Chondrostoma nasus

  • Scientific name
  • Chondrostoma nasus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Sneep

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 88%
Total data247
References40
Image of Chondrostoma nasus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick to gravel Adhesive Spillmann, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Development of the stickiness of the eggs Adhesive Heckeis, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick to rocks Adhesive Billard, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness The water was decanted and various media were applied to remove the adhesiveness of the eggs Adhesive Halacka and Lusk, 1995
4 Egg adhesiveness The swelling up of the eggs is accompanied by their becoming very sticky Adhesive Penaz, 1974
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Keckeis, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Developing eggs sticking to stones Adhesive Prokes and Penaz, 1978
5 Incubation time 14 14.0 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 10-30 20.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 4.58-7.34 [19°C], 8.52-11.66 [16°C], 15.07-20.70 [13°C] and 28.83-39-47 [10°C] 5.96 days Kamler, 1998
5 Incubation time 5.8 [19°C], 10 [16°C], 17.7 [13°C], and 33.7 [10°C] 5.8 days Schiemer, 2003
5 Incubation time 8-12 10.0 days Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
5 Incubation time 33.7 days [At 10°C], 17.7 [At 13°C], 10.0 [At 16°C] and 5.8 days [At 19°C] 33.7 days Kamler, 1996
5 Incubation time 7 days and 16 hours 7.0 days Penaz, 1971
5 Incubation time At a mean temperature of 12°C, egg incubation lasted 11 days, and only 6 days at 14.7°C 12.0 days Halacka and Lusk, 1995
5 Incubation time The mean duration of incubation (50% embryos hatched), at the overall mean temperature of 11.12°C was 20 days and 23 hours 50.0 days Penaz, 1974
5 Incubation time Nase eggs hatched after 7 days at 17-18°C 17.5 days Prawochenski, 1964
7 Degree-days for incubation 100-250 175.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 135-180 [8.6-11.3 days at 15.9] 157.5 °C * day Heckeis, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation About 130-160 at 11.6-15°C [From 99.3-231.3, for 10.0-17.28°C] 145.0 °C * day Penaz, 1974
7 Degree-days for incubation 280 [29 days at a mean of 9.2 in natural conditions] 280.0 °C * day Prokes and Penaz, 1978
7 Degree-days for incubation About 160-230 between 13-16°C 195.0 °C * day Kamler, 1998
7 Degree-days for incubation About 160-230 between 13-16°C 195.0 °C * day Schiemer, 2003
7 Degree-days for incubation 54-63 [Effective day-degrees] 58.5 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation Mean of 125.5 125.5 °C * day Penaz, 1971
7 Degree-days for incubation 135 DD [At 12°C] and 88 [At 14.7°C] 135.0 °C * day Halacka and Lusk, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation 15.9 ± 0.4°C [13-16] 15.9 °C Heckeis, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 10-17.28°C, temperature tested 13.64 °C Penaz, 1974
6 Temperature for incubation 7.2-16.4, mean of 9.2 [Natural conditions] 11.8 °C Prokes and Penaz, 1978
6 Temperature for incubation 13-16 seem to be optimal for egg incubation [Survival was high between 10-19, but slightly depressed at 19°C] 14.5 °C Kamler, 1998
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal temperature at 16 16.0 °C Keckeis, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation Low experimental variability occur between 10 and 19°C, below and above these values mortalities increase rapidly 10.0 °C Schiemer, 2003
6 Temperature for incubation 13-16°C is the optimal temperature for the incubation of eggs 14.5 °C Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation The eggs were incubated until hatching at four temperatures (mean ±SD): 10.07 ±0.28, 13.12 ± 0.3, 15.92 ± 0.58, and 19.26 ±0.51°C 10.07 °C Kamler, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 12 and 14.7°C. Water temperature dropping below 8°C resulted in a marked increase in looses 12.0 °C Halacka and Lusk, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation Viable range 8-20, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 8.8 14.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.2 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 2.2 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.7-2.9 [Not specified] 2.3 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening The mean size of the fertilized eggs was 2.70-2.91 mm 2.805 mm Halacka and Lusk, 1995
2 Egg size after water-hardening The average size of eggs increased from original 1.76 mm to 2.50 mm, their diameter increasing 1.42 times. Under the conditions of the hatchery at Ochoz, at water temepratures of 6.5 to 6.6°C, this stage lasted condiderably longer, about 6 hours. After that time, the average size of eggs of the same materila attained 2.59 mm and increased still during subsequent days of incubation to 2.92 mm (1.66 times increase) 1.76 mm Penaz, 1974
