may spawn in different nests with different mates No category
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Mating system Males and females may spawn more than once during the spanwing season No category
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Mating system More than one female can spawn in the nest of a single male No category
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Mating system Female may lay eggs in more than one nest during a single spawning season No category
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Mating system Several males fertilize the eggs as they are extruded by the female in a gelatinous, convoluted string No category
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Mating system Generally involves groups of one large feamle and two smaller males or two females and up to six males Promiscuity
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Mating system Several males are attracted as the female starts to dig in earnest. The largest male dominates and joins her in the centre of the redd. No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Mating system Several males are attracted as the female continues this activity. The largest male dominates and joins her in the centre of the redd No category
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Mating system Mating stops between the pair when the female is spent No category
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Mating system A male will court many females within its range [Lake trout visit and probably spawn on more than one shoal] Polygyny
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning usually takes place at night, but will spawn during daylight hours Ambiguous
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition The time at which yellow perch spawning occurs has been reported as being both at night and during the day Ambiguous
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawing takes place most often at night Night
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning activity occurs at night Night
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Nest constrution occurs both day and night Ambiguous
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning activity takes place during the day Day
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Occurs during the day: mating will go uninterrupted for several hours, except for periods of darkness or when the female begins to build a new nest Day
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning generally occurs during the day with peaks in spawning activity occuring between 1300 and 1400 Day
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Most spawning takes place during the hours of darkness between dusk and 2300 hours Dusk
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Parental care Males guard nest Male parental care
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Parental care Provides no parental care for eggs or young No care
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Parental care Males guard eggs and fry Male parental care
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Parental care Males guard nest and fry Male parental care
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Parental care The males guards the nest from predators and fans the eggs during the inbubation period Male parental care
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Parental care Almost any substrate may be used as a nest site from rock to organic substrate. But mostly over gravel (coarse and fine), and mud, sand to mud below boulders No category
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Parental care No parental care is provided to the eggs or fry No category
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Parental care No parental care is provided to the eggs or young No category
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Parental care Eggs are not guarded by either parents No care
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Parental care The female may guard the redd as long as she is able No category
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Parental care The male abandons the female and immediately begins to court another ripe female. The spent female leaves the spawning site No category
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Parental care No parental care is provided after the nest is covered No category
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Parental care Parental care is given to the eggs by one or both parents [One or both parents may eat the eggs] Biparental care
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Parental care Males guards nests and young fry Male parental care
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Eggs are laid on the underside of a rock, branch or log, also on stems of hardstem bulrush Lithophils
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Spawning activity usually occurs in heavily vegetated flooded areas No category
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Optimal substrate is flooded vegetation, preferably grasses and sedges Phytophils
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sand or gravel bottom, swamps, gravels shoals, coarse sand or gravel bottom Ambiguous
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Aquatic vegetation with clay, sand or gravel bottom Ambiguous
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning substrate The bottom material may be comprised of gravel, rock or less frequently, sand [The preferredsize of gravel or rock bubble is 3.3-6.0 cm in diameter] Ambiguous
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Largemouth are known to nest on a wide variety of bottom mineral including sand, gravel, clay and mud or on roots of emergent vegetation Ambiguous
