Cyprinus carpio

  • Scientific name
  • Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Common carp

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 98%
Total data362
References82
Image of Cyprinus carpio

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Highly adhesive throughout incubation period Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Attch themselves to foliages or to roots] Adhesive Mickaels, 1988
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness The adhesive eggs […] become attached to submerged weeds, grasses, or roots Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Linhart, 2003
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of carp appear to be among the stickiest Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Naca, 1989
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive June, 1977
4 Egg adhesiveness Carp eggs are adhesive in water and stick to plants Adhesive Smith, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs incubate on firm susbtrate including plants, dead grass, tree roots, stones, and Cladophora fronds (thalli) Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
4 Egg adhesiveness The roe was susequently rendered nonviscuous in solutions I and II (16 g tannin in 10 l water) Non-Adhesive Koldras and Mejza, 1983
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs of common carp were stuck with each other and with the wall of the Petri-dish after mixing with water. Egg stikiness was fully developed within 30 s and did not increase in strength or intensity thereafter. Adhesive Mansour, 2008
4 Egg adhesiveness Egg adhesiveness was removed by immersion and shaking of the fertilized egg mass in a tannic acid solution (1g l-1) during 15 s Adhesive Osswald, 2009
4 Egg adhesiveness The adhesive chorion that occurs in these fish species allows the eggs to attach to various substrate types Adhesive Demsla-Zakes, 2005
5 Incubation time 3-4 3.5 days Horvath, 1992
5 Incubation time 3.75 at 25°C 3.75 days Linhart, 1995
5 Incubation time 4-5 4.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 3-5 at 20°C 4.0 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 6-10 [Natural conditions] 8.0 days Mickaels, 1988
5 Incubation time 5 days at 20°C 5.0 days Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
5 Incubation time Mass hatching at 4 days at 20°C, range from 3-5.6 4.3 days Witeska, 1995
5 Incubation time 4.0 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 4.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time Hatching of embryos began at 51 hours and finished at an age of 57.5 hours. The peak was observed at 54 hours at 25°C 51.0 days Penaz, 1983
5 Incubation time At 20°C, the fertilized eggs of common carp take 101-104 hours to incubate, at 25°C, 49-53 hours, at 30°C, 47-50 hours 102.5 days Naca, 1989
5 Incubation time At 20°C carp eggs hatch after approximatively 3.5 days 20.0 days Smith, 2004
5 Incubation time Time from egg activation to mass hatching,in hours was: 75 [At 19.2-22.4°C], 126 [At 18-20.9°C], 171.5 [At 14.7-20.9°C] 20.8 days Matlak, 1970
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 1-3 weeks 2.0 days Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time They concluded that eggs laid on the marsh vegetation would normally hatch within 3-6 days after fertilization depending on water temperature 4.5 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-70 [At optimum incubation temperature] 65.0 °C * day Horvath, 1992
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-90 85.0 °C * day Linhart, 1995
7 Degree-days for incubation 70 70.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-90 75.0 °C * day Internet, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation About 100 [5 days at 20°C] 100.0 °C * day Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-100 90.0 °C * day Witeska, 1995
7 Degree-days for incubation 30-34 [Effective day-degrees] 32.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation In carp, the time between egg-fertilisation and hatching ranges from 60-80 degree days 70.0 °C * day Smith, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation 15-22°C give the best results [At 10°C: a high mortality of embryos was observed, and above 25°C. the number of defective hatched individuals indreases] 18.5 °C Linhart, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal 21, range 16-26 21.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 20-22 21.0 °C Witeska, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation 20-24 T for embryonic development, 12-30 range in which normal development occurs and 10 and > 33 lower and upper lethal T°C for embryonic development 22.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation The optimal temperature is from 20-24°C. In water of 17°C the eggs develop slowly and there is the danger of mould development 22.0 °C Woynarovich, 1962
