Hucho hucho

  • Scientific name
  • Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Huchen

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 76%
Total data180
References28
Image of Hucho hucho

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
4 Egg adhesiveness The stickiness of the chorion is very low and disappears in washing Adhesive Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
5 Incubation time 138.2 [2°], 50 [6°C], 20.4 [12°C], 13.5 [16°C] 138.2 days Jungwirth and Winkler, 1984
5 Incubation time About 30 30.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 20 days at 12°C 20.0 days Holcik, 1990
5 Incubation time About 30 30.0 days Perrin, 2001
5 Incubation time 31 31.0 days Jatteau, 1991
5 Incubation time Estimates of the number of days required for 50% of egg to hatch: 55 [5°C], 23 [10°C], and 14 [15°C] [In different populations: 32 [At 5.1-16.0°C], 18 [At 4.0-16.0°C]] 10.55 days Humpesch, 1985
5 Incubation time About 3 weeks at 12°C 3.0 days Jungwirth, 1978
5 Incubation time The beginning was on the 31st day, mass hatching begining on the 32nd day, and hathcing finishing on the 34th day at an average temperature of 9.25°C 31.0 days Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
7 Degree-days for incubation 272 272.0 °C * day Barton, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 260-300 280.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 240 [20 days at 12°C] 240.0 °C * day Holcik, 1990
7 Degree-days for incubation 232-266 249.0 °C * day Jatteau, 1991
7 Degree-days for incubation About 200 [19 days at 8-10°C] 9.0 °C * day Fishbase, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation 230 [i.e. 23 days at 10°C at ca. optimum temperature] 230.0 °C * day Humpesch, 1985
7 Degree-days for incubation 232 DD at 10°C 232.0 °C * day Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
7 Degree-days for incubation 173 [Effective day-degrees] 173.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 294 at 7°C 294.0 °C * day Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
7 Degree-days for incubation The beginning was on 285.5 DD, mass hatching begining on the 301DD, and hathcing finishing on the 331DD at an average temperature of 9.25°C 285.5 °C * day Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
6 Temperature for incubation 5-12 8.5 °C Barton, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 6-12 best results, mortality is total above 16°C 9.0 °C Jungwirth and Winkler, 1984
6 Temperature for incubation 4.8-15.5 [Natural conditions], optimal temperaure 10-12°C 10.15 °C Jatteau, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation 8-10 9.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 5.0-13 is the temperature range for >50% survival to hatch [<1.5 and >15.5°C, lethal lower and upper limit] 9.0 °C Crisp, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum temperature was about 8°C [The lower limit for hatching ca 3°C and the upper limit was between ca. 16 and 20°C] 8.0 °C Humpesch, 1985
6 Temperature for incubation 7°C 7.0 °C Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
6 Temperature for incubation 12°C 12.0 °C Jungwirth, 1978
6 Temperature for incubation The temperature during the 32-day incubation period fluctuated in the range 4.8-15.5°C 10.15 °C Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
2 Egg size after water-hardening 4.0-5.5 [2 hours after fertilization] 4.75 mm Jatteau, 1991
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.6-6.0 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 4.8 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mature roe is light yellow or light orange and about 5 mm in diameter 5.0 mm Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
2 Egg size after water-hardening In our case swelling of the eggs began c. 30 min. after activation and went on intensively for 2 hrs., when the average egg size reached 4.32 mm, though slower swelling and an increase in egg size continued for the first three days of incubation up to a size of 4.55 mm 4.32 mm Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
2 Egg size after water-hardening 4.5 [Fully hardened eggs] 4.5 mm Penaz, 1981
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 3.6-6.0 4.8 mm Barton, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 4-5.5 4.75 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 3.48-7.64 [Not specified] 5.56 mm Bartel, 1999
1 Oocyte diameter 5 5.0 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 4.5-6 [Not specified] 5.25 mm Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
1 Oocyte diameter Their equatorial diameter was on average 3.95. In fish farm, found mean size of unswollen eggs 4.4-5.35 mm 4.875 mm Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
1 Oocyte diameter Range: 4.61-6.69, mean 5.38 5.65 mm Purtscher and Humpesch, 2006

