Salmo salar

  • Scientific name
  • Salmo salar (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Atlantic salmon

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 86%
Total data260
References52
Image of Salmo salar

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Upon release in the water, they are adhesive for a short time Adhesive Groot, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Sticky Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Somewhat adhesive for a short time Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are temporarily adhesive, but soon absorb water, becoming water-hardened and semi-buoyant Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
4 Egg adhesiveness Slightly adhesive Adhesive Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
5 Incubation time 160 [1.1°C], 110 [3.9°C], 90 [7.2°C] 160.0 days Groot, 1996
5 Incubation time Usually 110 days at 3.9°C 110.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 214-232 at 0.65-1.31°C [Time to 50% hatch] 223.0 days Heggberget and Wallace, 1984
5 Incubation time 110 days at 3.9 [Up to 195 days] 110.0 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 98.3 [5°C], 66.8 [7.5°C], 47.7 [10°C] and 35.4 [12.5°C] for 50% hatch 98.3 days Jensen, 1997
5 Incubation time 56 [11°C] and 65 [8.3°C] [Total incubation times were: 56 days for eggs in 53°F water, 65 days for eggs in 47°F water] 56.0 days Dumas, 1966
5 Incubation time 3 months in natural conditions at 7°C 3.0 days Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
5 Incubation time Eggs in the heated-water groups started to hatch on 27 January, 60 days post fertilization, and hatch was complete in all families by 31 January. Eggs incubated at ambient temperature hatched between 12 and 19 March (105 and 112 days post fertilization) 27.0 days Johnston and McLay, 1997
5 Incubation time Time of beginning of stages (days) in freshwater salmon embryos: 114 +/- 1.3 [At 4.1°C], and 83 +/- 0.9 [At 5.7°C] 114.0 days Ryzhkov, 1979
5 Incubation time 144 days after fertilization 144.0 days Berg, 2001
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 110-200 days at 39°F or less, in mid-March to early May but usually in April 155.0 days Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time The embryonic and larval development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L,, which occurs in the gravel of redds between December and the beginning of April at the sourthen edge of the species range No data Dumas and Marty, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation 453 [12°C], 492 [10°C], 504 [8°C] 453.0 °C * day Gunnes, 1979
7 Degree-days for incubation 430-504 467.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 430-480 455.0 °C * day Dumas and Darolles, 1999
7 Degree-days for incubation 440 440.0 °C * day Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 440 440.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 280 at 1.31°C [Heat sum to 50% hatch] 280.0 °C * day Heggberget and Wallace, 1984
7 Degree-days for incubation 400 [110 days at 3.9°C] 400.0 °C * day Kerr and Grant, 1999
7 Degree-days for incubation 458.5-501.2 [Between 5-12.5°C] 479.85 °C * day Jensen, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 430 [Also 250, 270, 350, 406, 458, 497] 430.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
7 Degree-days for incubation 463 [Time hatching commenced, between 5.2-11.7°C, 400 [2°C], 505 [4°C], 520 [6°C], 530 [8°C], 475 [10°C], 450 [12°C]] 8.45 °C * day Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
7 Degree-days for incubation 540-600 [56 at 11°C and 65 at 8.3°C] 570.0 °C * day Dumas, 1966
7 Degree-days for incubation 639 [Effective day-degrees] 639.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation The heated-water group hatched at between 473 and 505 degree-days and the ambient-temperature group at between 452 and 487 degree-days 473.0 °C * day Johnston and McLay, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation Hatching took place between 17 March and 1 April (about 520 degree-days) 17.0 °C * day Berg, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs incubate in the gravel during the winter No data Groot, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 5-8 [10 is the highest incubation temperature, mortality was significantly greater at 12°C] 6.5 °C Gunnes, 1979
6 Temperature for incubation 9-11°C Natural conditions 10.0 °C Dumas and Darolles, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal 5 5.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 3.9 3.9 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation In natural conditions, mean of 0.65 and a range of 4.0 to 0.1°C 0.65 °C Heggberget and Wallace, 1984
