Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

  • Scientific name
  • Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum, 1792)

  • Common name
  • Pink salmon

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 88%
Total data188
References36
Image of Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness During water hardening the egg capsule becomes highly adhesive for about 20 minutes Adhesive Groot, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
5 Incubation time 103 [10°C], 139 [7°C], 195 [4°C] 103.0 days Groot, 1996
5 Incubation time 74-76 at 8°C for 50% hatching with n = 6543 [124-128 at 4°C and 52-54 at 12°C] 75.0 days Beacham and Murray, 1986
5 Incubation time 61-130 days at 4.5°C 95.5 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 109.0 [5°C], 80.9 [7.5°C], 63.0 [10°C] and 54.0 [12.5°C] for 50% hatch 109.0 days Jensen, 1997
5 Incubation time 54.8 [10.5°C], 58 [9.6°C], 61.8 [9.7°C], 74.3 [7.3°C], 80.5 [6.0°C], 87.7 [5.2°C], 96.6 [5.1°C] and 133.6 [2.9°C] 54.8 days Murray and Beacham, 1986
5 Incubation time 140 [3°C], 95 [6°C], 69 [10°C], 58 [12°C] deduced from graph 140.0 days Beacham and Murray, 1990
5 Incubation time 50% hatch at: 39.8 [14°C], 47.2 [11°C], 72.2 [8°C], 99 [5°C] 50.0 days Murray and McPhail, 1988
5 Incubation time 9-10 weeks at 12± 0.5°C 12.0 days Macquarrie, 1979
5 Incubation time 74 [7°C], 69 [9°C], 62 [11°C], 51 [13°C] and 47 [15°C] 74.0 days Kwain, 1982
5 Incubation time Egg development from fertilization to 50% hatch at various constant temperatures: 125 days [At 3.0°C], 98.8 days [At 6°C], 74 days [At 8°C], 61 days [At 10.4°C], 47 days [At 15°C] 50.0 days Velsen,1987
7 Degree-days for incubation 500 500.0 °C * day Barton, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 592-608 [at 8°C, n= 6543] 600.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1986
7 Degree-days for incubation 780-1030 905.0 °C * day Groot, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 545.0-674.9 [Between 5-12.5] 609.95 °C * day Jensen, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 500 500.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
7 Degree-days for incubation 556 [9.6°C], 483 [6.0°C] and 492 [5.1°C] [58 at 9.6°C, 80.5 at 6.0°C, 96.6 at 5.1°C] 556.0 °C * day Murray and Beacham, 1986
7 Degree-days for incubation 420 [3°C], 570 [6°C], 690 [10°C], 696 [12°C] deduced from graph 420.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
7 Degree-days for incubation 769 [Effective day-degrees] 769.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation 7-10°C [Deformities occur when eggs are incubated at low temperatures : 3-4.5°C 8.5 °C Groot, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 8-10.5 9.25 °C Barton, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 8°C is the optimum with n = 6543 [Poorest egg survival in all stocks occured at 4°C and 12°C] 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum temperature of yolk conversion is about 8°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1993
6 Temperature for incubation Could tolerate a temperature of 0.5 if previously incubated at 5.5°C [Both chinook and pink salmon eggs could tolerate temperatures as low as 33°F for long periods if the intial incubating temperature had been above 42°F]] 0.5 °C Combs, 1965
6 Temperature for incubation The embryos were incubated at 15°C for 10 days until epiloby was complete, then the temperature was lowered 0.5°C every 2 days until a 9°C incubation temperature was obtained, and the embryos were maintained at 9°C until hatching 15.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1987
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at different temperature from 2.9 to 9.6 2.9 °C Murray and Beacham, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 12 ± 0.5 12.0 °C Macquarrie, 1979
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15, yet 15°C is considered to be the upper limit for Great Lakes pink salmon egg incubation [embryos of sea-run pink salmon can tolerate near-zero temperatures provided early development has occured within the preferred temperature range from 7 to 10°C] 7.0 °C Kwain, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation Egg mortality during incubation from fertilization to 50% hatch at various temperatures: 82% [At 3.0°C], 11.5% [At 6.5°C], 2.3% [At 11°C], 70.5% [At 16°C] 11.0 °C Velsen,1987
2 Egg size after water-hardening Different means: 7.08 ± 0.04 (N=30), 7.11 ± 0.04 (N=30), 6.96 ± 0.02 -N=90), 7.16 ± 0.03 (N=90), 7.04 ± 0.03 (N=90), 7.24 ± 0.02 (N=90), and 7.07 ± 0.03 (N=90) [Water hardened egg] 7.08 mm Murray and Beacham, 1986
2 Egg size after water-hardening The average diameter of eggs was 6.38 ± 0.28 [Fertilized eggs after being water hardened for an hour] 6.38 mm Kwain, 1982
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Groot, 1996
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 6 6.0 mm Mellinger, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 6 6.0 mm Barton, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 5.40-6.07 [n=232] 5.735 mm Kaev and Kaeva, 1986