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.8 [Not specified] 2.8 mm Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening Eggs after swelling are 2.2. mm 2.2 mm Prawochenski, 1964
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Sink to the bottom] Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Heckeis, 1996
3 Egg Buoyancy Eggs among stones and gravel where their development occurs Demersal Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter The average size of eggs increased from original 1.76 mm 1.76 mm Penaz, 1974
1 Oocyte diameter Diameter of freshly laid eggs was 1.6 mm 1.6 mm Prawochenski, 1964

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 15-18 [Optimum for Yolk feeding larvae] and 19-22 [For early externally feeding larvae], and 22 [For late larvae and juveniles] 16.5 °C Heckeis, 1996
11 Temperature during larval development 9.0-22.7 [In natural conditions] 15.85 °C Prokes and Penaz, 1978
11 Temperature during larval development 15-18, optimal for rearing of hatched, yolk-feeding larvae 16.5 °C Kamler, 1998
11 Temperature during larval development Optimal temperature at 16°C 16.0 °C Keckeis, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development 15-18 optimum for yolk feeding larvae and 19-25°C for exogeneous feeding larvae 16.5 °C Schiemer, 2003
11 Temperature during larval development Optimum temperature: 15-18°C for yolk-sac larvae prior to external deefind, 19°C for early steps, and 22°C for late largae 16.5 °C Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development Increase from 19.1 to 26°C [rearing conditions] 19.1 °C Spurny, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at temperature between 15-18, close to natural conditions 16.5 °C Penaz, 1971
11 Temperature during larval development Between 12.4 to 15.4°C 12.4 °C Penaz, 1974
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 19-25 22.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 16-28°C 22.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Larvae were reared at 18-20°C, until 21 days posthhatching 19.0 °C Sysa, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 25 and 28 (range ± 0.5°C) 25.0 °C Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
11 Temperature during larval development The fish were placed in 20-L recirculation tanks at 20°C 20.0 °C Ostaszewka, 2005
10 Reaction to light Newly hatched larvae are strongly photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
10 Reaction to light Early photophobia Photopositive Gozlan, 1999
10 Reaction to light Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light Their photophobia and thigmoplilia are most marked during this stage. The embryos tend to congregate under scarcity of shelters Photopositive Penaz, 1974
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 150-180 [About 11 at 13 or 16°C] 165.0 °C * day Kamler, 1998
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 320 [20.8 at 16°C] for 50% yolk resoprtion] 320.0 °C * day Keckeis, 2000
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 140-160 [Full yolk resorption: 7.5 (19°C), 10.8 (16°C), 10.7 (13°C), 12.4 (10°C)] 150.0 °C * day Schiemer, 2003
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Termination of the yolk sac resorption: 196 DD, or 13 days after hatching 196.0 °C * day Penaz, 1971
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The yolk sac is present in form of a small remainder which disappears by the end of the stage, i.e. 31 days after insemination or 11-12 days at 14-15°C 11.5 °C * day Penaz, 1974
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Endogenous feeding of the nase larvae lasted from hatching until 4 dph, mixed feeding from 4 to 9 dph, and beginning from 9 dph the fish fed exogenously (at 18-20°C) 19.0 °C * day Sysa, 2006
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About 80-90 [5-6 days at 16°C] 85.0 °C * day Kamler, 1998
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About 70-80 [3.9 (At 19°C), 5.2 (16°C), 5.3 (13°C), 7.1 (10)] 75.0 °C * day Schiemer, 2003
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About 130, or 10 days after hatching 130.0 °C * day Penaz, 1971
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Starts to ingest food actively at a age of 27 days after insemination (i.e. 7-8 days after hatching at 12.4-14.5°C), having attained a total length of about 12 . The duration is rather short, being about 4 days at water temperature of 14.1-15.4°C 7.5 °C * day Penaz, 1974
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding From the very onset of external feeding (day 6 post-hatch) for 20 days, at 25-28°C 26.5 °C * day Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The fish were fed beginning 4 days post-hatch (at 20°C) 4.0 °C * day Ostaszewka, 2005
