Leuciscus leuciscus

  • Scientific name
  • Leuciscus leuciscus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Common dace

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 94%
Total data205
References32
Image of Leuciscus leuciscus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick to gravel Adhesive Spillmann, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Persat, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Fixed on plant or stone Non-Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mills, 1986
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs, singly or in clumps or two to five, were also found adhering to pebbles on the bottom, especially in the eddis behind larger stones Adhesive Kennedy, 1969
4 Egg adhesiveness Strongly adhesive on stones Adhesive Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mills, 1981
5 Incubation time 25 25.0 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 25-30 days at 11-13°C 27.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time About 4 weeks, more precisely 20-23 [12°C], 29-30 [10°C] 21.5 days Kennedy, 1969
5 Incubation time 25 [At 13°C] and 28 [At 12°C] 25.0 days Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
5 Incubation time Take 25-30 days to hatch in a typical river temperatures 27.5 days Mills, 1981
5 Incubation time Fertilization to larvae (2-4 days after hatching): 26-32 days (mostly 30) at 10°C 3.0 days Mann and Mills, 1985
7 Degree-days for incubation 325 [25 days at 13°C] 325.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
7 Degree-days for incubation 320-330 325.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 240-300 [24-30 days at 9.7] in natural conditions 270.0 °C * day Mills, 1986
7 Degree-days for incubation About 300-350 325.0 °C * day Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
7 Degree-days for incubation 143 [Effective day-degrees] 143.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 250-300 [25-30 days at 10°C] 275.0 °C * day Mills, 1981
6 Temperature for incubation 13 13.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
6 Temperature for incubation 11-13 12.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Mean of 9.7, range 5.6-11.3°C in natural conditions 8.45 °C Mills, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation 11-14, mean of 12 [Laboratory water temperatures] 12.5 °C Kennedy, 1969
6 Temperature for incubation 6.75-15 range in which normal development occurs 10.875 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation 12-13 12.5 °C Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
6 Temperature for incubation Typical spring water temperature is 10°C 10.0 °C Mills, 1981
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at a constant 10°C in chalk spring water 10.0 °C Mann and Mills, 1985
6 Temperature for incubation Viable range 4-17.5, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 5.1 10.75 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mainly 1.5 [Drifting eggs] 1.5 mm Copp, 2002b
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.0-2.5, mostly 2.4-2.5 [Ova] 2.25 mm Kennedy, 1969
2 Egg size after water-hardening About 1.5 [Eggs] 1.5 mm Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
2 Egg size after water-hardening Eggs found on the field range from 1.33 to 1.51 mm 1.33 mm Mills, 1981
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.0 [Not specified] 2.0 mm Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.5 [Not specified] 2.5 mm Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Spillmann, 1961
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Persat, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
3 Egg Buoyancy Negatively bouyant No category Mills, 1981
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 2 2.0 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 [Not specified] 1.5 mm Persat, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.7 1.7 mm Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 1.50 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 1.5 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 [Not specified] 1.5 mm Copp, 2002b
1 Oocyte diameter Mean 1.2, range 1.1-1.4 [Egg within ovary] 1.25 mm Lobon-cervia, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter Diameter means range from 1.34 to 1.56 [Unfertilized eggs] 1.34 mm Mann and Mills, 1985

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 11-14, with a mean of 12 12.5 °C Kennedy, 1969
11 Temperature during larval development About 15 15.0 °C Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
11 Temperature during larval development Between 20 and 25 April 1977 and 1978 the fry (<48 h old) were stocked into cages [Heavy mortalities in starved fry kept at 10°C ( a typical mean river water temperature in late April and May) 20.0 °C Mills, 1982
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 16-25 20.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
10 Reaction to light Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light Slight preference for the mostly bright side of the aquarium Photopositive Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 90-120 [The yolk-sac was absorbed in a week or to ten days, when the larvae were about 10 mm long] 105.0 °C * day Kennedy, 1969
13 Full yolk-sac resorption After 10 days at about 15°C, the yolk sac is fully resorbed 10.0 °C * day Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
13 Full yolk-sac resorption [The exhaustion of endogeneous supplies, heavy mortalities in starved fry kept at 10°C only began after three weeks] 10.0 °C * day Mills, 1982
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About 100 [Feeding begin before the yolk-sac was fully absorbed] 100.0 °C * day Kennedy, 1969
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding After 7 days at 15°C, fry start to eat 7.0 °C * day Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About 4-6 days at 10°C 5.0 °C * day Mills, 1982
8 Initial larval size 7.5 7.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
8 Initial larval size 7-7.5 7.25 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 7.5 7.5 mm Persat, 2001
8 Initial larval size 8.6 8.6 mm Kennedy, 1969
8 Initial larval size 7.5 7.5 mm Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
8 Initial larval size Means range from 8.24 to 9.38, for larvae 2 to 4 days old 8.24 mm Mann and Mills, 1985
9 Larvae behaviour 24 hours after hatching, fry swim strongly in all directions Demersal Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
9 Larvae behaviour The water current may play an important role at the time of hatching as newly-hatched fry are feeble swimmers and will be swept dowstream off the site until either chance or perhaps a response to some environmental gradient such as temperature, depth or current itself enables them to aggregate in slack marginal areas Demersal Mills, 1981

