Sander vitreus

  • Scientific name
  • Sander vitreus (Mitchill, 1818)

  • Common name
  • Walleye

  • Family
  • Percidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 96%
Total data280
References43
Image of Sander vitreus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Shortly after eggs are exposed to water they become highly adhesive Adhesive Malison and Held, 1996a
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Craig, 2000
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are quite adhesive and remain so for about 1 h until water-hardened Adhesive Colby, 1979
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are sticky at first but apparently not so after water hardening Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Once they have water hardened, they lose their adhesive nature and the eggs drift into crevices in rock rubble or gravel] Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Colsesante, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs have an adhesive coating that can act to attach them to the substrate over which thet have been broadca. Over the next several hours the eggs swell to about twice their original size and lose their adhesive quality Adhesive Malison and Held, 1996b
4 Egg adhesiveness Soon after fertilization the eggs were treated with a weak tannic acid solution to reduce adhesion and rinsed twice. Water was then added gradually and eggs were stirred with a feather occasionally to further reduce adhesion Non-Adhesive Johnston, 2007
5 Incubation time 11-13 [11-15°C] 12.0 days Craig, 2000
5 Incubation time 12-18 15.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 12-18 15.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 12-18, as early as 7 days [13.9°C] to 26 days [4.4°C] 15.0 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 12-18 15.0 days Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
5 Incubation time 15.0 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 15.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time 26 days at 5.5-12.2°C 8.85 days Hurley, 1972
5 Incubation time Days to 95% hatch 14-18 [At 12.4-12.9°C] and 14-19 [12.1-13.2°C] 16.0 days Oseid and Smith, 1971
5 Incubation time Days to median hatch: 34 days at [6°C], 27 [8.9°C], 15 [12°C], 10 [15.°C], 7 [18.1°C] 34.0 days Koenst and Smith, 1976
5 Incubation time 26 [At 4.4°C], 21 [At 10-12.8°C], 7 [At 13.9°C] 11.4 days Malison and Held, 1996b
5 Incubation time 14 days, temperature not specified 14.0 days Moodie, 1989
7 Degree-days for incubation 120-150 [i.e. 11-13 days at 11-15°C] 135.0 °C * day Malison and Held, 1996a
7 Degree-days for incubation 120-150 [10 days at 12.8°C, 8.5 days at 17.8°C] 135.0 °C * day Colby, 1979
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-110 [At a temperature of 15°C] 95.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation 100-120 [12-18 at about 6.7-8.9°C] 110.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 170-210 [Days to 95% hatch 14-18 [At 12.4-12.9°C] and 14-19 [12.1-13.2°C]] 190.0 °C * day Oseid and Smith, 1971
6 Temperature for incubation From less than 6°C to 19.2°C, optimum is 9-15°C [Walleye has the lowest temperature tolerance for embryos of all percids] 12.0 °C Colby, 1979
6 Temperature for incubation In our laboratory we normally incubate walleye eggs under a gradually increasing water temperature regime of approximatively 0.5°C per day from 10 to 15°C 0.5 °C Malison and Held, 1996a
6 Temperature for incubation 15°C [Recommended temperature of 15°C] 15.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 18.5 18.5 °C Johnston and Mathias, 1994
6 Temperature for incubation 5.5-13.9 [Mean temperature range from 42 to 57°F during the whole incubation] 9.7 °C Hurley, 1972
6 Temperature for incubation 12-13°C 12.5 °C Oseid and Smith, 1971
6 Temperature for incubation Water temperature was maintained at 12°C (±0.5°C) throughout the incubation period. This temperature is in the middle of the optimum range for walleye egg incubation 12.0 °C Johnston, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation The greatest overall mean percentage hatch was at incubation temperature of 9-15°C and the lowest at 21°C. There was no significant difference found in the percentage hatch between the incubation temperatures of 9-15°C 12.0 °C Koenst and Smith, 1976
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated in seperate chambers at 12°C 12.0 °C Johnston, 2007
6 Temperature for incubation The incubation room was held at 9°C during the fertilization trials and early incubation period (up to 10 hours after the final fertilization) then gradually increased to 12°C over the next 7 days 9.0 °C Johnston, 2008
2 Egg size after water-hardening During this water-hardening [2-3 hours] the eggs will swell to about twice their original volume] 2.5 mm Malison and Held, 1996b