8 Initial larval size 7.09-9.81 [Depending on temperature] 8.45 mm Penaz, 1974
8 Initial larval size 10.0 [Natural conditions] 10.0 mm Prokes and Penaz, 1978
8 Initial larval size The average body length of newly hatched larvae was 8.22 ± 0.7 mm (TL) 8.22 mm Sysa, 2006
8 Initial larval size Newly hatched larvae are 7.0-9.5 mm in length 8.25 mm Prawochenski, 1964
9 Larvae behaviour Benthic, remains in the grounds Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour The starvating larvae show limited mobility already during the terminal phase of resorption of their yolk sac and mostly keep at the bottom of the aquarium, whereras the feeding larvae move throughout the water column and near water surface. During the last two or three days of their life, the fishes were in agony, showing but quite feeble signs of life. Demersal Penaz, 1971
9 Larvae behaviour Although the hatched embryos still spend most of their times lying passively on one side of the bottom of the through, they sometimes rise to the surface and then sink pasively to the bottom again Demersal Penaz, 1974
9 Larvae behaviour Benthic larvae Demersal Keckeis, 2001

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Pigmentation is more pronounced Present Spillmann, 1961
18 Female sexual dimorphism Breeding tubercles on head Present Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females in Fischa River. In smaller females (348 mm SL), the tubercles on the head run forward in a single row from about the dorsal margin of the anterior part of the operculum above the eye to the nasal opening. Larger specimens (370-409 mm SL) have larger breeding tubercles which additionally occur on the dorsal part of the operculum and on the dorsal part of the head. Females in Danube. Females exceeding 396 mm SL may also bear a few tubercles on the snout Present Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
24 Maximum GSI value 20.15 ± 3.12 [In April] 20.15 percent Lefler, 2006
24 Maximum GSI value GSI = 20.63% in April 11 (n = 12) 20.63 percent Lefler, 2008
19 Relative fecundity 12 000 eggs obtained for one female of 1.44 kg 12.0 thousand eggs/kg Kamler, 1998
19 Relative fecundity Realtive fecundity vary from 30 000 eggs/kg for female Age 4, 35057 for female age 5, 33136 for females age 6, 43534 for females age 7, 46080 for females age 10, 36920 for females age 12 30.0 thousand eggs/kg Prawochenski, 1964
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-6 4.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 4-7 [Sex not specified] 5.5 years Nelva, 2001
26 Resting period Following early spring spawning oocytes in the stage of primary growth are in majority in the ovary. Mitotically dividing oogonia, non-ovulated oocytes and eggs that were not released during spawning are also present in the ovaries. The latter two groups of cells undergo the process of resorption. Continuous atresia is also in process in the ovary that affects primarily the least developed functioning oocytes during the post-spawning period, i.e., those in the stage of primary growth. In all probability their number will further decrease immediatly after the spawning season No data Lefler, 2008
22 Onset of oogenesis Sexual maturation starts in Autumn and ends in March ['March'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
22 Onset of oogenesis Data collected in the orfe and nase show that the transition of oocytes in the stage of primary growth into the stage of cortical alveoli takes place in July-August and vitellogenesis already starts in August-September. Thus the formation of cortical alveoli is intensive in the second half of summer and is terminated at the end of October. Vitellogenesis starts at the end of summer and lasts until the beginning of spawning season ['October', 'August', 'July', 'September'] Lefler, 2008
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Sexual maturation starts in Autumn and ends in March ['March'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity 9.43 ± 1.65 [In October] to 20.15 ± 3.12 [In April] ['April', 'October'] Lefler, 2006
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Synchronous Synchronous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 50-100 75.0 thousand eggs Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity 50-100 75.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 10-40 25.0 thousand eggs Nelva, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 12 obtained for one female 12.0 thousand eggs Kamler, 1998
20 Absolute fecundity Absolute fecundity vary from 10800 eggs/kg for female Age 4, 16215 for female age 5, 18076 for females age 6, 28297 for females age 7, 41472 for females age 10, 36920 for females age 12 10800.0 thousand eggs Prawochenski, 1964