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value The average GSI for females about to spawn was 13.8% [Range 8.9-19.4%] 14.15 percent Lobon-cervia, 1996
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 16%, range 15-17% [Mid-March] 16.0 percent Mann, 1974
25 Oogenesis duration From August to mid-March No data Mann, 1974
19 Relative fecundity 75 75.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity [F=-3.6284+4.0424*log L, and Log W=-5.1261 + 3.2483 log L, used with 16.2 and 20.3 cm] 3.6284 thousand eggs/kg Lobon-Cervia, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 but 3-4 [Sex not precised] 3.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Male] 2.5 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 |Not specified for vairous populations] 4.0 years Lobon-cervia, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4, rarely 2 [Male] 3.5 years Mann, 1974
27 Age at sexual maturity Both sex reach sexual maturity after four years growth, although some fast-growing individuals may do so after three years No data Mann and Mills, 1985
26 Resting period < 0.2% [From April to mid-July] 0.2 months Mann, 1974
22 Onset of oogenesis Elaboration of gonad tissue was not significant until August/September, from which time devolpment continued through winter months ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'February'] Mann, 1974
22 Onset of oogenesis Maturation of gonads is synchronous and complete in the previous autumn ['October', 'November', 'December'] Fredrich, 2003
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity From Mid-August to November, 2 to 10% ['August', 'November'] Mann, 1974
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 8-10 9.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 15-30 22.5 thousand eggs Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity 8.714 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 8.714 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 6.5-9.5 eggs for 20 cm females 8.0 thousand eggs Environment agency, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity Log egg number = 4038 log length (mm) - 5474 or log egg number=3900 log length (mm)-5128 4038.0 thousand eggs Mann, 1974
20 Absolute fecundity 5.973-8.714 for a female 200 mm 7.3435 thousand eggs Mann and Mills, 1985
20 Absolute fecundity About 100 000 eggs 100.0 thousand eggs Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
17 Weight at sexual maturity 29.5-46.4 g for age 3 and 53.0-84.5 for age 4 in two populations respectively [female] 37.95 kg Mann, 1974
16 Length at sexual maturity 16 16.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 14-15 [Unsexed] 14.5 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity The smallest female about to spawn was 14.9 cm [12-15.9 not specified for various populations] 13.95 cm Lobon-cervia, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity 16 ±1 [Female] 16.0 cm Mann, 1974
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 but 3-4 [Sex not precised] 3.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Female] 3.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [48 months, age at maturation] 2.0 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity The smallest female about to spawn was 5 years old [Siberia, 3-5 Not specified for various populations] 4.0 year Lobon-cervia, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4, yet mostly at 4 [Female] 3.5 year Mann, 1974
15 Age at sexual maturity Both sex reach sexual maturity after four years growth, although some fast-growing individuals may do so after three years No data Mann and Mills, 1985
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-5 [Sex not specified] 3.5 year Kestemont and Mélard, 1994

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Bears whitish nuptial tubercules on snout, head, cheeks, opercules, sides and belly. Pectoral fin are longer in male than female Present Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male bears whitish nuptial tubercule Absent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
30 Male sexual dimorphism Breeding tubercles are present on the head, trunk, and pectoral fin Present Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
31 Onset of spermatogenesis August [Elaboration of gonad tissue was not significant until August/September, from which time development continued through winter months] ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'February'] Mann, 1974
33 Maximum GSI value Average 1.2% 1.2 percent Lobon-cervia, 1996
33 Maximum GSI value Mean 1.5, range 1-2% [November through December] 1.5 percent Mann, 1974
32 Main spermatogenesis activity October-November ['October', 'November'] Mann, 1974
35 Resting period < 0.2% [From mid-April to mid-August] 0.2 months Mann, 1974
34 Spermatogenesis duration [From mid-April to mid-August] No data Mann, 1974
28 Length at sexual maturity 16 [Sex not precised] 16.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 16.3 [Male] 16.3 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity 12-15.9 [Not specified for various populations] 13.95 cm Lobon-cervia, 1996
28 Length at sexual maturity 15.9 ± 0.5 [Male] 15.9 cm Mann, 1974
29 Weight at sexual maturity 29.1-46 g for age 3 and 52.8-82.0 for age 4 in two populations respectively [female] 37.55 kg Mann, 1974