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 16-18°C optimum for growth and mortality 17.0 °C Jungwirth, 1989
11 Temperature during larval development The maximum temperature for the alevin is 12°C 12.0 °C Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
11 Temperature during larval development Incubated at 15°C 15.0 °C Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism occured at fingerling stage in salmonid Present Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism The year's cultivation is removed at the end of August or the beginning of september, since cannibalism considerably increases at this time, which can account for half the population in a month Present Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 140-160 150.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 140-160 150.0 °C * day Jatteau, 1991
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The larval stage from hatching to the complete resorption of the vitelline sac is about 309°D at 10°C [The feeding to larvae began a few days before the completion of the vitelline sac] 309.0 °C * day Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The period from hatching to the loss of the yolk sac is 164.1 DD 164.1 °C * day Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 545 (less than 287.6-339.1 for incubation) yolk sac has disappeared, exlusively external nutrition 313.35 °C * day Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Two or three weeks later they begin feeding (at 12°C) 12.0 °C * day Jungwirth, 1978
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 457-545 DD (less than 287.6-339.1 for incubation) mixed nutrition 501.0 °C * day Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
8 Initial larval size 13-15 14.0 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 13-15 [Fry with yolk-sac] 14.0 mm Jatteau, 1991
8 Initial larval size 10.1 mm in length just after hatching obtained at a constant temperature of 10°C 10.1 mm Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
8 Initial larval size The average length of freshly-hatched embryos was 14.1 mm 14.1 mm Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
9 Larvae behaviour Fry remain on the spawning ground until they reach 40 mm Demersal Jatteau, 1991
9 Larvae behaviour Once the vesicle is reabsorbed, young stays near spawning area feeding on bottom fauna Demersal Fishbase, 2006
9 Larvae behaviour The larvae keep close to the ground, near the spawning place Demersal Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
9 Larvae behaviour After hatching they mostly remain motionless at the bottom of the trough, lying sideways on the yolk sac Demersal Penaz and Prihoda, 1981

Female (50%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 15.5% for different populations 15.5 percent Fleming, 1998
19 Relative fecundity 1.1.6 1.1 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 1-1.6 1.3 thousand eggs/kg Jatteau, 1991
19 Relative fecundity 1.2-1.5 1.35 thousand eggs/kg Jungwirth, 1978
19 Relative fecundity Relative fertility of 1095 to 3330 pieces 1095.0 thousand eggs/kg Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex specified] 3.5 years Holcik, 1990
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Male] 3.0 years Perrin, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Male] 3.5 years Jatteau, 1991
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Male, the males mature a year before than females] 3.5 years Witkowski, 1988
20 Absolute fecundity 1-1.6 1.3 thousand eggs Barton, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity Absolute fertility range from 2500-18000, but could even reach 25000 10250.0 thousand eggs Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
20 Absolute fecundity 2.4 [For female 3-5 kg], 3-4 [4-5 kg], 5-6 [6-8 kg], 8-12 [10-12 kg], 18.6 [18 kg] 4.0 thousand eggs Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
20 Absolute fecundity Useful fertility 12500-22500 pieces 17500.0 thousand eggs Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
17 Weight at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 kg Holcik, 1990
17 Weight at sexual maturity Mean of 6.1, range 2.5-8.3 [For female migrating] 5.4 kg Witkowski, 1988
17 Weight at sexual maturity At the age of 5 years, female weights about 3.5 5.0 kg Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
17 Weight at sexual maturity First spawning takes place when fish are 3 or 4 kg [Sex not specified] 3.0 kg Jungwirth, 1978
17 Weight at sexual maturity 4 [Sex not specified] 4.0 kg Jungwirth, 1979
16 Length at sexual maturity 70-100 85.0 cm Barton, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 83.6, range 63.0-94.5 [For female migrating] 78.75 cm Witkowski, 1988
16 Length at sexual maturity At the age of 5 years, female are 65-70 cm long 67.5 cm Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
16 Length at sexual maturity Average length of 70 cm [Sex not specified] 70.0 cm Jungwirth, 1979
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 4.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 4.0 year Barton, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Sex specified] 4.5 year Holcik, 1990
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 [Female] 4.0 year Perrin, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Female] 4.5 year Jatteau, 1991
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Female] 4.5 year Witkowski, 1988
15 Age at sexual maturity The female reach sexual maturity at the age of 5 years, but also described at 3 or 4 5.0 year Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
15 Age at sexual maturity First spawning takes place when fish are 4 or 5 years old [Sex not specified] 4.0 year Jungwirth, 1978
15 Age at sexual maturity Reach sexual maturity after 4-5 years [Sex not specified] 4.5 year Jungwirth, 1979
15 Age at sexual maturity Danubian salmon in pond culture achieve sexual maturity in the 6th-8th year of life 6.0 year Penaz and Prihoda, 1981