2 Egg size after water-hardening The eggs swell after fertilization due to uptake of water No data Craig, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.5-2.0 [Not precised] 1.75 mm Mellinger, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.5-2.0 [Not precised] 1.75 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.5-2 [Not specified] 1.75 mm Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Drop into the cracks and crevices where they may be protected from predators] Demersal Colby, 1979
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Craig, 2000
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal, on the bottom Demersal Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Dead eggs floated to the top Pelagic Hurley, 1972
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2.0 [May vary from 1.37-2.12] 1.75 mm Colby, 1979
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4-2.1 [Not specified, seems to be unswollen] 1.75 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4-2.1 1.75 mm Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
1 Oocyte diameter 1.9 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 1.9 mm Olden, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Range from 1.37 to 2.12 [Not specified] 1.37 mm Johnston, 1997
1 Oocyte diameter The mean diameter of ripe walleyes was 1.72 (range 1.40-2.04), earlier description was 2.12 [Not specified] 1.72 mm Wolfert, 1969

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 15-21 is the optimum 18.0 °C Colby, 1979
11 Temperature during larval development First 9-15 then 21°C 12.0 °C Krise and Meade, 1986
11 Temperature during larval development 14-23 optimum T 18.5 °C Craig, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development 18-20 19.0 °C Li and Mathias, 1982
11 Temperature during larval development 17-20°C 18.5 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development 23°C optimal for fingerling growth 23.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 15, 18.5 and 22°C 15.0 °C Johnston and Mathias, 1994
11 Temperature during larval development Feed acceptance and survival is greater at 18.4°C than at 12.8°C, and an ideal temperature range is 15.6-18.4, with 18.4°C as optimum/ 17.0 °C Summerfelt, 1996
11 Temperature during larval development The optimum ranges for fry survival are 15-21°C 18.0 °C Koenst and Smith, 1976
11 Temperature during larval development Temperature ranged from 19 to 25 during the experiment 19.0 °C Moodie, 1989
10 Reaction to light Photopositive Photopositive Malison and Held, 1996b
10 Reaction to light Fry are photopositive until they reach a length of 32 mm Photopositive Krise and Meade, 1986
10 Reaction to light Larvae are positively phototaxic from the time of hatching through the postlarval stage Photopositive Colby, 1979
10 Reaction to light Larvae and juveniles 1 to 8 weeks old (9 to 32 mm total length) were attracted to the highest light intensity (7800 lux), and juveniles older than 8 weeks (32 to 40 mm long) agrregated at the lowest intensities (2 and 4 lux) Photopositive Bulkowski and Meade, 1983
10 Reaction to light Walleye are strongly attracted to light before they reach 32 mm Photopositive Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
10 Reaction to light Fry are attracted to light Photopositive Kerr and Grant, 1999
10 Reaction to light Newly hatched fry are positively photactic, they will concentrate where the light intensity is the greatest Photopositive Colsesante, 1996
10 Reaction to light Photopositive fish larvae of walleye (Sander vitreus) and striped bass are attracted to the sides of the tanks (mirror effect) in light-rearing conditions, which negatively affects prey consumption Photopositive Jentoft, 2006
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Some cannibaslim was noted especially near the end of yolk absorption Absent Hurley, 1972
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism is one of the most important source sof predation and in some situations amon fry, it may be the principal factor Present Colby, 1979
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism among fry of other piscivorous fish species such as walleyes has greatly reduces production during intensive culture Present Braid, 1981
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism """Cohort cannibalism"" behavior dissapeared by the time larvae had reached about 16-19 mm" Present Li and Mathias, 1982
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism The occurrence of cannibalism is reported from ages 6 to 16 days after hatching (120-214 DD). Population fry can be decimated unless steps are taken to control cannibalism Present Krise and Meade, 1986