6 Temperature for incubation 0-12.0 is the temperature range for >50% survival to hatch [<0 and >12, lethal lower and upper limit] 6.0 °C Crisp, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Survive best at 10°C 10.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation Incubation temperatures tested from 4 to 22°C and the upper thermal limit at about 16°C for advanced eggs 4.0 °C Ojanguren, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation 5.2-11.7°C in natural conditions 8.45 °C Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation The peak of hatching was estimated to take place between April and 10 June in the ten rivers studied, at a water temperature of 4.56.8°C 10.0 °C Jensen, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation The eggs were kept at or below 6°C which is the optimal temperature 6.0 °C Brännäs, 1988
6 Temperature for incubation At about 7°C 7.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation For the heated-water groups, temperatures during egg incubation and yolk-sac resoprtion averaged 7.9 and 8.3°C, respectively, compared with 4.3 and 5.3°C in the ambient-temperature reared groups over the equivalent periods 7.9 °C Johnston and McLay, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation The eggs of each female were fertilized by a different male (i.e. six full-sib families), and were then reared in hatchery supplied with well-water (3.0-5.0°C) 4.0 °C Berg, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Au cours de la période de développement embryonnaire, du 19 décembre au 6 mars, les moyennes des températures sont de 9.9°C (écrat-type = 1.4°C) dans la Nivelle et de 10.5°C (écart-type = 1.1°C) dans le Lapitxuri. Les moyennes journalières flcutuent de 5.6°C le 28 février à 12.9°C le 6 mars 19.0 °C Dumas, 2007
2 Egg size after water-hardening 5.4-6.15 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 5.775 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening Range from 4.46-6.60, averaging 5.73 [Swollen eggs] 5.53 mm Thorpe, 1984
2 Egg size after water-hardening Different means range from 5.38-5.70 [Swollen eggs] 5.54 mm Eskelinen, 1989
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean egg dimater after water hardening: 5.08 ± 0.16 [Age 1.1+], 5.68 ± 0.06 [Age 2.1+] and 5.72 ± 0.19 [Age 2 sea water] 5.08 mm Moffett, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening The diameter of eggs varied beween different females from 0.424 +/- 0.014 cm to 0.641 +/- 0.023 0.424 mm Berg, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Female digs nest] Demersal Dumas and Darolles, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy Eggs are temporarily adhesive, but soon absorb water, becoming water-hardened and semi-buoyant Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Heavier than water Demersal Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
3 Egg Buoyancy Occurs in the gravel of redds Demersal Dumas and Marty, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 5-7, 6.17 ±0.35 6.17 mm Mellinger, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 5-7 6.0 mm Barton, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 5-7 6.0 mm Groot, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 6 6.0 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 5-7 6.0 mm Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 5-7 [After extrusion] 6.0 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 5-7 [Not specified] 6.0 mm Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter Mean oocyte diameter 4-6 weeks before ovulation 5.4 mm 5.0 mm King and Pankhurst, 2003
1 Oocyte diameter The mean egg diameter of ova from fish from the 14 and 18°C temperature treatments were not significantly diffrent (c. 5.7 mm) 5.7 mm King, 2003

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 8-10°C 9.0 °C Gunnes, 1979
11 Temperature during larval development Could tolerate temperatures up to 22°C 22.0 °C Ojanguren, 1999
11 Temperature during larval development Reared between 2 and 12°C 2.0 °C Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 6.8 ± 0.3°C 6.8 °C Wallace, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development It is relevant to note that a temperature of at least 7-8°C is reported as being necessary for initial feeding of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout 7.5 °C Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
11 Temperature during larval development Swiim-up fry from eggs and alevins incubated at 10°C grew much better at all test temperatures than did those from eggs and alevins incubated at 4°C 10.0 °C Peterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1989
11 Temperature during larval development The water at peak intial feeding waried from 8°C in the river Stryneelva to 13°C in the rivers Drammenselva and Imsa. In the other rivers the temperature at peak initial feeding was 9-12°C 10.5 °C Jensen, 1991
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 3 different temperatures: 6.3 ± 0.5, 10.3 ± 0.2 and 12.2 ± 0.2°C 6.3 °C Brännäs, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development For the heated-water groups, temperatures during egg incubation and yolk-sac resoprtion averaged 7.9 and 8.3°C, respectively, compared with 4.3 and 5.3°C in the ambient-temperature reared groups over the equivalent periods 7.9 °C Johnston and McLay, 1997