17 Weight at sexual maturity A ripe female 1.44 kg was caught 1.44 kg Kamler, 1996
17 Weight at sexual maturity Females in spawinng conditons caught on the spawning ground have a mean weight of 1257 g, range of 785-1857 g 1321.0 kg Keckeis, 2000
16 Length at sexual maturity A ripe female 41 cm standard length was caught 41.0 cm Kamler, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity One ripe female 48.0 cm total length 48.0 cm Keckeis, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity A ripe female, 10 years of age, 41 cm standard length 10.0 cm Kamler, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity Length frequency distribution of the nase population in the River Fischa, Austria, during the period 1992-1997, range mostly from 40 to 48 cm for females. The size of first spawners is 35 cm for females 1994.5 cm Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
16 Length at sexual maturity 6 females sampled 348-406 SL in April in River Fischa. 6 females sampled 275-409 mm SL in April in River Danube 377.0 cm Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-7 5.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-7 [Sex not specified] 5.5 year Nelva, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity Females in spawning conditons caught on the spanwing ground have a mean age of 9.3, range of 6-12 9.0 year Keckeis, 2000
15 Age at sexual maturity Nase mature at third year of life. Their first spawning is at that age No data Prawochenski, 1964

Male (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercles, the first ray of pectorals becomes thicker, pigmentation is more pronounced Present Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism Breeding tubercules on head, entire body and fins Absent Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
30 Male sexual dimorphism Tubercles occur on the head, nearly the entire body, and on all fins. In males exceeding 350 mm SL, even the anterior side of the snout is covered Absent Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
30 Male sexual dimorphism During spawning migrations and during spawning itself nase males have breeding tubercles on gill covers, scales and fins, especially on pectoral fins Absent Prawochenski, 1964
28 Length at sexual maturity Length frequency distribution of the nase population in the River Fischa, Austria, during the period 1992-1997, range mostly from 40 to 48 cm for males. The size of first spawners is 30 cm for males 44.0 cm Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
28 Length at sexual maturity 6 Males sampled 289-397 SL in April in River Fischa. 8 males sampled 312-380 mm SL in April in River Danube 343.0 cm Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Spawning occurs synchronously in large shoals No category Heckeis, 1996
47 Mating system In nature, multiple males spawn with a single female No category Kamler, 1998
47 Mating system The spawning act, in which several males usually are involved, lasts only few seconds No category Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
47 Mating system The spawning act, in which several males are involved, lasts only a few seconds. After releasing the eggs, the females swim a short distance upstream, then drift back with the current to their former position. This procedure is apparently repeated several times until all eggs are shed. No category Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
50 Parental care No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care After the release of eggs, the females swim a short distance upstreamand then drift passively back to their former position No category Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
50 Parental care Non-guarding No care Keckeis, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil : stones and gravels of 10 cm of diameter Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilic spawner, the spawning areas being characterized by coarse substratum Lithophils Keckeis, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Gravels and pebbles Lithophils Nelva, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous Lithophils Penaz, 1974
44 Spawning substrate Over rocky-gravel substrata Lithophils Kamler, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Rock and gravel Lithophils Gozlan, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Stones and gravel: 1-10 cm Lithophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Coarse gravel substrates Lithophils Schiemer, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Among stones and gravel: mean of 32.5 mm Lithophils Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous rheophilic Lithophils Kamler, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous fishes Lithophils Penaz, 1973