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Yellow perch seem to have little preference for bottom type, allowing them a wide variety of habitat choices No category
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Typical spawning sites include gravel-rubble shoals, gravel-cobble subtrates Lithophils
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Bottom type is often flat rock, stone or gravel or sometimes sand [Spawning shoals could also be composed of cobble-boulder limestone over a sand, clay or bedrock base located from the shoreline out to a depth of several metres] Ambiguous
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning substrate 2-15 cm is the optimal spawning substrate [Prefers smaller substrates than O. tshawytscha] No category
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Spawning subrates sizes from fines (0.3 cm) to cobble (15cm) No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Stream bed gravel and a flow of intra-gravel water [Gravel from 5.1-20.3 cm diameter] Ambiguous
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel substrate: size preference to be 10 to 20 mm in diameter [If no gravel can be found, spawning is known to occur in areas of sand or hard clay perticles] Ambiguous
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate "Genrally occurs over areas or gravel, but occassionally sand The size of spawning material can vary anywhere between coarse sand and boulder-strewn gravel, but the preferred size of spawning material seems to be ""walnut-sized"" gravel" Ambiguous
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate "While ""pea"" gravel (0.4-2.0 cm) is the preferred substrate for spawning, brrok trout are know to used other loose bottom material [Areas of silt where upwellings are present are also commonly used, even in the absence of gravel" Lithophils
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lake trout ave very selective in their choice of sites for spawning: good spawning substrate consists of clean cobble, boulder or broken angular rock with large interstices that provide protection to eggs [Prefereed spawinng grounds consist of largest diameter rock rock with three to 15 cm and is common,ly interspersed with larger boulders, average diameter of 4.3] Lithophils
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Nest is located over mud or sand or among roots of aquatic vegetation in a protected area Ambiguous
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Cavities, burrows, under rocks near shore, undercut banks, under logs Lithophils
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Males construct nest Nest built by male
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Fertilized eggs are scattered at random No category
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Random spawner No category
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male clear shawllow depression up to 0.6 m in diameter No category
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest diameter usually two times length of the male No category
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The male sweeps the nest clean with his tail and occasionally carries stones and othe rmaterials from the nest area No category
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest builder [One or two days prior to egg laying the male largemouth bass selects a nest which is often situated near the protection of rocks, stumps, logs or weeds] No category
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male are not territorial and no nest is built [Eggs are broadcast at random over suitable substrate] Open water/substratum scatter
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Once a site is selected, the females begins to construct a shallow depression in the gravel with her tail No category
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female begins to construt a shallow depression in the gravel with her tail No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female begins to construct a shallow depression in the gravel with her tail No category
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female excavates a saucer-shaped nest in the gravel No category
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female selects a suitable site and digs a redd using her body and tail Susbtrate chooser
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female begins building a redd by fanning the finer particles of the substrate with her tail Susbtrate chooser
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The males appear to clean the rocks with her tails but do not build a nest No category
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation One or both sexes clear s shallow nest Nest built by both parents
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male buids nest Nest built by male
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 15-18, 14.4-18.3, 15.6-28.9 16.5 °C
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 9.4-15, other authors: 8-10.5°C, 7.8-13°C, 12.8 optimal 12.2 °C
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 4.4-12°C, but generally 9°C [The start of spawning period usually coincides with the period of peak run-off when water temperatures are approximately 4.4°C, the spawning period ends when water temperature reach 13°C) 8.2 °C
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 16-21, 15.6, 15.6-21.1 and 20.6-23.3 18.5 °C
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 20, 18.9-21.1 20.0 °C
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Varies: 15-18, 12.5-23.5, 12.8-20.0 16.5 °C
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Between 15-24, also 16.7-18.3, the optimum being 21°C 19.5 °C