11 Temperature during larval development The mean daily temperatures of the Nivelle and spawning channel varied between 3.3°C shortly before hatching at the end of January and 12.7°C during emergence in mid-March 3.3 °C Dumas and Marty, 2006
10 Reaction to light During this time [when buried] the alevins are light-sensitive Photopositive Kerr and Grant, 1999
10 Reaction to light Swim-up from fertilization: 800 degree-days, also from 387-765 [From hatching 800 less 430] Photopositive Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
10 Reaction to light Phgysiologically, the impact of stimuli that keep the alevins beneath the gravel surface such as positive geotaxis and negative phototaxis are weakened upon emergence Photopositive Brännäs, 1988
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 280-320 [80% water content, from fertilization at 320 at 4°C, at 325 at 6°C, at 288 at 8°C, at 280 at 10°C, at 240 at 12°C] 300.0 °C * day Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Usually 39 to 53 days [Last from 30 to 65 days] 39.0 °C * day Kerr and Grant, 1999
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 370 [Swim-up from fertilization: 800 degree-days, also from 387-765, from hatching 800 less 430] 576.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding [Equation relating time from hatch to first feeding: Y=472T-1.27. This equation yeilds times of 81, 49, 34, 25, and 20 days for incubation temperatures of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12, respectively] 472.0 °C * day Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Fry emerge after 23 [12°C], 32 [10°C] and 70 [6°C] 23.0 °C * day Brännäs, 1988
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding First feeding occured after 815 degree-days at ambient temperature and 839 degree-days at 8°C (for incubation, 473-505 for heated and 452-487 for ambient respectively). Most of the visible yolk sac has been resorbed 489.0 °C * day Johnston and McLay, 1997
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The last sample was taken immediatly before the juveniles were fed for the first time (about 700 day-degrees, and 520 for incubation) 700.0 °C * day Berg, 2001
8 Initial larval size Between 16-24 according to different temperatures from 4 to 16°C 20.0 mm Ojanguren, 1999
8 Initial larval size 18.7-19.9 [At hatching] 19.3 mm Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
8 Initial larval size Length of newly hatched salmon larvae: 19.4 +/- 0.23 [Incubated at 3.0°C], 18.2 +/- 0.24 [AT 4.1°C], and 17.8 +/- 0.3 [At 5.7°C] 19.4 mm Ryzhkov, 1979
9 Larvae behaviour Benthic, the alevins hatch in March and April and the fry emergence from the gravel in May or June Demersal Groot, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the gravel until the resoprtion of the yolk-sac Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the gravel until the resoprtion of the yolk-sac Demersal Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour The young remain buried in the gravel, absorbing the yolk sac and finally emerging from the gravel in May or June Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour The newly hatched fish, remain buried in the gravel until the yolk sac is fully absorbed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Swim-up from fertilization: 800 degree-days, also from 387-765 [From hatching 800 less 430] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
9 Larvae behaviour Alevins remain in the gravel for a few weeks until their yolk sac is absorbed Demersal Bradbury, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the gravel for about 1.5 month Demersal Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour Following hatch,alevins remain buried in the river gravel and growth is at the expense of endogenous yolk Demersal Johnston and McLay, 1997
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in gravel fro 4-6 weeks, emerge in May and June Demersal Goodyear, 1982

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Female change colour and shape :become tusty-brown on the sides and yellowish brown on th back and head Present Groot, 1996
24 Maximum GSI value 25 [Not specified] 25.0 percent Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
24 Maximum GSI value 17% in late March [In Tasmania, 6 months out-of-phase from nothern hemisphere] 17.0 percent King and Pankhurst, 2003
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 22.2 (range 20.1-25.7%) for anadromous populations, and Mean of 17.3 (range 17.2-17.4) for resident populations 22.9 percent Fleming, 1998
25 Oogenesis duration March to August period, reflect the development of the gonad No data Hunt, 1982
19 Relative fecundity 1.5-1.7 1.6 thousand eggs/kg Barton, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 1.3-1.7 [average] 1.5 thousand eggs/kg Groot, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 1.091-1.786 [range with n=101] 1.4385 thousand eggs/kg Jarrams, 1979