44 Spawning substrate High proportion of gravel and pebbles Lithophils Keckeis, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil Lithophils Cattanéo, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Over gravel Lithophils Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
44 Spawning substrate Lay their eggs on pebble or sandy bottoms (lithophilic species) Ambiguous Sysa, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous rheophilic cyprinid Lithophils Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Stones or gravel exposed to water current Ambiguous Prawochenski, 1964
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation No, deposits its eggs on the substratum surface No category Heckeis, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation No, open water/susbtratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation No, scatter their eggs over susbtrate Susbtrate chooser Kamler, 1998
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Spawns by scattering eggs: the eggs are release into the water column No category Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Kamler, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Deposit its eggs on the substratum surface No category Keckeis, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Keckeis, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Above 11 11.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature 8-9 up to 11 8.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 8-12 10.0 °C Heckeis, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 8-11 9.5 °C Nelva, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 7.9-8.7 8.3 °C Prokes and Penaz, 1978
41 Spawning temperature 8-12 10.0 °C Kamler, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 8-16 12.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 2-12 7.0 °C Schiemer, 2003
41 Spawning temperature Mean of 9.5 9.5 °C Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
41 Spawning temperature 8-12 10.0 °C Kamler, 1996
41 Spawning temperature The spawning temperature (7-years of observation) was 9.0 ± 1.7°C 9.0 °C Keckeis, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 8-12 10.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
41 Spawning temperature When water reach 8-12°C 10.0 °C Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
41 Spawning temperature 6-8 [In Moselle, France], 8 [Dunajec], 12 [Vistula], 15 [Vistula], according to various authors 7.0 °C Prawochenski, 1964
41 Spawning temperature Potential spawning time was designated as the time period where the temperature reached 8°C and do not exceed 12°C 8.0 °C Winkler, 1997
40 Spawning period duration Seems to be short : 3-4 days 3.5 weeks Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
40 Spawning period duration 3 weeks 3.0 weeks Nelva, 2001
40 Spawning period duration From 2-3 days to 3 weeks [Spawn once on 16-17 April in one locality and twice, on 15-16 April and 2-3 May] 2.5 weeks Prokes and Penaz, 1978
40 Spawning period duration About 3-4 weeks: Spawning lasts 2-3 days and several spawning acts may occur within one year [During the spanwing season, sholas of males appear at the spawing area often weeks before the females] 3.5 weeks Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
40 Spawning period duration 4-5 4.5 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration Either 2-3 days [In two rivers this species reproduced repeatedly on two other occassion 10/12 May and on 26/28 May] 2.5 weeks Zbinden and Maier, 1996
42 Spawning water type Grounds with current : 1m/s Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Spillmann, 1961
42 Spawning water type Riffles with high current velocities [high water current ranging from 70 to 120 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Heckeis, 1996
42 Spawning water type Water with strong current Flowing or turbulent water Nelva, 2001
42 Spawning water type Fairly strong current Flowing or turbulent water Gozlan, 1999
42 Spawning water type Current velocity: 70-90 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
42 Spawning water type Large rivers or tributaries, high current velocities (1-2 m/s) Flowing or turbulent water Schiemer, 2003
42 Spawning water type Current velocity: mean of 0.9 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
42 Spawning water type Water velocities of 0.7-1.1 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Zbinden and Maier, 1996
42 Spawning water type Average current velocities between 0.4 and 0.6 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Keckeis, 2001
42 Spawning water type Sites with swift current Flowing or turbulent water Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
42 Spawning water type Nase spawn in numerous sectionsof the main channel of the Austrian Danube. […] This finding is in contrast with assumption that reproduction takes place only in shallow water tributaries No category Winkler, 1997