1 Oocyte diameter 6 6.0 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 6 6.0 mm Fishbase, 2006

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 8-12°C 10.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1986
11 Temperature during larval development Once hatching was complete, the temperature in the incubator was increased 0.5°C every 2 days until a target of 13.5°C was reached, and then the alevins were maintained at this temperature until 50% had the yolk sac completely covered wtih chromatophores 0.5 °C Beacham and Murray, 1987
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 11 ±1°C 11.0 °C Macquarrie, 1979
11 Temperature during larval development The mean preferred temperature of pink salmon fry was 10.3°C [The youngest sea-run fry (newly emerged) generally selected temperatures of 11.7-12.8°C in a vertical gradient, whereas older fry (up to 10 wk) were found in temperatures of 9.4-10.6°C] 12.25 °C Kwain, 1982
10 Reaction to light "If salt water is not reach during the first night, the fry will hide in the gravel during daylight hours: thus only nightly ""jumps"" [Once in the estuary, the behavior change, the fry become light-adapted and start to swim around during daylights in schools]" Photophobic Groot, 1996
10 Reaction to light The pink salmon young migrated mainly during the night Photophobic Zolotukhin, 1993
10 Reaction to light Larvae emerging from the higher spawning grounds hide in the gravel by day, become active at bight Photopositive Scott and Crossman, 1973
10 Reaction to light The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Oncorhynchus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 305 [Swim-up from fertilization: 805 degree-days, less 500 for hatching ] 305.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
13 Full yolk-sac resorption [Duration for 50% emergence: 66.1 days at 9.6°C, 36.6 days at 9.7°C, 64.1 days at 5.1°C and 153.4 days at 2.9°C, also 41.7 days at 10.5°C, 39.4 days at 7.3°C, 45.8 days at 6.0 and 46.7 days at 5.2°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and Beacham, 1986
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Emergence at 255 DD [3°C], 330 DD[6°C], 310 DD [10°C] and 360 DD [12°C] deduced from graph and size at hatching average 31 mm, range 28.5 to 33.5 255.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 50% emergence vary: 32.3 days [14°C], 43.6 days [11°C], 48 days [8°C], 74.2 days [5°C], Mean SL vary at 50% emergence vary with temperature: 26 [14°C], 27.1 [11°C], 28.4 [8°C], 26.8 [5°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and McPhail, 1988
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Alveins emerged from the gravel and started feeding 6 to 8 weeks after hatching at 11-12°C 11.5 °C * day Macquarrie, 1979
8 Initial larval size SL means range from 15.9 ± 0.1 to 19.7 ± 0.14 15.9 mm Murray and Beacham, 1986
8 Initial larval size Average 21.5, range of 19.5 to 24 21.5 mm Beacham and Murray, 1990
8 Initial larval size Mean SL vary at 50% hatching vary with temperature: 15.8 [14°C], 16.8 [11°C], 17.5 [8°C], 17.8 [5°C] 15.8 mm Murray and McPhail, 1988
8 Initial larval size Total length of newly emergedfry from the Steel River averaged 30.1 ±0.9 30.1 mm Kwain, 1982
9 Larvae behaviour The fry emerge from the gravel at night, mainly in April and May, and immediatly migrate to sea Demersal Groot, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour The alevins remain in the gravel until the yolk is absorbed in April or early May (rarely late February) when they struggle up out of the nest and become free swimming)] Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the gravel until yolk is absorbed, emerge in April-May, mainly mid-April Demersal Goodyear, 1982
9 Larvae behaviour Swim-up from fertilization: 805 degree-days [From hatching 805 less 500] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
9 Larvae behaviour Upon hatching the alevins migrated through the spawces in the base of each basket into the gravel where they remained until 80-90% of their yolk had been absorbed Demersal Macquarrie, 1979

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Morphological changes are minor in mature females but they show the same color changes as males Absent Groot, 1996
24 Maximum GSI value 17.44 ± 1.40 [Spawning grounds] 17.44 percent Dye, 1986
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 16.8 (range 16.1-17.4%) for different populations 16.75 percent Fleming, 1998
19 Relative fecundity 0.472 0.472 thousand eggs/kg Groot, 1996
19 Relative fecundity NO INFORMATIONS No data Beacham and Murray, 1993
19 Relative fecundity 0.875 in reared conditions] 0.875 thousand eggs/kg Macquarrie, 1979
27 Age at sexual maturity Virtually all mature at 2 [rarely 1-3] 2.0 years Beacham, 1988
27 Age at sexual maturity Generally marure at 2-3 years of age [Sex not specified] 2.5 years Bradbury, 1999
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Final maturation and peak spawning occurs in September-October of the following year ['October', 'September'] Macquarrie, 1979