19 Relative fecundity 1.5-2 1.75 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 1.5-1.8 1.65 thousand eggs/kg Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 0.5-2 1.25 thousand eggs/kg Fishbase, 2006
19 Relative fecundity 2 2.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
19 Relative fecundity 1.66-1.75, in the Nivelle River, comparable to that of other population, e.g., respectively, 1.758 and 1.475 for the Miramichi and Restigouche Rivers in New Brunswick and 1.685 for the Elorn River in Brittany 1.705 thousand eggs/kg Dumas and Prouzet, 2003
19 Relative fecundity Different means of relative fecunidy vary between 1.616 to 2.019 1.616 thousand eggs/kg Eskelinen, 1989
19 Relative fecundity 1-2 1.5 thousand eggs/kg Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
19 Relative fecundity 1878 ±207 Age 1.1], 1666 ±57.9 [Age 2.1+] and 1602 ± 288 [Age 2 sea water] 1878.0 thousand eggs/kg Moffett, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-7 [Male] 5.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 years Kerr and Grant, 1999
22 Onset of oogenesis Mean GSI increased significantly in October [In Tasmania, 6 months out-of-phase from northern hemisphere] ['October'] King and Pankhurst, 2003
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Mean GSI increased most markedly in February and March [In Tasmania, 6 months out-of-phase from northern hemisphere] ['February', 'March'] King and Pankhurst, 2003
20 Absolute fecundity 8-26 17.0 thousand eggs Fishbase, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity Range from 1.662 to 14.499, with a mean of 6.284 1.662 thousand eggs Thorpe, 1984
20 Absolute fecundity 3493 ± 533 [Age 1.1+], 3981 ± 226 [Age 2.1+] and 7643 ± 1280 [Age 2 sea winter] 3493.0 thousand eggs Moffett, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity [Average 700 eggs per pound] 700.0 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.425-1.474 [mean with n= 101] 0.9495 kg Jarrams, 1979
17 Weight at sexual maturity 1.8-2.7 [Not specified] 2.25 kg Kerr and Grant, 1999
16 Length at sexual maturity 24-48 mean with n= 101] 36.0 cm Jarrams, 1979
16 Length at sexual maturity 50.8-61.0 [Not specified] 55.9 cm Kerr and Grant, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-7 5.0 year Barton, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 and more 2.0 year Jarrams, 1979
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 year Kerr and Grant, 1999

Male (56%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male change colour and shape, the male more pronounced than female: become tusty-brown on the sides and yellowish brown on th back and head. The head of male elongates and the lower jaw becomes enlarged and develops a hook of kype Present Groot, 1996
30 Male sexual dimorphism As the adults prepare for spawning, the head of the male undergoes transformation, the head elongates and the lower jaw becomes enlarged and hooked at the tip, forming a kype Present Scott and Crossman, 1973
30 Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present Willson, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male bigger than female Absent Fleming, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 4.1 (range 2.3-5.8%) for anadromous populations, and Mean of 8.0 (range 4.7-10) for mature male parr 4.05 percent Fleming, 1998
28 Length at sexual maturity 50.8-61.0 [Not specified] 55.9 cm Kerr and Grant, 1999
29 Weight at sexual maturity 1.8-2.7 [Not specified] 2.25 kg Kerr and Grant, 1999

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system By pair, one male and one female each time, but female mate with few males during the spawning season Ambiguous Groot, 1996
47 Mating system By pair, one male and one female Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system Several males are attracted as the female continues this activity. The largest male dominates and joins her in the centre of the redd No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
47 Mating system One male and one female per spanwing act Ambiguous Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning act occur at night, rarely during the day Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Occured principally at night Night Baglinière, 1990
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition The average time between two successive ovipositions was 9 h 22 min ± 3 j 5 min (N=12). However, females were generally inactive during the day, except for four fish whci hsometimes bred continuously throughout the photophase (14 out of the 75 ovitpositions were observed by day] Day de Gaudemar et Beall, 1999
50 Parental care Soon after the spawning act, the female covers the eggs with about 10-25 cm of gravel by gently digging in front of the nest Female parental care Groot, 1996