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism among other piscivorous fish species such as walleye can greattl reduce production during intensive culture in floating cages Present Katavic, 1989
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism produced severe mortality Present Moodie, 1989
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism "Cannibalism is frequent in predatory fishes, from ages 6 to 16, related to fish density [Mostly ""Type I ]cannibalism""" Present Bry, 1992
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Present Present Hecht and Pienaar, 1993
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Canibalism can occur in first-feeding fry Absent Colsesante, 1996
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Most mortality from cohort cannibaslim occurs from trunk attacks, not the result of successful consumption f the prey, which is from the tail first. Cannibalism begin as the fry begin feeding Present Summerfelt, 1996
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Larvae are cannibalistic on their siblings [Cannibalism by adults also takes place weh nlarvae are > 18 mm] Present Craig, 2000
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Walleye may turn cannibalistic at two stages during their early life stages. The first stage occurs within a week after hatching if zooplnakton is scarce in ponds, and the second stage develops about midsummer, when the young walleye are ready to feed on fish Present Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 100-127 113.5 °C * day Krise and Meade, 1986
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 80-100 [i.e. 5 days at 18-20] 90.0 °C * day Mathais and Li, 1982
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Feeding takes place before the yolk is fully absorbed No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
13 Full yolk-sac resorption [9-12 days at 53-57°F or 11.5-15.5] 10.5 °C * day Hurley, 1972
13 Full yolk-sac resorption At a mean temperature of 16.4°C, the yolk sac dissapears in the 5th day posthatch, about 68 TU, but it may persist up to 13 days at temperature of 13.2°C. Also reported that the yolk sac dissapeared in 10-11 days 10.5 °C * day Summerfelt, 1996
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 100-122 111.0 °C * day Krise and Meade, 1986
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Feeding takes place prior to disappearance of yolk No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Walleye larvae commenced feeding at a mean length of 9 mm during this study 9.0 °C * day Johnston and Mathias, 1994
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The initiation of exogeneous feeding occurs between 100 and 120DD 100.0 °C * day Colsesante, 1996
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Initiation of feeding 100-120 110.0 °C * day Summerfelt, 1996
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Around days 5 and 6 at 19-25, mean of 22.3°C 22.0 °C * day Moodie, 1989
8 Initial larval size 6-9.5 [Mean 7.6] 7.75 mm Malison and Held, 1996b
8 Initial larval size 6.0-8.6 7.3 mm Craig, 2000
8 Initial larval size 6.0-8.6 7.3 mm Colby, 1979
8 Initial larval size 4.8-9.5 [Extreme values] 7.15 mm Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
8 Initial larval size 6.0-8.6 7.3 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size 6.8 6.8 mm Balon, 1977
8 Initial larval size 6.0-8.6 7.3 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 6.0-8.6 7.3 mm Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
8 Initial larval size 7.3 7.3 mm Olden, 2006
8 Initial larval size 6.3-7.6 6.95 mm Oseid and Smith, 1971
8 Initial larval size Total length at hatching range from 8.0 to 8.9 8.0 mm Johnston, 1997
8 Initial larval size Descirbed as 4.8, 6-9, 6-8.6, 7.1, 5.7-7.8 7.5 mm Summerfelt, 1996
8 Initial larval size Mean size at hatch: 6.0 At 6°C], 7.3 [8.9°C], 7.8 [12.0°C], 7.2 [15.0°C], 8 [18°C] 6.0 mm Koenst and Smith, 1976
8 Initial larval size Range between 7.44 to 7.81, one day after hatching 7.44 mm Moodie, 1989
8 Initial larval size 8.53 +/- 0.05 mm at hatching 8.53 mm Johnston, 2007
9 Larvae behaviour Fry are pelagic Pelagic Malison and Held, 1996b
9 Larvae behaviour Embryos characteistically suspend themselves at the water surface, vertically, with head up and ventral abdominal surface of the yolk and oil near the surface Demersal Krise and Meade, 1986
9 Larvae behaviour The fry are able to swim and feed within one week after hatching Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour As the young walleye began to hatch, they usually swam to the surface of the side-arm tube Demersal Hurley, 1972
9 Larvae behaviour Walleye larvae typically leave the spawning bed immediatly after hatching Demersal Johnston, 1997
