Chondrostoma toxostoma

  • Scientific name
  • Chondrostoma toxostoma (Vallot, 1837)

  • Common name
  • None

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 60%
Total data75
References10
Image of Chondrostoma toxostoma

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Becoming adhesive Adhesive Gozlan, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
5 Incubation time 12-15 13.5 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 8 days at 15-18.5°C 16.75 days Gozlan, 1999
7 Degree-days for incubation 120-150 135.0 °C * day Gozlan, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation 15-18.5 16.75 °C Gozlan, 1999
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean 2.1, range 1.9-2.5 [After activation] 2.2 mm Gozlan, 1999
2 Egg size after water-hardening About 2 mm [Not specified] 2.0 mm Internet
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [eggs are deposited on boulders in deep pools] Demersal Gozlan, 1999
1 Oocyte diameter 1.75-2.2 [Not specified] 1.975 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-1.7 [South-west of France], 1.8-2.2 [South-east of France] 1.6 mm Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 2.00 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 2.0 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter About 2 [Not specified] 2.0 mm Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 16-19 17.5 °C Gozlan, 1999
10 Reaction to light The free-embryos developed early photophobia and tended to congregate Photopositive Gozlan, 1999
10 Reaction to light Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism No cannibalism or aggressive behaviour was observed Absent Gozlan, 1999
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 180 [10 days and 20 hour at 16-17] à vérifier 16.5 °C * day Gozlan, 1999
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 70-80 [4 days at 16-18°C] 75.0 °C * day Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
8 Initial larval size Mean 6.32, range 4.1-8.1 6.1 mm Gozlan, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Benthic larvae [The free embryos laid more or less on the bottom of the tank, but from time to time darted horizontally. Then, they fell back to the bottom and rest passively for some time.] Demersal Gozlan, 1999

Female (33%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Does not seem to present any sexual dimorphims Present Internet
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex not specified] 3.5 years Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 2.3-3.5 2.9 thousand eggs Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity 7-15 11.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 1.5-15 8.25 thousand eggs Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 3.2 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 3.2 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 11.5 11.5 thousand eggs Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity A female can spawn 11 500 eggs 11.0 thousand eggs Internet
16 Length at sexual maturity 11-12 [South-west of France], 18-20 [South-east of France] 11.5 cm Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 4.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex not specified] 3.5 year Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 [48 months, age at maturation] 4.0 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 [Not specified] 4.0 year Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity At four years inVerdon (France), sex not specified No data Internet

Male (33%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Do not seem to display any bright color Present Spillmann, 1961
28 Length at sexual maturity 11-12 [South-west of France], 18-20 [South-east of France] 11.5 cm Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001

Spawning conditions (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
50 Parental care Nonguarding No care Gozlan, 1999
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Boulders No category Gozlan, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Stones and gravel Lithophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Coarse gravel Lithophils Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Coarse substrate No category Internet
45 Spawning site preparation No, eggs are deposited on boulders in deep pools Susbtrate chooser Gozlan, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited on the substrate Susbtrate chooser Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
41 Spawning temperature 13 13.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature 9-11 10.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 11-13 [South-est of France], 15-16 [South-west of France] 12.0 °C Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 11-13 12.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
41 Spawning temperature 11-13 12.0 °C Internet
40 Spawning period duration 4 [1.00 month, length of breeding season] 4.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Small rivers or near the shore of main stream Stagnant water Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
42 Spawning water type Small tributary streams, deep pools just dowstream of riffles No category Gozlan, 1999
42 Spawning water type Small rivers with strong current Flowing or turbulent water Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
42 Spawning water type Search for small tributaries with strong current Flowing or turbulent water Internet
43 Spawning depth Very shallow waters No data Billard, 1997
43 Spawning depth Deep pools No data Gozlan, 1999
43 Spawning depth Shallow water No data Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
43 Spawning depth Shallow water No data Internet
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season End of May, beginning of July [30 or 40 days after Hotu] ['May', 'July'] Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
39 Spawning season March to May, up to June ['March', 'May', 'June'] Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
39 Spawning season From March to May, and upto June ['March', 'May', 'June'] Internet
48 Spawning release Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
49 Parity Single spawning per year No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
49 Parity Could live up to 9 years No category Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
49 Parity Could live up to 9 years No category Internet