50 Parental care Brood hiders, males cover the eggs after fertilization No category Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care The female covers the eggs with gravel Female parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care None after nesting No care Fleming, 1998
50 Parental care Atlantic salmon, an oviparous fish that does not provide care for eggs after they are fertilized No category Berg, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravel Lithophils Groot, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil : gravel 6-15 mm Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravel and pebbles Lithophils Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravel Lithophils Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Usually a gravel-bottom Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Stream bed gravel and a flow of intra-gravel water [Gravel from 5.1-20.3 cm diameter] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Gravel-bottomed riffle sections of streams [In Newfoundland, lake-spawning has been reported to occur over a gravel substrate at depths of 1.51.3 m, Lake-spawning has also been observed along shorelines as well as near areas of moving water, usually outlet streams and near the mouths of inlet streams Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Zones of cleaned gravel particles Lithophils de Gaudemar, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Gravel Lithophils Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Riverbed gravels Lithophils Johnston and McLay, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean coarse gravel and small stones with good interstitial water flow, eggs may also be deposited directly on impenetrable susbtrate where redd construction is impossible Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate The substratum consisted of a 0.6 m thick layer of 10-80 mm graded cobble and gravel, an optimum particle range for Atlantic salmon redds Lithophils Dumas and Marty, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Salmo and trout preferred pebbles (16-64 mm) fpr spawning Lithophils Louhi, 2008
45 Spawning site preparation The female selects a suitable gournd, and then digs a nest of about 15 cm deep Susbtrate chooser Groot, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Female digs one up to five excavations in the ground depending on the number of male Susbtrate chooser Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Female digs nest Susbtrate chooser Dumas and Darolles, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation The female selects a site where the gravel is of the correct size and of sufficient depth No category Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation The female uses her caudal fin like a paddle and excavates a nesting depression (the redd) [The actual nesting site is chosen by the remale] Susbtrate chooser Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation The female begins to construct a shallow depression in the gravel with her tail No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in the gravel nest or redd where they incubate over winter Susbtrate chooser Bradbury, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Each female constructed 7 to 11 nests over a period of 3 to 5 days [In other studies, atlantic salmon build larger numbers of redds and nests, with some females constructing from 8 to 17 seperate nests within 1 to 9 redds] Ambiguous de Gaudemar, 2000
45 Spawning site preparation Females bury their eggs in the gravel substrate in several excavated depression called nests [Males search for females and defend them against potential rivals by attacks and threat displays but do not participate in the choice and construction of redds] Ambiguous de Gaudemar et Beall, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Female digs a nest Susbtrate chooser Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Nesting by female No category Fleming, 1998
45 Spawning site preparation Bury their eggs No category Johnston and McLay, 1997
41 Spawning temperature 0-10 [0-8, 1-6, 6-10] 5.0 °C Barton, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 4.4-5.6 [Preferred temperature] 5.0 °C Groot, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 4.2-5.6 [Nothern Region] and 7-12°C [Southern Region] 4.9 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Below 12°C 12.0 °C Dumas and Darolles, 1999
41 Spawning temperature Decrease from 9 to 6°C during the spawning season 9.0 °C Baglinière, 1990
41 Spawning temperature 6-10 8.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature Water temperature at spawning time was 4.5°C 4.5 °C Eskelinen, 1989
41 Spawning temperature 44°F 44.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 2 [From 2/12 to 18/12] 2.0 weeks Dumas and Darolles, 1999
40 Spawning period duration Spawing is completed in 2-3 days 2.5 weeks Fishbase, 2006
40 Spawning period duration The peak spawning took place between 18 October and 10 January in the ten rivers, and usually lasted for five to ten days in each river. The duration of the entire spawning perdio lasted from 17 days in the river Numedalslagen to 56 days in river Stryneelva 18.0 weeks Jensen, 1991