21 Oocyte development Synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity Synchronous Fishbase, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 1.2-1.9 1.55 thousand eggs Groot, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 1.038-1.950 [n=232] 1.494 thousand eggs Kaev and Kaeva, 1986
20 Absolute fecundity 1.4-1.725 between 1971-1979 [n= 4500] 1.5625 thousand eggs Golobanov, 1982
20 Absolute fecundity 0.633-2.661 [mean varies between 1.076-1.972] 1.647 thousand eggs Zolotukhin, 1993
20 Absolute fecundity 1.2-1.8 1.5 thousand eggs Fishbase, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 1.63-1.77 1.7 thousand eggs Beacham and Murray, 1993
20 Absolute fecundity 0.652, lower than in the wild 0.8-2 1.4 thousand eggs Macquarrie, 1979
20 Absolute fecundity Average number of eggs per female was 1060 ± 229, low compared to 1500-1900 in the sea-run fish 1060.0 thousand eggs Kwain, 1982
17 Weight at sexual maturity 1.05-1.44 mean weight between 1971-1979 [n= 4500] 1.245 kg Golobanov, 1982
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.600-2.350 is the mean [Varies between 0.830-1.960] 1.475 kg Zolotukhin, 1993
17 Weight at sexual maturity 706 ± 140 g ! 706.0 kg Macquarrie, 1979
17 Weight at sexual maturity Average weight was 0.68 kg 0.68 kg Kwain, 1982
16 Length at sexual maturity 61 61.0 cm Barton, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity 44.8-50.8 mean fork length between 1971-1979 [n= 4500] 47.8 cm Golobanov, 1982
16 Length at sexual maturity 40.3-54.5 [mean varies between 43.7-52.7] 47.4 cm Zolotukhin, 1993
16 Length at sexual maturity 39.3 ± 3 39.3 cm Macquarrie, 1979
16 Length at sexual maturity Spawning runs in 1979 averaged 358 mm in fork length for both sexes, whereas from a pooled Lake Huron/Lake Michigan sample averaged 389 mm for both sexes 1979.0 cm Kwain, 1982
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean standard length: 47.58, range 43.0-54.9 48.95 cm Keenleyside and Dupuis, 1988
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 year Barton, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity Virtually all mature at 2 [rarely 1-3] 2.0 year Beacham, 1988

Male (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Marked hump and a large kype, colour changes Absent Groot, 1996
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males have larger heads, thicker caudal peduncles, longer bases of the anal and dorsal fin Absent Beacham, 1988
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male pink salmon normally develop a pronouced hump, but males adopting a satellite-male mating tactic have only a small hump [In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondary trait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males.] Present Willson, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism "At one extreme are the biggest males with greatly enlarged snout (Kype) and dorsal hump (hence the name ""humpback"" for this species). The kype with its large teeth is used to ram and bite other males, similar snout development and associated aggressive behaviour are found in other salmonids. The considerable dorsal hump development, however, is unique to pink salmon, and as the largest males are consitently closest to the female in the group of males associated with har at spawning, the greatly enlarged hump also contributes to dominance amon males. At the other extreme are the smallest males, who resemble females in size, shape, and colour. " Absent Keenleyside and Dupuis, 1988
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent Fleming, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 5.2 (range 4.9-5.4%) for different populations 5.15 percent Fleming, 1998
35 Resting period 5.39 ± 0.5 [Spawning grounds] 5.39 months Dye, 1986
28 Length at sexual maturity 44.5-54.9 mean fork length between 1971-1979 [n= 4500] 49.7 cm Golobanov, 1982
28 Length at sexual maturity 38.5-62.5 [mean range from 45-52] 50.5 cm Zolotukhin, 1993
28 Length at sexual maturity 42.4 ± 3.8 42.4 cm Macquarrie, 1979
28 Length at sexual maturity Spawning runs in 1979 averaged 358 mm in fork length for both sexes, whereas from a pooled Lake Huron/Lake Michigan sample averaged 389 mm for both sexes 35.8 cm Kwain, 1982
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean standard length: 50.37, range 41.6-57.5 49.55 cm Keenleyside and Dupuis, 1988
29 Weight at sexual maturity 1.01-1.85 mean weight between 1971-1979 [n= 4500] 1.43 kg Golobanov, 1982
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.650-3.210 [mean range from 1.017-1.960] 1.93 kg Zolotukhin, 1993
29 Weight at sexual maturity 793 ± 174 g ! 793.0 kg Macquarrie, 1979

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Many courting pairs are attended by a number of satellite males (up to ten), which join the pair in the nest when the eggs are finally shed No category Groot, 1996
47 Mating system Several males may spawn with a single female in one nest, individual females my build more than one nest, and a single male may spawn with more than one female No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system In some cases, several males spawn with a single female No category Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system Female is attented by several males No category Kwain, 1982