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Varies between authors: 5-14, 9-12, 7-11, 6.1-8.9 9.5 °C
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Generally begins at 5-10°C, with peak activity in the 7-8°C range 7.5 °C
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 4.4-10.0°C, even 3-4°C, most at less than 7-8°C [Most successful spawning occurs at temperatures <6.1°C] 7.2 °C
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Between 1-10°C, mostly 7.8-11.1 5.5 °C
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Basically at 3.9-9.4°C, but also described at 10-15°C 6.65 °C
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 6-10 8.0 °C
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 6-9°C 7.5 °C
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Between 2-7, 5-6 or at 4°C 4.5 °C
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Spawning activity and success occurs at below 9°C [4.5-10°C] 7.25 °C
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 9-13 [Onset of spawning appears to be stimulated by heavy winds when water temperatures drop to near 10°C, Increase and prolonged cloud cover can also advance the spawning period] 11.0 °C
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 21 [Also when water reaches 27°C] 21.0 °C
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 21-23.3 up to 29.5 22.15 °C
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 10-12 [From late May and ends sometimes in August] 11.0 weeks
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning period duration If temperatures remain stable, it is possible for smallmouth bass to occupy spawning sites as long as three to four weeks before spawning actually begins No data
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning period duration The spawning period lasts between two and four weeks [Adult males arrive on the spawning grounds days or weeks before the females] No data
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 1-2 weeks 1.5 weeks
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Last for a week or ten days [Eggs being deposited over a period of several days] No data
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 2-6 4.0 weeks
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Males arrive at the spawning grounds first and remain there throughout the spawning period No data
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning period duration A 15 day peak within a spawning period of about 50 days [With a decline in water temperature below 11°C and increased rainfall] 15.0 weeks
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning period duration The spawning period generally lasts between seven to 18 days, and lake trout spawning in Algouquin Park lakes often occurs during the latter portion of October and lasts for 10 days 18.0 weeks
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 3-4 [Late May to Mid-June] 3.5 weeks
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning water type Usually spawn at either the upper or lower ends of low gradient pools No category
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning water type Small tributary streams, marshes to adjacent to lakes or in shallow, weedy days of larger lakes or rivers Stagnant water
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Shallow water of ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams close to shore Stagnant water
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning water type Lakes and tributary streams [Sites protected from high winds and fast currents are chosen] Ambiguous
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Turbid streams and rivers, rocky wave-shaded shallows of lakes or flooded wetland vegetation Stagnant water
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning water type Spawning shoals of lakes Stagnant water
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning water type Prefers smaller fresh water streams with lower velocities than O. tshawytscha Flowing or turbulent water
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning water type Permanent headwater tributaries with cool, cela water that is well oxygenated [Water velocities of 23 to 155 cm/m] Flowing or turbulent water
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning water type Larger mainstream and headwater tributaries [Where water velocities are not less than 0.3 m/s], most frequently at head of riffles Flowing or turbulent water
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning water type Most redds are situated at a site where the current is accelerating Flowing or turbulent water
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning water type Spawn in clear headwaters of large rivers and streams or in tributaries of lakes, also known to spawn over shallow reefs and shoals alog lakes shores, stream spawning fishes use riggle areas Stagnant water
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Both lakes and rivers [Water velocities of 0.2-0.7 m/s] Ambiguous
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning water type Both lakes and streams, and are closely associated with upwellings or seepages of ground water Stagnant water
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Near shoreline Stagnant water
Pimephales promelas Spawning conditions Spawning depth 0.6-0.9 m deep 0.75 m
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning depth Water 38-51 cm in depth [Sometimes up to 3 meters deep] 44.5 m
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning depth Are usually no deeper than 178 mm but can be up to 450 mm deep 178.0 m
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning depth 50-75 cm in depth 62.5 m
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Shallow waters: 20.3-40.6 cm or 15.2-30.5 cm or 15.2-45.7 30.45 m