9 Larvae behaviour The prolarvae are weak swimmers, so water currents in culture banks should be low, because larvae are quickly exhausted Demersal Summerfelt, 1996

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism No Absent Colby, 1979
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females typically grow much larger than males Absent Kerr and Grant, 1999
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females tend to grow faster than males Absent Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
24 Maximum GSI value 16.3 [May, prior to spawning] 16.3 percent Craig, 2000
24 Maximum GSI value 24.1-27.8 in certain areas 25.95 percent Colby, 1979
24 Maximum GSI value About 16-17 [April] 16.5 percent Malison, 1994
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 16, can reach 20-22 [April] 21.0 percent Henderson, 1996
24 Maximum GSI value About 20% [End of March] 20.0 percent June, 1977
24 Maximum GSI value Summary statistics for mature adult walleye: mean GSI = 10.99 ± 0.34 [Trout Lake], 25.52 ± 0.42 [Winefred Lake], 13.46 ± 0.30 [Lake Winnipeg], 16.47 ± 0.44 [Lake of the woods], 18.57 ± 0.57 [Lac Beauchêne], 17.40 ± 0.34 [Lake Nipissing], 28.59 ± 1.05 [Lake Ontario] 10.99 percent Moles, 2008
25 Oogenesis duration From October to April No data Malison, 1994
25 Oogenesis duration From Mid-Summer to as early as mid-January No data Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
25 Oogenesis duration < 10°C minimal temperature for gonad development 10.0 months Kerr and Grant, 1999
19 Relative fecundity 28-120 74.0 thousand eggs/kg Malison, 1998
19 Relative fecundity Average 60, but range 28-120 74.0 thousand eggs/kg Malison and Held, 1996b
19 Relative fecundity 29-82 Mean average 55.5 thousand eggs/kg Colby, 1979
19 Relative fecundity 30-65 47.5 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Sex specified] 3.0 years Malison and Held, 1996a
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Sex specified] 3.0 years Colby, 1979
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Sex specified] 3.0 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Male] 3.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Males] 3.0 years Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
27 Age at sexual maturity 5.5 [Both sex] 5.5 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Male] 2.0 years Goubier, 1977
27 Age at sexual maturity All age-II males were mature in the eastern basin but only 96% of those in the western basin were mature 2.0 years Wolfert, 1969
26 Resting period By late spring, ovaries were already filled with a large number of non-vitellogenic oocytes, indicating that female have a relatively short post-spawning quiescient period No data Malison and Held, 1996b
26 Resting period From May to October No data Malison, 1994
26 Resting period Walleye have a relatively short post-spawning quiescent period No data Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
26 Resting period 0.7 [July to August] 0.7 months Craig, 2000
26 Resting period <1% July to August 1.0 months Colby, 1979
22 Onset of oogenesis September [In October the GSI is already 4.7%] ['October', 'September'] Colby, 1979
22 Onset of oogenesis October [7.6% in November] ['October', 'November'] Malison, 1994
22 Onset of oogenesis By Mid-summer, yolky vesicles are observed in most of the oocytes, and GIS rises rapidly during autum ['August', 'July', 'September'] Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
22 Onset of oogenesis August, mostly in September ['August', 'September'] Henderson, 1996
22 Onset of oogenesis Beginning of September ['September'] June, 1977
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity January-February ['February', 'January'] Malison, 1994
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity December-January ['January', 'December'] Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Increase regularly from September until March, January ? ['March', 'January', 'September'] Henderson, 1996
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity November to December then increases slowly ['November', 'December'] June, 1977
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous ovarian developpement Group-synchronous Malison, 1998
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Malison and Held, 1996a
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous ovarian developpement Group-synchronous Malison, 1994
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 612 for a female of 80 cm 612.0 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity 48 to 614 48.0 thousand eggs Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
20 Absolute fecundity 48-614 331.0 thousand eggs Wolfert, 1969