47 Mating system Most effective spawning takes place with a predominance of males (up to 3 males per female) or with equal sex ratio coupled with low density of spawners No category Chebanov, 1986
47 Mating system Ten or more males may jockey for position near a nest-digging female and dash together into the nest when she spawns. The number of males competing for access to a single female is typically greater than in other salmonids. No category Keenleyside and Dupuis, 1988
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Occur mainly at dusk and during darkness Dusk Groot, 1996
50 Parental care Nest construction and defence of territories appear to continue day and night No category Groot, 1996
50 Parental care The female usually guards the nest as long as she is able but the spawning adults die in a few days or weeks No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care Willson, 1997
50 Parental care The female defends the nests from other females until her death days to weeks later. Male pacific salmon take no part in parental care. Rather they remain sexually active throughout their breeding life span and move amongst breeding females Ambiguous Hamon, 1999
50 Parental care Nesting defence by females after No category Fleming, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Groot, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are dpeosited in redd dug in medium-sized gravel Lithophils Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Mainly oversand/gravel/cobble substrate Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Starts defending nesting territories as soon as they have moved on breeding grounds No category Groot, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation It is the female that prepares the nest or rFemaledd [The males are aggessive to other males (female are to females also, but to a lesser extend)] No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation The female buids the redd by lying on one side and using its tail, it deplace silt and light gravel to produce a deep trough Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Upon establishing a territory, the female constructs, spawns in, and covers a series of nests (three to eight), and then defends these from other females until her death days to weeks later Nest built by male Hamon, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation The female digs a redd Susbtrate chooser Kwain, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Nest by female Best build by female Fleming, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Most spawning at 10-12°C [Range 7-19°C] 11.0 °C Groot, 1996
41 Spawning temperature The five stocks studied spawned when surface water temperature was near 8°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1986
41 Spawning temperature 8-14 11.0 °C Golobanov, 1982
41 Spawning temperature As high as 16, but spawning lof later runs peak at 10 16.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature At 60°F, i.e., 15.5°C 60.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 6-12°C during the study 9.0 °C Keenleyside and Dupuis, 1988
40 Spawning period duration 6-8 [that long when spawning ground availibility is limited] 7.0 weeks Groot, 1996
40 Spawning period duration 5-6 5.5 weeks Zolotukhin, 1993
40 Spawning period duration A period of 3-5 days 4.0 weeks Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Velocities 30 to 140 cm/sec Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
42 Spawning water type Channel part of the river [Velocity of flow is about 0.2-1.1 m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Golobanov, 1982
42 Spawning water type Rivers and tributary streams, with current Flowing or turbulent water Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Usually in brush-choked streams in shoal area nearest stream mouth where there is a suitable substrate and water velocity of 0.75-3.25 Flowing or turbulent water Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Streams, intertidal No category Willson, 1997
43 Spawning depth Usually 30 to 100 cm in depth [In dry years, spawning can occur at 10-15 cm] 12.5 m Groot, 1996
43 Spawning depth Spawn at depths of 0.5 and 2.0 m, but in the greater part of the spawning grounds depths of 0.7 to 1.0 predominate 0.5 m Golobanov, 1982
43 Spawning depth About 30.5-61 cm 45.75 m Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth 6 inches - 2 feet 6.0 m Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth 0.2-0.5 m 0.35 m Bradbury, 1999
36 Spawning migration distance Spawning grounds can be as far as 700 km, but generally are within 100 km of the coast 700.0 km Groot, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance This stock of pink salmon takes approximatively 2 weeks to migrate the 333 km upstream to the spawning grounds 2.0 km Dye, 1986
36 Spawning migration distance Usually move only about 40 miles upstream but may move as much as 300 miles in large rivers, or may spawn in the lower tidal areas in other rivers 40.0 km Scott and Crossman, 1973