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 19°C 19.0 °C Carvalho, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 21°C 21.0 °C Linhart, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs of each female were individually incubated in a Weiss glass at 19-20°C 19.5 °C Kamler and Malczewski, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation The best hatching rsults were obtained at water temperatures in the range 15-22.5°C. At higher temperatures (from 25°C)the number of defective individuals hatched increases. At a temperature of 10°C all embryos died 18.75 °C Penaz, 1983
6 Temperature for incubation Long periods of temperatures of <16°C are detrimental for embryonic development. Carp embryos are more sensitive to low temperatures than larvae. Carp larvae hatched from eggs that had been exposed to 14-17°C had shortened body trunk, curvature of tail and large unresorbed yolk sac 15.5 °C Matlak, 1970
6 Temperature for incubation 19°C 19.0 °C Osswald, 2009
6 Temperature for incubation The fertilized eggs from each female separately were incubated in Weiss glass in waters at 21-22°C 21.5 °C Brzuska and Bialowas, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.6-1.65 = the mean size of hydrated eggs, the perivitelline space increases 5 times in diameter within 10-15 min in water 1.625 mm Linhart, 1995
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2-2.5 2.25 mm Horvath, 1992
2 Egg size after water-hardening About 40% of swelling 1.5 mm Witeska, 1995
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.5-1.8 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 1.65 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.1-2.2 [Swollen] 2.15 mm Woynarovich, 1962
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean diameter of swollen eggs range from: 1.875 ± 4.85 and 1.839 ± 4.38 1.875 mm Kamler and Malczewski, 1982
2 Egg size after water-hardening Within 30-40 minutes this process ended and the average diameter of eggs remained at a value of 1.65 mm. [Described in other studies as: 1.5-1.8] 1.65 mm Penaz, 1983
2 Egg size after water-hardening After fertilization and swelling the diameter was 2.1-2.5 mm (mean 2.3 mm) 2.3 mm Matlak, 1970
2 Egg size after water-hardening Size of eggs taken from spawning beds ranged from means of 1.23 +/-0.03 to 1.76 +/-1.76 1.23 mm Hulata, 1974
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [eggs which fail to attach themselves to something will fall to the bottom of the pond and perish] Demersal Mickaels, 1988
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 1.24-1.42 1.33 mm Linhart, 1995
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.86 1.53 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2.1 but as small as 1.0 [Not specified if swollen] 1.8 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-1.5 1.25 mm Horvath, 1992
1 Oocyte diameter 1.25 1.25 mm Aldridge, 1999
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter About 1.0 1.0 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0 1.0 mm Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 1.20-2.00 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 1.6 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 1.5 mm Olden, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 1.8-1.9 [Diameter of normal eggs] 1.85 mm Woynarovich, 1962
1 Oocyte diameter Most mature carp ovaries contained oocytes : 1.0-1.2 mm diameter 1.1 mm Bieniarz, 1979
1 Oocyte diameter The average diameter of unfertilized and unactivated eggs was 1.25 mm 1.25 mm Penaz, 1983
1 Oocyte diameter Unfertilized eggs are about 1-1.7 mm, and average 1.2-1.4 mm 1.35 mm Smith, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter Average diameter of unfertilized eggs immediatly after spawning was 1.2-1.6 mm (mean1.3 mm) 1.4 mm Matlak, 1970
1 Oocyte diameter Egg diameter in 11 month old and 23 month old carp, vary according to different king of carp from 0.79 +/- 0.025, 0.94 +/- 0.02, 1.29 +/-0.035 0.79 mm Hulata, 1974

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 20-24 [Propagation temperature] 22.0 °C Horvath, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Non lethal temperatures from 12.5-30, below 10 and above 32.5 all the eggs died 21.25 °C Geldhauser, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development 24 [Rearing conditions] 24.0 °C Cahu, 1998
11 Temperature during larval development 10-21°C 15.5 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Dabrowski, 1984
11 Temperature during larval development 20-24°C 22.0 °C Woynarovich, 1962
11 Temperature during larval development The temperature was raised from 20°C (initial hathcing temperature) to 23°C (during the experiment) 20.0 °C Charlon and Bergot, 1984
11 Temperature during larval development The larvae were reared at two temperatures, 20°C and 26°C, these being attained at a rate of 1°C per hour, starting from ambient hatchery temperature 20.0 °C Korwin-Kossakowski, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development 28-29°C for carp koi 28.5 °C Van Damme, 1989
11 Temperature during larval development The trial lasted 21 days following exogeneous feeding. Rearing temperatures was raised from 19.5°C at days 0 to 24°C at day 4 and kept at that temperature thereafter 21.0 °C Carvalho, 1997
