Leuciscus idus

  • Scientific name
  • Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Ide

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 80%
Total data125
References25
Image of Leuciscus idus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Attached to gravel, weed and stones] Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs Adhesive Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
5 Incubation time 4 at 18°C 4.0 days Harzevili, 2004
5 Incubation time In constant temperatures at 7°C incubation lasts 27 days, at 22°C only 5 days. In other studies: 5.5-23 days [At 9.3-13.8°C], 17 days [At 10-12°C], 24 days [At 3-12°C], 11-12 days [At 9.5-15°C], 22 days [At 10.5-17°C], 24-30 days [At 9.2°C] and 9-10 days [10-20.5°C] 14.25 days Witkowski, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 80 [4 days at 18°C] 80.0 °C * day Harzevili, 2004
7 Degree-days for incubation 83 [Effective day-degrees] 83.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 180-200 190.0 °C * day Witkowski, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation About 100 DD 100.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
6 Temperature for incubation 18±1°C 18.0 °C Harzevili, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation 3 rearing conditions [11-13], [15-16, a temperature range considered as optimal for controlled reproduction] and 18-20°C] 12.0 °C Rechulicz, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs were incubated at 14-15°C 14.5 °C Kucharczyk, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation Viable range 6-25, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 5.9 15.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation Temperatures < 6 and > 22°C are lethal for developping embryos, optimum temperatures are 13.5-17°C at which survival ranges from 79-84% 15.25 °C Witkowski, 1997
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.5 2.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.1-2.3 2.2 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.5 [Not specified] 2.5 mm Kestemont, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.6-2.2 [Not specified] 1.9 mm Fishbase, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.8 [Not specified] 1.8 mm Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening Swelling increases size of ide eggs from 1.2-1.6 mm to 2.1-2.3 mm 1.4 mm Witkowski, 1997
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.5 mm [Not specified if swollen] 2.5 mm Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
1 Oocyte diameter 1.23-1.88 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 1.555 mm Bonislawska, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.6 mm [Unswollen egg] 1.4 mm Witkowski, 1997

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 19-20 19.5 °C Harzevili, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Wolnicki and Gorny, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20-25 22.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development Optimal temperature for larval development is about 17°C. Lethal temperatures are 23.7-29.1°C for ide larvae and juveniles. 26.4 °C Witkowski, 1997
11 Temperature during larval development Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 19-25°C or 26-31°C 22.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 25, 28 and 31 25.0 °C Wolnicki, 1996
11 Temperature during larval development Can be realized at 24-26°C 25.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
11 Temperature during larval development Water was maintained at 24.0 ± 0.5°C 24.0 °C Hamackova, 2007
10 Reaction to light Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light Larve are not photophobic Photopositive Witkowski, 1997
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The resorption of the yolk-sac lasts about 80-90 DD 85.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Other studies stated that, for ide, at 25°C water temperature, 50% of starving fry were killed after 9 days of nursing, and 95% after 10 days. In our case, total kill of starving fry occurred during the 10th day of nursing 25.0 °C * day Hamackova, 2007
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 70-90 [4-5 days at 19-20°C] 80.0 °C * day Harzevili, 2004
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Beginning from day 3 after hatching the larvae (TL=8.1 at 25°C] were supplied exclusively with freshly hatched Artemia salina nauplii or exclusively commercial dry feed or both] 3.0 °C * day Wolnicki and Gorny, 1995
8 Initial larval size 8.29 ± 0.29 8.29 mm Harzevili, 2004
8 Initial larval size 10 [Not specified if newly hatched] 10.0 mm Kestemont, 2001
8 Initial larval size 8.1 [3 days after hatching] 8.1 mm Wolnicki and Gorny, 1995
8 Initial larval size Total length of newly-hatched larvae is 5.5-8.7 mm (typically 7 mm). Larger larvae hatch from eggs incubated at higher temperatures, at 9°C : 6.6 (range 6.5-6.8) mm, at 13.4°C : 7.3 (range 6.3-7.5) mm, at 22°C : 7.4 (6.5-8.4) mm. Newly hatched larvae of ide are mode developmentally advanced compared to larvae of other cyprinid fishes 7.1 mm Witkowski, 1997
8 Initial larval size 7.3 ± 0.4 [Not specified if at hatching] 7.3 mm Wolnicki, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae have well developped cement glands with which they fix themselves to plants where their development occurs. Active swiimming in horizontal position begins 4 days after hatching. At that time their swim bladder is being filled with air Demersal Witkowski, 1997