36 Spawning migration distance Upstream migration usually less than 0.5 miles but a migration of 40-50 miles has been reported on Lake Superiori tributary 45.0 km Goodyear, 1982
36 Spawning migration distance Although spawning generally takes place in freshwater close to the sea or in interdital zones, some pink salmon may sapwn in streams several kilometers upstream from slatwater No data Bradbury, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Pink salmon returned to spawn in their natal streams in southern British Columbia during September and October ['October', 'September'] Beacham and Murray, 1986
37 Spawning migration period Between June and September ['June', 'September'] Groot, 1996
37 Spawning migration period Spawners begin to move into the rivers at the beginning of July ['July'] Golobanov, 1982
37 Spawning migration period The entry of the spawners in the river was in July ['July'] Zolotukhin, 1993
37 Spawning migration period From June to September ['June', 'September'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
37 Spawning migration period June to late September, depending on location ['June', 'September'] Fishbase, 2006
37 Spawning migration period Congrate off tributary mouths beginning in mid-August, ascend tributaries grounds in September ['August', 'September'] Goodyear, 1982
37 Spawning migration period The prespawning run of O. gorbuscha in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Kurils lasts from May to September. This water area is first crossed (late May-June) by the migrating early summer O. gorbuscha, then, (the end of June-July) follows the late summer O. gorbuscha, and from August to September, the run is terminated by the autumn O. gorbuscha. ['May', 'September', 'August', 'December', 'June', 'July', 'October', 'November'] Shubin et Kovalenko, 2000
39 Spawning season Late August to early October ['October', 'August'] Groot, 1996
39 Spawning season Salmon spawning does not extend past October ['October'] Beacham and Murray, 1986
39 Spawning season In British Columbia, pink salmon spawn during August through October ['October', 'August'] Beacham, 1988
39 Spawning season Mainly in August, with a peak in early-mid August [in the rivers of nothern shore of the sea of Okhotsk] ['August'] Golobanov, 1982
39 Spawning season Early August until the ten first days of September ['August', 'September'] Zolotukhin, 1993
39 Spawning season From mid-July to late October ['October', 'July'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season September-November [June-November] ['November', 'June', 'September'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season September-early October, usually peaks in mid-September ['October', 'September'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Occurs in late August through October ['October', 'August'] Bradbury, 1999
39 Spawning season Among the species of Oncorhynchus, the salmon are typically late-summer spawners (the exact timing differing among locations and years), although southern chinook populations breed in psring, and some coho populations breed in late winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February'] Willson, 1997
39 Spawning season Pacific salmon spawn in fall (though this may be as early as July or as late as February, depending on species and region) whereas the Pacific trout species (formely in the genus Salmo) spawn in spring. ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'February'] Quinn and Myers, 2004
39 Spawning season october-Novevember ['October'] Keenleyside and Dupuis, 1988
38 Homing Natal streams Present Beacham and Murray, 1986
38 Homing Although some adult return to their natal streams to spawn, the rate of straying amon pink salmon is believed to be much higher than in any other species of salmon Present Bradbury, 1999
48 Spawning release Once a year Total Groot, 1996
49 Parity Semelparous : died soon after the end of the spawning season Semelparous Groot, 1996
49 Parity Survivorship rates are low, at 1-25% Semelparous Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity Die soon after spawning Semelparous Goodyear, 1982
49 Parity Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category Willson, 1997
49 Parity All members of the genus Oncorhynchus(including anadromous and non-anadromous forms) die after spawning, and this is true with three exceptions. Firstn the Pacific trout species, are all iteroparous. Second, male masu salmon (O. masou) that mature in fresh water as parr are capable of surviving, migrating to sea, and spawning in subsequent season, though anadromous males and females are semelparous. Third, under experimental conditions male chinhook salmon can mature as parr, survive spawning, grow, and spawn again the following year, and even a third year. Semelparous Quinn and Myers, 2004
49 Parity Pink salmon have a rigid 2-year life cycle No category Murray and Beacham, 1986
49 Parity Pink salmon have the shortest and most inflexible life cycle of all the Pacific salmon No category Macquarrie, 1979
49 Parity 0% of repeat spawners No category Fleming, 1998