40 Spawning period duration 3 to 14 days 3.0 weeks Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 5-14 days 9.5 weeks Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Usually above or below a pool at the downstream end of riffles or upwellings of ground water No category Groot, 1996
42 Spawning water type In the upstream of river, near the shoreline (current speed of 40-50 cm/s) Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Water current of about 44 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Dumas and Darolles, 1999
42 Spawning water type Middle and upper part of river, with current Flowing or turbulent water Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
42 Spawning water type Areas with appreciable current Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Riffle area above or below a pool No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Water velocities of 0.204-0.814 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Crisp, 1996
42 Spawning water type Most redds are situated at a site where the current is accelerating Flowing or turbulent water Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type Streams No category Willson, 1997
42 Spawning water type Gravel-bottomed riffle sections of streams No category Bradbury, 1999
42 Spawning water type Redds are commonly located in pool-riffle transition zones. Such sites have comparitively high water velocities, down or upwelling flows and corase gravels Flowing or turbulent water de Gaudemar, 2000
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
42 Spawning water type Spawn in freswater No category Johnston and McLay, 1997
42 Spawning water type Fast-water areas in clear, cold streams, with steep gradient, early runs usually spawn in the upper reaches, late runs in lower reaches, also on lake shoals which have seepage from springs Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Salmon spawned mostly in relatively deep, swift-velocity habitats (20-50 cm, 35-65 cm s-1) Flowing or turbulent water Louhi, 2008
43 Spawning depth Shallow, about 30 cm 30.0 m Groot, 1996
43 Spawning depth About 20-30 cm 25.0 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth About 10-30 cm deep 20.0 m Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth "0.15-0.91 m and 0.30-0.45 m given as ""optimum""" 0.53 m Crisp, 1996
43 Spawning depth 0.5-1 0.75 m Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
43 Spawning depth To 4 feet 4.0 m Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth 20-55 cm 37.5 m Louhi, 2008
36 Spawning migration distance From 3.5 to 49.2 in various rivers 3.5 km Baglinière, 1990
36 Spawning migration distance Long migrations No data Billard, 1997
36 Spawning migration distance Could migrate up to several thousands km No data Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
36 Spawning migration distance The fish distributed to the spawning areas between 36 and 250 km from the river mouth 36.0 km Okland, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Migrate long distances from lakes to tributaries and also into lake outlets No data Goodyear, 1982
37 Spawning migration period Migration take splace in three successive phases: rapid movement upstream for either long or short distances, than a long residence period, followed by a short upstream migration just before spawning No data Baglinière, 1990
37 Spawning migration period Marine salmon move into estuaries and to fresh water in spring, summer, or early autumn [Landlocked or permantly freshwater salmon simply move from the lake into the tributary stream to be used for spawning] ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'December', 'June', 'July', 'October', 'November'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
37 Spawning migration period Spawning runs occur in September and early October ['October', 'September'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
37 Spawning migration period In insular Newfoundland, there is considerable variation in the timing of the upstream spawning migration which extends from early May to early September, while in Labrador upstream migrations are usually restricted ti July and August ['August', 'May', 'July', 'September'] Bradbury, 1999
37 Spawning migration period In Norway, Atlantic salmon ascend rivers between April and November, with a peak in most streams in June and July ['April', 'November', 'June', 'July'] Okland, 2001
37 Spawning migration period Runs stimulated by sudden increase in stream flow, some fish may be found in streams in most months, all approach shore in April-October, but at least two separate runs may occur, an early run ascends streams in May-July and remains in the streams until spawning time, a late run ascends in September and October just prior to spawning ['April', 'May', 'September', 'July', 'October'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season October to November [Sometimes in September or until January] ['October', 'November', 'January', 'September'] Groot, 1996
