Colby et al, 1979


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Sander vitreus Egg Oocyte diameter 1.5-2.0 [May vary from 1.37-2.12] 1.75 mm
Sander vitreus Egg Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Drop into the cracks and crevices where they may be protected from predators] Demersal
Sander vitreus Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs are quite adhesive and remain so for about 1 h until water-hardened Adhesive
Sander vitreus Egg Temperature for incubation From less than 6°C to 19.2°C, optimum is 9-15°C [Walleye has the lowest temperature tolerance for embryos of all percids] 12.0 °C
Sander vitreus Egg Degree-days for incubation 120-150 [10 days at 12.8°C; 8.5 days at 17.8°C] 135.0 °C * day
Sander vitreus Larvae Initial larval size 6.0-8.6 7.3 mm
Sander vitreus Larvae Reaction to light Larvae are positively phototaxic from the time of hatching through the postlarval stage Photopositive
Sander vitreus Larvae Temperature during larval development 15-21 is the optimum 18.0 °C
Sander vitreus Larvae Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism is one of the most important source sof predation and in some situations amon fry, it may be the principal factor Present
Sander vitreus Female Age at sexual maturity 3-6 4.5 year
Sander vitreus Female Length at sexual maturity 35.6-43.2 39.4 cm
Sander vitreus Female Female sexual dimorphism No Absent
Sander vitreus Female Relative fecundity 29-82 Mean average 55.5 thousand eggs/kg
Sander vitreus Female Onset of oogenesis September [In October the GSI is already 4.7%] ['September', 'October']
Sander vitreus Female Maximum GSI value 24.1-27.8 in certain areas 25.95 percent
Sander vitreus Female Resting period <1% July to August 1.0 months
Sander vitreus Male Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Sex specified] 3.0 years
Sander vitreus Male Length at sexual maturity >27.9 [Sex specified] 27.9 cm
Sander vitreus Male Male sexual dimorphism No Absent
Sander vitreus Male Maximum GSI value 4.3 [October and stay relatively constant after or slight decrease] 4.3 percent
Sander vitreus Male Resting period 0.2 [June-July] 3.0 months
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance The majority of a spawning population, in most waters. migrates less than 16 km from its spawning grounds; even in large bodies of waters, most do not migrate further than 5 km; other study showed migrations of 20.5 (11 to 58) 16.0 km
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period In the spring, prior to spawning ['April', 'May', 'June']
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Homing Mature walleyes tend to return to the same spawning grounds year after year Present
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning season As early as January-February, and as late as June ['January', 'February', 'June']
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 1-4 [Males precedes the arrival of female to the spawning grounds and remain for a number of days after the female have left] 2.5 weeks
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 6.7-8.9°C [Range of 5.6-11.1] 7.8 °C
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams and lakes Stagnant water
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Shallow waters: from a few centimeters to several meters, as shallow as 10.1 cm to 4.57 m 4.57 m
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Over various bottom types (sand, gravel, sometimes vegetation) where sediments and sufficient exchanges or movement of water permit an adequate supply of oxygen Lithophils
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Mating system One female and two flanking males, with other males in close pursuit; but larger groups occurred occasionally with maxim of two females and six males Promiscuity
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Parental care No parental care No care