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning depth 0.33-1.33 deep 0.83 m
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning depth In lakes, spawning occrus at water depth from 0.5-3 m altough depths of up to 8 m have been reported in large lakes and reservoirs 1.75 m
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Spawn at depth of 4 cm to 3 m 4.0 m
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning depth Spawn at depths between 1.8-18.3 m [Either at 9 m, 6-14 m deep, or 7.6 m ] 10.05 m
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning depth 0.05-0.66 m [Prefers shallower streams than O. tshawytscha] 0.355 m
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning depth 0.-1.5 m 0.75 m
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning depth 0.5-4 m 2.25 m
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Depending on the site, water depths may vary from one to 11 m, and as deep as 100 m 11.0 m
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning depth Spawning sites are generally located near shore in water anywhere between 1.0 m or less and 2.4 m deep 1.0 m
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning depth Lake trout spawn at a great variety of depths, less than 36.6 m [Most inland lake spawning shoals are less than six meters deep, also observed between 15 cm to 3.7 m deep] Some population choose to spawn over deep-water mounds (40-60 m) covered with beds of Clara delicauta 50.0 m
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning depth 152 mm or more, as deep as 0.6-1.2 m 0.9 m
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning depth In shallow waters, 2-4 m deep 3.0 m
Esox lucius Female Female sexual dimorphism Female pike tend to live longer and attain heavier weights than male fish Absent
Sander vitreus Female Female sexual dimorphism Females typically grow much larger than males Absent
Pimephales promelas Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs are adhesive Adhesive
Esox lucius Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs scattered over vegetation stick to the stems of plants Adhesive
Micropterus dolomieui Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs are adhesive in nature and stick to the nest substrate Adhesive
Micropterus salmoides Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Sander vitreus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Once they have water hardened, they lose their adhesive nature and the eggs drift into crevices in rock rubble or gravel] Adhesive
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Egg adhesiveness Not sticky [The eggs fall into crevices where they develop over the winter] Non-Adhesive
Oncorhynchus kisutch Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs are temporatily adhesive, but soon absorb water, becoming water hardened and semi-buoyant Adhesive
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs are temporarily adhesive, but soon absorb water, becoming water hardened and semi-buoyant Adhesive
Salmo salar Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs are temporarily adhesive, but soon absorb water, becoming water-hardened and semi-buoyant Adhesive
Salvelinus alpinus Egg Egg adhesiveness The females moves her body over the eggs and sweeps them into the interstitial spaces of the gravel bed Non-Adhesive
Salvelinus fontinalis Egg Egg adhesiveness Initially the eggs are adhesive which helps them to stick to the gravel and not be carried downstream before they are covered by the female. After they become water-hardened, the eggs lose their adhesive qaulity Adhesive
Salvelinus namaycush Egg Egg adhesiveness Fertilized eggs fall into crevices of the spawning substrate Non-Adhesive
Pimephales promelas Egg Incubation time 4.5-6 at 25°C 5.25 days
Esox lucius Egg Incubation time 12-14 [At 10°C], but 4-5 [17.8-20.0°C] 13.0 days
Ambloplites rupestris Egg Incubation time 3-4 3.5 days
Lepomis gibbosus Egg Incubation time 3 3.0 days
Micropterus dolomieui Egg Incubation time 12 days [12.8°C], 2-3 days [23-25°C] 2.5 days
Micropterus salmoides Egg Incubation time 3-4 days when temperature is between 18.4-19.6°C 3.5 days
Perca flavescens Egg Incubation time 8-10 9.0 days
Sander vitreus Egg Incubation time 12-18, as early as 7 days [13.9°C] to 26 days [4.4°C] 15.0 days
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Incubation time 150-170 160.0 days
Oncorhynchus mykiss Egg Incubation time 103.5 [3.9°C] and 19 [15°C] 103.5 days
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Egg Incubation time 193 [2°C], 149 [3°C], 120 [4°C], 100 [5°C], 85 [6°C], 74 [7°C], 65 [8°C], 58 [9°C] 193.0 days
Salmo salar Egg Incubation time 110 days at 3.9 [Up to 195 days] 110.0 days
Salmo trutta fario Egg Incubation time 48-52 [10.6°C], 30-33 [13.9°C] 50.0 days
Salvelinus alpinus Egg Incubation time 64-80 or 70-80 72.0 days
Salvelinus fontinalis Egg Incubation time 50 [Uniform temperature of 10°C], 100 days [4°C] 50.0 days
Salvelinus namaycush Egg Incubation time Normally hatch in about 50 days at 10°C [15 to 21 weeks at temperatures between 0.1-10°C] 5.05 days
Ictalurus punctatus Egg Incubation time 6-7 [27°C], 9-10 [15.6-18.4°C], 5-10 [15.6-27.8°], eggs will not develop below 15.5°C and develop best at 27°C 6.5 days
Sander vitreus Female Oogenesis duration < 10°C minimal temperature for gonad development 10.0 months
Micropterus dolomieui Female Age at sexual maturity 3-4 years [Sex not specified] 3.5 years
Perca flavescens Female Age at sexual maturity Males reach sexual maturity during their second summer No data
Coregonus clupeaformis Female Age at sexual maturity Males mature at an ealier age than females and die ealier No data
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Female Age at sexual maturity Usually in 2 and 3 [Male specified] 2.0 years
Salmo salar Female Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 years