Female (75%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value GSI of mature females just before spawning (March-April) ranges from 7 to 20%, typically about 12%. In Scandinavian populations GSI value are higher, from 17 to 30% (mean 21%) 7.0 percent Witkowski, 1997
24 Maximum GSI value 19.14 ± 2.24 [In April] 19.14 percent Lefler, 2006
24 Maximum GSI value GSI =18.57 % in March 29 (n=5) 18.57 percent Lefler, 2008
19 Relative fecundity 120-160 140.0 thousand eggs/kg Kestemont, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 84 eggs per g of body weight of female 84.0 thousand eggs/kg Witkowski, 1997
19 Relative fecundity About 100 000 eggsper kg of female 100.0 thousand eggs/kg Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-5 [Sex no specified] 3.5 years Kestemont, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 5 [Male] 5.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity As a rule, male mature one year earlier than females. In southern and central Europe, first spawning-ide are age 3-5 years, sometimes they are 2 years old. In eastern Europe, reproductive period begins at the age of 4 and 5 years. More precisely 6 years [Kävlingean], 4 years [Dniepr], (3) 4 [Dunaj] 4.0 years Witkowski, 1997
22 Onset of oogenesis Maturation of gonads is synchrnous and complete in the previous autumn ['October', 'November', 'December'] Fredrich, 2003
22 Onset of oogenesis Ovaries start developing in June ['June'] Witkowski, 1997
22 Onset of oogenesis Data collected in the orfe and nase show that the transition of oocytes in the stage of primary growth into the stage of cortical alveoli takes place in July-August and vitellogenesis already starts in August-September ['August', 'July', 'September'] Lefler, 2008
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity 13.12 ± 2.41 [In October] to 19.14 ± 2.24 [In April] ['April', 'October'] Lefler, 2006
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity About 100 100.0 thousand eggs Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity 60 [For female of 0.5 kg] to 160 [For female of 0.5-2 kg] 1.25 thousand eggs Kestemont, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity Ranges from 8731-263412, mean about 45000 to 88000 136071.5 thousand eggs Witkowski, 1997
20 Absolute fecundity A female can spawn about 100 000 eggs 100.0 thousand eggs Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.4 [Sex no specified] 0.4 kg Kestemont, 2001
17 Weight at sexual maturity 523-760 g [In Sarvlax], 200-300 [In Dunaj], sex not specified 641.5 kg Witkowski, 1997
16 Length at sexual maturity 41-49 [Unsexed] 45.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Standard length of females reaches 170-330 mm. More precisely 315-328 [Kävlingean], 190 [Dniepr], 281-306 [Dunaj] for females 250.0 cm Witkowski, 1997
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-5 [Sex no specified] 3.5 year Kestemont, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 5-6 [Female] 5.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity In southern and central Europe, first spawning-ide are age 3-5 years, sometimes they are 2 years old. In eastern Europe, reproductive period begins at the age of 4 and 5 years. More precisely 6 years [Kävlingean], 5 years [Dniepr], (3) 4 [Dunaj] 4.0 year Witkowski, 1997
15 Age at sexual maturity Between 2-5 years [Sex not specified] 3.5 year Kestemont and Mélard, 1994