Male (56%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Breeding tubercles present Present Kratt and Smith, 1978
30 Male sexual dimorphism The males undergo marked colour changes, turning red or copper-red Absent Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent Fleming, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 3 for different populations 3.0 percent Fleming, 1998
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 83.2, range 58.3-109.0 [For male migrating] 83.65 cm Witkowski, 1988
29 Weight at sexual maturity 1-2 1.5 kg Holcik, 1990
29 Weight at sexual maturity Mean of 6.6, range 2.1-14.2 [For male migrating] 8.15 kg Witkowski, 1988
29 Weight at sexual maturity First spawning takes place when fish are 3 or 4 kg [Sex not specified] 3.0 kg Jungwirth, 1978

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system By pair, males and females are very aggressive Monogamy Jatteau, 1991
47 Mating system Spawn in pairs Monogamy Witkowski, 1988
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care There is no parental care during the hatching or embryonic phase [After spawning, the parent fish go downstream and keep close to deep places and rocks] No care Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
50 Parental care No defence by females No care Fleming, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Small gravels Lithophils Perrin, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Sand or gravels Ambiguous Jatteau, 1991
44 Spawning substrate Sand or gravels Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Gravelly and sandy bottom Ambiguous Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
44 Spawning substrate Bottom is covered with gravel or coarse sand Ambiguous Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
44 Spawning substrate Fist-sized loose gravel Lithophils Jungwirth, 1978
45 Spawning site preparation Female dig a nest Susbtrate chooser Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are buried within 40 cm deep No category Perrin, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Female dig a nest 30-40 cm deep, and 120-150 cm wide Susbtrate chooser Jatteau, 1991
45 Spawning site preparation Female dig a nest [Brood hiders] Susbtrate chooser Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation The female is aided by the male in making a nest 120-150 cm in width and 3040 cm in depth, in the bottom of the river No category Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
45 Spawning site preparation Female sets to work to scoop out a shallow, saucer-like depression, 25-60 cm deep, by means of vigorous, flapping movements of her body and tail, may take several days [During the spawning period, the males are generally very fierce, driving away intruders with great pugnacity and vigour, or engagin in formal combats with other males] No category Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
45 Spawning site preparation Nest by females Best build by female Fleming, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 6-10 8.0 °C Barton, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 8-10 9.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 5-10 7.5 °C Holcik, 1990
41 Spawning temperature 8-10 9.0 °C Perrin, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 8-10 9.0 °C Jatteau, 1991
41 Spawning temperature Species starts spawning at 6-10°C 8.0 °C Witkowski, 1988
41 Spawning temperature The earliest spawning was noted at water temperature of 3.6°C and last spawning was observed at water temperature of 9.2°C. The most intense spawning usually occurs at water temperature of about 7°C 3.6 °C Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
41 Spawning temperature 5-10, mainly 5-6°C 7.5 °C Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
41 Spawning temperature When the water temperature, at least during the day, exceeds 8°C 8.0 °C Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
40 Spawning period duration 5-6 [On the south of Europe spawning starts as soon as February and lasts until March] 5.5 weeks Witkowski, 1988
40 Spawning period duration The earliest spawning was noted on April 6, to mid July (the last spawning was observed on May 13 (the most intense spawning usually occurs by the end of April) 6.0 weeks Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
40 Spawning period duration In Poland, the spawning time is between April 20 and 26, in Yugoslavia in the Drava river, between march 18 and 22 20.0 weeks Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
40 Spawning period duration Annual spawning period in free rivers is relatively short No data Jungwirth, 1979