39 Spawning season From September to November in Sweden and End of November to January in France ['November', 'January', 'September'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season December ['December'] Dumas and Darolles, 1999
39 Spawning season Begin from 10 and 12 December ['December'] Baglinière, 1990
39 Spawning season Fall No data Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season November to January ['November', 'January'] Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
39 Spawning season September to November, but also December, January ['November', 'January', 'December', 'September'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Mainly October-November ['October', 'November'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Late October through November ['October', 'November'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Salmo and most char are fall breeders No data Willson, 1997
39 Spawning season In Newfoundland, sea-run Atlantic salmon normally spawn between mid-October and mid-November and may occur two weeks earlier in Labrador [For freshwater resident, In newfoundland, spawning typically occurs late September and early November, whereas in Labrador spawning normally occurs between mid-September and October. ['October', 'November', 'September'] Bradbury, 1999
39 Spawning season November to February, earlier in higher latitudes ['February', 'November'] Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
39 Spawning season Spawn in autumn and winter ['March', 'January', 'December', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Okland, 2001
39 Spawning season A period of 5-14 days in late October-late December, peak spawning usually occurs in November at about 44°F ['October', 'November', 'December'] Goodyear, 1982
38 Homing Return to their home river to spawn Present Groot, 1996
38 Homing Present [But not as strict as sometimes think] Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
38 Homing Salmon return to their home rivers and if possible to the area where they hatched and spent their initial freshwater parr life Present Fishbase, 2006
38 Homing Salmon and trout tend to return from the sea to the river of their birth [Within the river system these anadromous fish and resident trout seek to return to their natal tributary to spawn] Present Crisp, 1996
38 Homing Have a remarkable ability to return to the stream from which they originally came Present Kerr and Grant, 1999
38 Homing Return to their natal river to undergo spawning for the first time Present Bradbury, 1999
38 Homing Return to their natal streams to spawn Present de Gaudemar, 2000
38 Homing As adults, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. return from the sea to their home river for spawning Present Okland, 2001
48 Spawning release Batch spawner Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release The spawning act is repeated many times until the spawing is completed No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
48 Spawning release The spawning is repeated several times until all eggs have been released Mutliple Groot, 1996
48 Spawning release As many as five to nine excavations may occur, the last one serving to cover the final batch Mutliple Kerr and Grant, 1999
48 Spawning release Several batch of eggs in 5-10 mn intervals Mutliple Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
49 Parity Many atlantic salmon die after spawning but some may survive and return for spawning one or more times Semelparous Groot, 1996
49 Parity 101 female were stripped: 21 survived to spawn twice, 14 three times, and a single spawned four times No category Jarrams, 1979
49 Parity Iteroparous: from 1,2 and 4 spawning in a lifetime but female could lost 99% of their fat reserve ! Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity About 10% survive the spawning season No category Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
49 Parity Often do not die after spawning and may spawn more than once Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
49 Parity Although many Atlantic salmon die after spawning, iteroparity (up to 5 or 6 times) also occurs. The interval between breeding differs, however, with the length or stream discharge of the river used for spawning. Repeat spawning is more common in females than males Ambiguous Willson, 1997
49 Parity Although some adults return to sea immediatly after spawning, others may overwinter in freshwater or estuarine habitats and migrate to sea the following spring Iteroparous Bradbury, 1999
49 Parity 11 (0.7-42.5 %) or repeat breeding for anadromous populations, and 30% for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998
49 Parity Most leave streams immediatly after spawning or after resting in pools for a few weeks, others overwinter in streams No category Goodyear, 1982