Buckley, 1989



Citation


Buckley, J.L. (1989) Species profiles: life histories and environment requirement of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic) - rainbow smelt.
U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. 82(11)

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Mating system Individual fish sometimes spawn in several streams in an estuary during the spawning period No category
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition In coastal waters, smelt spawn at night and most return to the estuary during the day, although some males may remain in the spawning area Ambiguous
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Typically, the substrate in the spawning area of coastal streams in the spawning area is gravel Lithophils
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Along the coast, smelt spawn at water temperatures of 4.0 to 9.0°C 4.0 °C
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Individual males may spawn on as many as 8 nights consecutively, whereas females may spawn only 3 to 4 nights 8.0 weeks
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning water type In coastal streams, most smelt spawn above the tide. [Significant positive relationships between survival to the early-eyed stage and increasing water velocity (up to 60-80 cm/s)] Flowing or turbulent water
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Water depths at low tide of 0.1 to 1.3 m 0.1 m
Osmerus eperlanus Female Female sexual dimorphism Females grow faster than males Absent
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg adhesiveness Fertilized eggs are adhesive Adhesive
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Incubation time 29 days [6-7°C], 25 days [7-8°C], 19 days [9-10°C], 11 days [12°C], 8 days at [16.5°C] 6.5 days
Osmerus eperlanus Female Age at sexual maturity Mostly 2-3 [Both sex] 2.5 years
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Degree-days for incubation 29 days [6-7°C], 25 days [7-8°C], 19 days [9-10°C], 11 days [12°C], 8 days at [16.5°C] 6.5 °C * day
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Temperature for incubation From 6 to 16.5 6.0 °C
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Smelt have never been reported more than 2 km from shore or in water depths greater than 6 m 2.0 km
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg size after water-hardening Fertilized eggs range in size from 1.0-1.2 mm 1.1 mm
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg Buoyancy Fertilized eggs are demersal Demersal
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Spawners usually begin to move into spawning areas before the ice breakup No data
Osmerus eperlanus Female Absolute fecundity 7-44, 8.5 for a fish of 12.7 cm TL and 65.9 for a fish of 20.9 cm TL 25.5 thousand eggs
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning season Depending on location, peak spawning occurs in late March through late May ['March', 'May']
Osmerus eperlanus Larvae Reaction to light Yolk-sac larvae have been reported to be negatively phototactic Photophobic
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Homing Homing to spawning rivers is rare when distances between rivers within a geographic area such as an estuary are small Present
Osmerus eperlanus Female Length at sexual maturity 8.6-14.1 [Age 1], 13.9-19.2 [Age 2], 16.5-21.3 [Age 3], 18.7-24.5 [Age 4], 20.6-24.5 [Age 5], depending on authors for both sex 11.35 cm
Osmerus eperlanus Male Length at sexual maturity 86-141 [Age 1], 139-192 [Age 2], 165-213 [Age 3], 187-245 [Age 4], 206-245 [Age 5], depending on authors for both sex 113.5 cm
Osmerus eperlanus Larvae Initial larval size 5-6 5.5 mm
Osmerus eperlanus Larvae Larvae behaviour After hatching, the larvae drift dowstream, where they are concentrated near the surface Demersal
Osmerus eperlanus Female Age at sexual maturity Mostly 1, 2, 3 depedning on the location [Female] 1.0 year
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning release Individual males may spawn on as many as 8 nights consecutively, whereas females may spawn only 3 to 4 nights No category
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Parity After spawning, adults return to saltwater to spend the summer in the estuary or in a narrow zone along the coast Iteroparous