20 Absolute fecundity Fecundity for a 17-in walleye ranged from 41,061 to 53,009 eggs 17.0 thousand eggs Schueller, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity Size greater than 36 36.0 cm Malison and Held, 1996b
16 Length at sexual maturity 35.6-43.2 39.4 cm Colby, 1979
16 Length at sexual maturity 35.6-43.2 39.4 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
16 Length at sexual maturity 36 [Female] 36.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 32 [Both sex] 32.0 cm Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Female sampled from the Swam Creek spawning population ranged in size from 450 to 770 mm FL 450.0 cm Johnston, 1997
16 Length at sexual maturity 47 47.0 cm Goubier, 1977
16 Length at sexual maturity The total length of the smallest mature female from the eastern basin was 433 mm, about 50% were mature at 450 mm and all were mature at 540 mm. The smallest mature female from the western basin was 378 mm long, 50% were mature at 430 mm and all were mature at 510 mm 433.0 cm Wolfert, 1969
16 Length at sexual maturity Fork length, population of Manitoba 625 +/-15, and Ontario 663 +/-12 625.0 cm Johnston, 2007
16 Length at sexual maturity The length of walleyes used in the fecundity sample ranged from 11.0 to 24.7 inches and averaged 17.1 (SD= 2.4 in.) 11.0 cm Schueller, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity In the wild, females mature at 3-6 years 4.5 year Malison and Held, 1996b
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-6 4.5 year Colby, 1979
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-6 4.5 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-6 [Female] 4.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-6 [Females] 4.5 year Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
15 Age at sexual maturity 5.5 [Both sex] 5.5 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Female sampled from the Swam Creek spawning population ranged in age from 5 to 22 years 5.0 year Johnston, 1997
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Female] 3.0 year Goubier, 1977
15 Age at sexual maturity Not females mature before age III and all matured by age V. Females from the eastern basin were about 50 and 92% mature at ages III and IV, respectively. Females from the western basin were about 85% mature at age III and almost 99% mature at age IV. Females from Lake Erie matured primarily at ages IV and possibly at V and few fish were mature at age II 4.0 year Wolfert, 1969
15 Age at sexual maturity Females ranged in age from 5 to 18 years, and from 6 to 18 years in the Lake Manitoba and Lake Ontario trials. For both populations, this age range covered the majority of spawning females seen in recent spawning runs 5.0 year Johnston, 2007
15 Age at sexual maturity Age at 50% maturity ranged from 3.89 to 4.88 years 4.5 year Schueller, 2005

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism No Absent Colby, 1979
31 Onset of spermatogenesis September, GSI rise significantly and stay relatively constant until March ['March', 'September'] Malison, 1994
31 Onset of spermatogenesis August ['August'] Henderson, 1996
33 Maximum GSI value 4.3 [October and stay relatively constant after or slight decrease] 4.3 percent Colby, 1979
33 Maximum GSI value Mean 3.2%, up to 3.7% [Prior to spawning, April] 3.2 percent Malison, 1994
33 Maximum GSI value 4% in August and also 3.3 in April, prior to spawning 4.0 percent Henderson, 1996
33 Maximum GSI value Summary statistics for mature adult walleye: mean GSI = 1.87 ± 0.07 [Trout Lake], 2.97 ± 0.12 [Winefred Lake], 1.35 ± 0.06 [Lake Winnipeg], 1.20 ± 0.15 [Lake of the woods], 2.50 ± 0.11 [Lac Beauchêne], 2.05 ± 0.09 [Lake Nipissing], 3.38 ± 0.19 [Lake Ontario] 1.87 percent Moles, 2008
32 Main spermatogenesis activity March [Also very important in September] ['March', 'September'] Malison, 1994
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Mostly August-september then remained slowly decreased until March, slight increase ['August', 'March'] Henderson, 1996
35 Resting period 0.2 [June-July] 0.2 months Colby, 1979
35 Resting period <1% [From May through September] 1.0 months Malison, 1994
34 Spermatogenesis duration From October until December No data Malison, 1994
28 Length at sexual maturity >28 [Sex specified] 28.0 cm Malison and Held, 1996a
28 Length at sexual maturity >27.9 [Sex specified] 27.9 cm Colby, 1979
28 Length at sexual maturity >27.9 [Sex specified] 27.9 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
28 Length at sexual maturity 28, [Male] 28.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity 32 [Both sex] 32.0 cm Olden, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity 36.8 36.8 cm Goubier, 1977
28 Length at sexual maturity NO INFORMATIONS No data Schueller, 2005