43 Spawning depth Shallow: about 0.20-0.50 m 0.35 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Near the shore No data Heckeis, 1996
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Billard, 1997
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Nelva, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow areas: 20-30 cm 25.0 m Gozlan, 1999
43 Spawning depth Mean of 39.9 cm 39.9 m Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
43 Spawning depth 10 to 30 cm 10.0 m Zbinden and Maier, 1996
43 Spawning depth Siginificant selection for depths in range of 0.2-0.3 m (nearly 60% of all measurements) 0.25 m Keckeis, 2001
43 Spawning depth Spawn in shallow water (20-50 cm) 35.0 m Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
43 Spawning depth Eggs are deposited on shallow depth (< 1m) 1.0 m Prawochenski, 1964
36 Spawning migration distance Small distances from the main river to tributaries No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Migrate to spawing grounds No data Nelva, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Migrates upstream and enters small tributaries No data Fishbase, 2006
36 Spawning migration distance Huge spawning shoals migrate from the main stream into tributaries to their spawning sites No data Keckeis, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Migrate 4 km upstream to the spawning ground 4.0 km Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
36 Spawning migration distance Holobiotique migration, small distances from the main stream to small tributaries No data Agence de l'eau,
36 Spawning migration distance Spawning migrations are of short distance. Recaptured four tagged nase spawners. Two of them did not migrate at all, one migrated 8 km (it covered 2 km/day on average), the fourth spawned 14 km (0.7 km/day) 8.0 km Prawochenski, 1964
37 Spawning migration period In spring, huge shoals migrate to their spawning areas ['April', 'May', 'June'] Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
37 Spawning migration period In spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Keckeis, 2001
37 Spawning migration period Each year the specimens enter the river from the Danube in the mid-to late March. The spawning migration of the males starts two to three weeks earlier than the males ['March'] Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
39 Spawning season February-April ['February', 'April', 'March'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season End of February to April ['February', 'April'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season March-May but even in February [Southern region] ['February', 'March', 'May'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Prokes and Penaz, 1978
39 Spawning season April [Also in Ferbruary and March] ['April', 'March'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Late March/April ['April', 'March'] Kamler, 1998
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Schiemer, 2003
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season 21 st/22 nd April, in two rivers this species reproduced repeatedly on two other occassion 10/12 May and on 26/28 May ['April', 'May'] Zbinden and Maier, 1996
39 Spawning season April in Czech Republic ['April'] Penaz, 1974
39 Spawning season Occurs mainly in April ['April'] Keckeis, 2001
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
39 Spawning season Potential spawning time in March-April and May ['April', 'March', 'May'] Winkler, 1997
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Cattanéo, 2001
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
39 Spawning season The fish spawn in spring (April, May) ['April', 'May', 'June'] Sysa, 2006
39 Spawning season 12-27 April [Moselle, France], 15 April-5 May [Kuban], 22 April [Don], 10-20 April [Moskva], 10-20 April [Vistula], April [Dunajec], 16 April [Vistula], 19 April [Vistula], 20 April [Vistula], according to various authors ['April', 'May'] Prawochenski, 1964
38 Homing It was used by the same individuals repeatedly from year to year Absent Keckeis, 2001
48 Spawning release Eggs are released in small quantities No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release The spawning act is repeated several times until all eggs are released Mutliple Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
48 Spawning release One batch Mutliple Cattanéo, 2001
48 Spawning release Single spawner Total Lefler, 2006
48 Spawning release Spawning act is short. Repeated spawnings on the spawning ground were not observed No category Prawochenski, 1964
48 Spawning release Single spawner Total Lefler, 2008
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity It was used by the same individuals repeatedly from year to year No category Keckeis, 2001