Male (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Yellowish or white breeding tubercles apear in males during the spawning on the anterior part of the head Absent Witkowski, 1997
33 Maximum GSI value In March-April, the mass of testes accounts for only 1.8% of body weight 1.8 percent Witkowski, 1997
32 Main spermatogenesis activity In November, the colour of testes changes from red to whitish, which is indicative of the presence of spermatozoans ['November'] Witkowski, 1997
28 Length at sexual maturity 41-49 [Unsexed] 45.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Standard length of males reaches 180-310 mm. More precisely 220 [Dniepr], 278-310 [Dunaj] for males 245.0 cm Witkowski, 1997
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.4 [Sex no specified] 0.4 kg Kestemont, 2001
29 Weight at sexual maturity 523-760 g [In Sarvlax], 200-300 [In Dunaj], sex not specified 641.5 kg Witkowski, 1997

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Plants or sandy grounds Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Plants or gravels Ambiguous Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Stones, sand or with plants Ambiguous Kestemont, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravel, weed, stones Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Eggs adhere to submerged plants, but other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent, pebbles Ambiguous Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited on submerged plants, as well as roots, trunks, and branches of fallen trees, but they can be laid on stones, gravel, sand, and a muddy bottom. Thus classified as an indifferent lithophytophilous Ambiguous Witkowski, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Plants or sandy bottoms Ambiguous Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophic No category Kuliskova, 2009
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 4-15, but rarely above 12-13°C 9.5 °C Kestemont, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 4-15 9.5 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 6-10 8.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Spawning begins when water temperature increases up to 5.5°C. During spawning mean temperatures of water are 6-10°C, extreme temperatures are 3 and 15°C. 8.0 °C Witkowski, 1997
41 Spawning temperature When temperature reaches 13°C 13.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
40 Spawning period duration Several days [Male arrives first on spawning grounds] No data Billard, 1997
40 Spawning period duration Spanwing is short, 2-5 days at 8-12°C. At lower temperatures may last two weeks, during cold springs spawning duration may be prolonged to> one month 3.5 weeks Witkowski, 1997
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
42 Spawning water type Ide spawn in rivers, streams, old arms, lakes, dam reservoirs, and meadows covered with flood waters. Stagnant water Witkowski, 1997
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Billard, 1997
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Fishbase, 2006
36 Spawning migration distance Maximally 2.5 km 2.5 km Witkowski, 1997
36 Spawning migration distance Potamodromous with a prevailing upstream migration No data Kuliskova, 2009
37 Spawning migration period Leave their winter shelters from the main channel of danube for entering into the spawning areas when water temperature is about 4-6°C ['February', 'March', 'January'] Ciolac, 2004
37 Spawning migration period In early spring (beginning of April) ide migrate upstream to spawning grounds. Populations linving in brackish Baltic waters migrate in May-June to spawn in rivers or near-shore lakes ['April', 'May', 'June'] Witkowski, 1997
39 Spawning season Spring No data Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season Spring No data Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Kestemont, 2001
39 Spawning season May [From March to June] ['March', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season Late winter or early spring ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'February'] Fredrich, 2003
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
39 Spawning season In southern and central Europe ide begin spawning in the second half of March or at the beginning of April. In nothern Europe and Siberia, spawning begins later - in the middle of May, or in June ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Witkowski, 1997
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
39 Spawning season Spring No data Kuliskova, 2009
38 Homing It was observed that individuals spawn on the same places as in previous years. Thus, homing was reported for ide, similarly as for salmonid (and same other) fish Present Witkowski, 1997
38 Homing Displaying a homing behaviour Present Kuliskova, 2009
48 Spawning release Multiple Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Once a year Total Kestemont, 2001
48 Spawning release Spawn once a year Total Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release Single spawner Total Lefler, 2006
48 Spawning release Single spawner Total Lefler, 2008
49 Parity Live up to 10-15, even 20 years of age No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity Maximum life span of ide is 18 years, maximum length (TL) 70 cm, maximum weight 6-8 kg No category Witkowski, 1997
49 Parity Can reach 15 years No category Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
49 Parity In contrast, L. idus was observed to undertake similar long-distance migrations in spring but in the opposite direction, i.e. downstream during spring and returning upstream towards formely occupied areas later in the season No category Kuliskova, 2009