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system One female and two flanking males, with other males in close pursuit, but larger groups occured occasionally with maxim of two females and six males Promiscuity Colby, 1979
47 Mating system Spawning takes place in groups, one larger female and one or two smaller males or two females and up to six males Promiscuity Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system Occurs in small groups: a larger female and two smaller adults or two females and up to six males Promiscuity Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system Generally involves groups of one large feamle and two smaller males or two females and up to six males Promiscuity Kerr and Grant, 1999
47 Mating system Group, communal promiscuity: females spawn with one or more males, males show no territoriality, two to five or six males around one female, female attended by several males. Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
47 Mating system Any particular pair of fish. The spawning act culminates in a rush to the surface by a female and two flanking males, with other males in close pursuit and a turning or pushing of the female onto its side which indicates spawning has occured No category Malison and Held, 1996b
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Females can completely spawn in one night Night Malison and Held, 1996b
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Essentially nocturnal spawners, but walleye were seen spawning in daylight Ambiguous Corbett and Powles, 1986
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night Scott and Crossman, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Deposition of eggs usually occurs in a single night Night Fishbase, 2006
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawing takes place most often at night Night Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care No parental care No category Craig, 2000
50 Parental care Do not provide any parental care No category Malison and Held, 1996a
50 Parental care No parental care No category Colby, 1979
50 Parental care Males are not territorial No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Over gravel and rubble shoals, gravel bottoms of inlet stream,or flooded wetland vegetation Ambiguous Malison and Held, 1996b
44 Spawning substrate Over various bottom types (sand, gravel, sometimes vegetation) where sediments and sufficient exchanges or movement of water permit an adequate supply of oxygen Ambiguous Colby, 1979
44 Spawning substrate Survival of egg was best on gravel-rubble Lithophils Corbett and Powles, 1986
44 Spawning substrate Rocky areas, boulder, or coarse-gravel shoals Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Typical spawning sites include gravel-rubble shoals, gravel-cobble subtrates Lithophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Rocky areas Lithophils Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
44 Spawning substrate Walleye were found on rubble or gravel bottoms of major tributaries Lithophils June, 1977
45 Spawning site preparation Do not build nests, eggs are broadcast onto suitable susbrates Open water/substratum scatter Malison and Held, 1996b
45 Spawning site preparation No nest is built Open water/substratum scatter Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Male are not territorial and no nest is built [Eggs are broadcast at random over suitable substrate] Open water/substratum scatter Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation They do not fan nests like other similar species, but instead broadcast eggs over oepn ground, which reduces their ability to survive environmental stresses Open water/substratum scatter Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
45 Spawning site preparation Broadcast spawner, no territories Open water/substratum scatter Ah-King, 2004
41 Spawning temperature 6.7-8.9°C [Range of 5.6-11.1] 7.8 °C Colby, 1979
41 Spawning temperature Peak spawning at 5.6-10°C 7.8 °C Malison and Held, 1996b
41 Spawning temperature Water warms to 4-7°C 5.5 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
41 Spawning temperature 6.7-8.9 [Shortly after ice breaks up] 7.8 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 6-11 8.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Generally begins at 5-10°C, with peak activity in the 7-8°C range 7.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 5.6-11.1°C 8.35 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
41 Spawning temperature 4 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 4.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Many authors have reported that walleye spawning occurs at 6-12°C 9.0 °C Koenst and Smith, 1976
40 Spawning period duration Usually 1-2 in any given location 1.5 weeks Malison and Held, 1996b