42 Spawning water type Water velocities : 0.61 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Perrin, 2001
42 Spawning water type Water with current: 0.6-1 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Jatteau, 1991
42 Spawning water type Migrate upstream into smaller and shallower streams No category Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Rivers and larger streams on the region of the grayling No category Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
42 Spawning water type Upper courses of highland rivers, where the stream runs fairly rapidly No category Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
43 Spawning depth 0.30-1.20 0.75 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth 0.3-1.2 m 0.75 m Jatteau, 1991
43 Spawning depth 0.3-1.5 0.9 m Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth Often chooses for spawning the stream section with a depth from 0.4-0.6 m 0.5 m Witkowski, 1988
43 Spawning depth 60-100 cm 80.0 m Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
43 Spawning depth 30-60 cm 45.0 m Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
43 Spawning depth Average depth of one meter No data Jungwirth, 1978
36 Spawning migration distance Low ampliture about 5-15 km 10.0 km Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Move upstream to spawning sites, but these migrations are short, not exceeding 10-25 km 17.5 km Holcik, 1990
36 Spawning migration distance Migration during night of about 5-20 km 12.5 km Perrin, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Short migrations: from 5 to 10-25 km 17.5 km Jatteau, 1991
36 Spawning migration distance Does not undertake large migrations. Unless disturbed, it makes only local migrations in seach of spawning places No data Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
37 Spawning migration period Most often the migration starts between April 7 and 10, with water 7-8°C warm [Duration of migration varies from 6 days to 1.5 months depending on environmental conditions] ['April'] Witkowski, 1988
37 Spawning migration period Represents the largest exclusively riverine and non-migratory salmonid fish No data Jungwirth, 1979
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season Spring: Mid-March until Mid-April, up to May ['April', 'March', 'May'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Perrin, 2001
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Jatteau, 1991
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season On the south of Europe spawning starts as soon as February and lasts until March and in Central Europe it extends from April to mid-May ['February', 'April', 'March', 'May'] Witkowski, 1988
39 Spawning season Spring spawner [Other authors described between March and May] ['March', 'May'] Humpesch, 1985
39 Spawning season The spawning begins in April (the earliest spawning was noted on April 6, at water temperature of 3.6°C) and lasts to mid July (the last spawning was observed on May 13, at water temperature of 9.2°C). The most intense spawning usually occurs by the end of April at water temperature of about 7°C ['April', 'May', 'July'] Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
39 Spawning season Spring spawner, it spawns in March and April ['April', 'March'] Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
39 Spawning season Depending on the local water temperature spawning takes place between the middle of March and end of April ['April', 'March'] Jungwirth, 1978
39 Spawning season The ripening of the sexual products of Danubian salmon takes place in the spring months, especially in the second half of April and first half of May ['April', 'May', 'June'] Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
38 Homing Seem to display the same homing of salmon Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
38 Homing Homing behavior Present Jatteau, 1991
48 Spawning release NO INFORMATIONS No category Witkowski, 1988
48 Spawning release Eggs are buried in spawning redds No category Holcik, 1990
49 Parity Iteroparous : 8-12 spawning during a lifetime Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity The fishes spawning represented nine age groups: 4 to 12 years No category Witkowski, 1988
49 Parity The reproduction is annual No category Jatteau, 1991
49 Parity Spawning takes place once a year No category Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
49 Parity They are known to spawn up to 12 times per lifetime No category Jungwirth, 1978
49 Parity Mean of 64 (range 51-77%) of repeat spawners No category Fleming, 1998