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night Spillmann, 1961
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night Persat, 2001
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Lithophile: sand or gravel Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravel Lithophils Persat, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravel and stones Lithophils Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Gravel Lithophils Mills, 1986
44 Spawning substrate Eggs adhere to submerged plants, but other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent, 3-25 cm in diameter Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Is clearly a lithophil spawner Lithophils Kennedy, 1969
44 Spawning substrate Gravel, typically 10-40 mm diameter Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Gravel spawning sites Lithophils Mills, 1981
44 Spawning substrate Gravel spawner Lithophils Mann and Mills, 1985
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous Lithophils Clough, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Plants or sand Ambiguous Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
44 Spawning substrate Spawn in the main river channel over gravel substrata Lithophils Smith, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation No, eggs are deposited on the substrates Susbtrate chooser Persat, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/susbtratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
41 Spawning temperature 11-12 11.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature From 10°C 10.0 °C Persat, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 5-12 8.5 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature About 10 10.0 °C Kennedy, 1969
41 Spawning temperature 9-10 9.5 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature > 8 8.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
41 Spawning temperature About 6 [In Siberia] 6.0 °C Lobon-cervia, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 6-13 9.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
41 Spawning temperature >13°C 13.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
41 Spawning temperature NO INFORMATIONS No data Smith, 2004
40 Spawning period duration 4-5 [Southern populations from 10 February to 24 March] 4.5 weeks Spillmann, 1961
40 Spawning period duration 4 [1.00 month, length of breeding season] 4.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 8-9 8.5 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration Spawing of all the age-groups togehter occured within a 5-day period [In Siberia] 5.0 weeks Lobon-cervia, 1996
40 Spawning period duration Spawning occured during the second half of March and no ripe fish were found at either site in April No data Mann, 1974
40 Spawning period duration Spawn over a two or three week period No data Mann and Mills, 1985
42 Spawning water type Riffles : water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Spillmann, 1961
42 Spawning water type Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Current velocities: 20-50 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
42 Spawning water type Prefers swifter currents Flowing or turbulent water Kennedy, 1969
42 Spawning water type Fast-flowing waters Flowing or turbulent water Mills, 1981
42 Spawning water type Fast flowinf rivers and streams No category Mann and Mills, 1985
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Persat, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth The eggs were, however, widely and adundantly distributed in the riffle in depths of 25 to 40 cm from just above the pool 25.0 m Kennedy, 1969
36 Spawning migration distance Short migration No data Spillmann, 1961
36 Spawning migration distance Large home range No data Environment agency, 1996
37 Spawning migration period Migration prior and after spawning No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season February until May ['February', 'May'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season End of March-Beginning of April until May-June ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Persat, 2001
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Mills, 1986
39 Spawning season February-April ['February', 'April', 'March'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season Might spawn in early March, possibly even in February ['February', 'March'] Kennedy, 1969
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season March / April-May ['April', 'March', 'May'] Herzig and Winkler, 1986
39 Spawning season Varies according to latitude, mainly March-April [Full range February to July] ['February', 'April', 'March', 'July'] Lobon-cervia, 1996
39 Spawning season Spawning occured during the second half of March and no ripe fish were found at either site in April ['April', 'March'] Mann, 1974
39 Spawning season Late winter or early spring ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'February'] Fredrich, 2003
39 Spawning season A small number of eggs were found on 21 March 80, but the following week a large shoal of ripe dace collected in a pool above the spawning site and spawned on 28 March 80 ['March'] Mills, 1981
39 Spawning season Between late February and early April ['February', 'April'] Mann and Mills, 1985
39 Spawning season Mid to late March ['March'] Clough, 1998
39 Spawning season (February) March-May ['February', 'March', 'May'] Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
39 Spawning season In the Trent, dace hatched between the third week of April (2003) and the first week of May (2002), whereas in the Ouse catchment hatching occurred 3 or 4 weeks later ['April', 'May'] Nunn, 2007
38 Homing Spawning areas are not fixed Present Spillmann, 1961
38 Homing Tendendy to return to the same spawning ground (reproductive homing) Present Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release Unique No category Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Spawning is synchronous: each female deposited 15000-25000 eggs No category Persat, 2001
48 Spawning release Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release Single spawning Total Environment agency, 1996
48 Spawning release Spawn once a year Total Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release Release one batch of egg Mutliple Mann and Mills, 1985
48 Spawning release Shed a single batch of eggs in a well-defined spawning period Mutliple Nunn, 2007
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity Female dace did not necessarily spawn every year once they had reached maturity No category Mann, 1974
49 Parity Release one batch of eggs annually for up to seven successive years. There was no evidence that any female had a rest year from spawning once they were mature No category Mann and Mills, 1985
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Clough, 1998