40 Spawning period duration 1-4 [Males precedes the arrival of female to the spawning grounds and remain for a number of days after the female have left] 2.5 weeks Colby, 1979
40 Spawning period duration Males moves to the spawing grounds first No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
40 Spawning period duration 1-2 weeks 1.5 weeks Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type Streams and lakes Stagnant water Colby, 1979
42 Spawning water type Inlet streams, flooded wetland vegetation No category Malison and Held, 1996b
42 Spawning water type Quiet border waters, slow-moving water No category Corbett and Powles, 1986
42 Spawning water type White water below impassable falls and dams in rivers, lakes Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Turbid streams and rivers, rocky wave-shaded shallows of lakes or flooded wetland vegetation Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type White water or shoals of lakes Stagnant water Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters: from a few centimeters to several meters, as shallow as 10.1 cm to 4.57 m 10.1 m Colby, 1979
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth Spawn at depth of 4 cm to 3 m 4.0 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
36 Spawning migration distance The majority of a spawning population, in most waters. migrates less than 16 km from its spawning grounds, even in large bodies of waters, most do not migrate further than 5 km, other study showed migrations of 20.5 (11 to 58) 16.0 km Colby, 1979
37 Spawning migration period In the spring, prior to spawning ['April', 'May', 'June'] Colby, 1979
37 Spawning migration period Spawning migrations start at 3.3-6.7°C No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Early spring, as early as February in southern areas and can extend into July ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'February'] Malison, 1998
39 Spawning season Early spring, as early as February in southern areas and can extend into July ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'February'] Malison and Held, 1996b
39 Spawning season As early as January-February, and as late as June ['February', 'January', 'June'] Colby, 1979
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Corbett and Powles, 1986
39 Spawning season Walleye are one of the first species to spawn in the spring, shortly after ice break-up. Early to mid-April ['April', 'May', 'June'] Malison, 1994
39 Spawning season Early spring in southern areas to July un nothern extremes ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
39 Spawning season In the spring or early summer [Early April, to end of June in North] ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Spring spawner No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Spring and early summer ['August', 'July', 'September'] Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
39 Spawning season Mean peak spawning 4 May [Range: 12 April-29 May] in Lake Oahe, South and North Dakota ['April', 'May'] June, 1977
39 Spawning season Ripe ova were collected from individual females on 5 May and 6 May ['May'] Johnston, 2007
39 Spawning season Sampling was conducted during the spring spawning period from 2002 to 2004, dates of sampling varied from early April in the south to late May in the north ['April', 'May', 'June'] Moles, 2008
39 Spawning season Walleye were sampled from a lake-spawning stock from eastern Lake Ontario in the Bay of Quinte (44°OO' N, 76°40' W) on 22 April 2004 and from a riverine-spawning stock from eastern Lake Erie in the Grand River (42°52' N, 79°30' W) on 22 and 23 April 2004 ['April'] Johnston, 2008
38 Homing Mature walleyes tend to return to the same spawning grounds year after year Present Colby, 1979
38 Homing Return to their local location to spawn Present Craig, 2000
38 Homing Reproductive homing to the same spawning site is known to occur Present Kerr and Grant, 1999
48 Spawning release Once a year Total Craig, 2000
48 Spawning release Batch spawner, with one clear seasonal peak per year Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release 200-300 eggs released per each spawning act, with acts repeated at 5-min intervals, waleye randomly broadcats eggs onto suitable substrates No category Malison and Held, 1996b
48 Spawning release Broacast-spawners, the act of emission may occur some distance off the bottom and the eggs settle gradually to the substrate below No category Corbett and Powles, 1986
48 Spawning release Apparently most individual females deposit most of their eggs in one night of spawning No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
49 Parity Spawn annually No category Malison and Held, 1996b
49 Parity Walleye have been known to live as long as 26 years No category Kerr and Grant, 1999