11 Temperature during larval development In the larval period of development an increase in water temperature within the range of optimal temperatures (18-26°C) leads to to alagging behind a growth rate comperaed to development rate 22.0 °C Penaz, 1983
11 Temperature during larval development Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 20-30°C 25.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at about 26 (25-27°C) 26.0 °C Kamler, 1990
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20°C 20.0 °C Jezierska, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 23°C 23.0 °C Osse, 1986
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 21.5-22.5°C 22.0 °C Palikova, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development The water temperature was kept constant at 21 ± 1°C 21.0 °C Schlechtreim, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development The experiment was performed at a temperature of 24°C 24.0 °C Szlamiska, 1987
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature was gradually raised during 24 hours, from the initial temperature of 21.0°C to the final one of 33°C 24.0 °C Wozniewski, 1993
11 Temperature during larval development Both strains of carp fry were fed brine shrimp until 10 days after hatching and fed commercial diet thereafter 10.0 °C Ito, 2007
10 Reaction to light Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light The basins were illuminated 24 hours Photopositive Wozniewski, 1993
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibaslim during early life of enclosures Absent Dabrowski and Bardega, 1984
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism as a possible cause of missing larvae (less than 7% in fed groups, less than 11% in unfed groups) was quite insufficient th explain the growth of living larvae Present Charlon and Bergot, 1984
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Sibling cannibaslim started in populations with a mean total length of c. 10.2 mm (on the 9th day after the start of exogeneous feeding) and with a cannibal to prey length ratio of 1.8 (12.9:7.2 mm). In all aquaria, cannibalism ceased when a mean total length of c. 35 mm was attained (after c. 55 days). Cannibalism was found to be positvely density-dependent Present Van Damme, 1989
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism observed Present Bry, 1992
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Present Present Hecht and Pienaar, 1993
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism is observed in juveniles Present Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Larval cannibalism was described in Koi carp, Cyprinus carpio Present Hatziathanasiou, 2002
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 60-70 65.0 °C * day Billard, 1995
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 70 70.0 °C * day Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 70-80: At 25°C, the yolk has dissapeared completely between the 133th and 131st hour of development, less than 51-57.5 hours for hatching 75.0 °C * day Penaz, 1983
13 Full yolk-sac resorption For the first three days post hatching, common carp rely exclusively on endogenous food resources (yok sac). The 8-9 days old larvae have usually completely resorbed yolk sac, and feed exclusively on exogenous food 8.5 °C * day Jezierska, 2006
13 Full yolk-sac resorption "It is interesing to note that the disappearance of proteolytic activity observed in the starved larvae age 10 days converges with the so-called ""point of no return"", which occurs on the 10th day of life of starved carp larvae at 24°C" 10.0 °C * day Szlamiska, 1982
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Total mortality in complete absence of food in the nursing ambient occurs for common carp larvae after 9-12 days of starvation 10.5 °C * day Hamackova, 2007
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About 100 [4 days at 26°C] 100.0 °C * day Khadka and Ramakrishna, 1986
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding [The larvae start to take in air and to fill the swimming bladder when about 1/2 or 2-3 of the yolk sac has been absorbed. At this time the larvae also begin to feed at 20-24°C) 2.5 °C * day Woynarovich, 1962
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Larvae were fed only dry diet from the third day after hatching at 20°C 20.0 °C * day Charlon and Bergot, 1984
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding At the start of exogeneous feeding the mean length of the Koi carp larvae was 6.6 mm [Deduced from graph, about 3 days after hatching at 28-29°C] 28.5 °C * day Van Damme, 1989
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 3 days after hatching with rearing temperatures was raised from 19.5°C at days 0 to 24°C at day 4 and kept at that temperature thereafter 3.0 °C * day Carvalho, 1997
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 91 to 122 hour od development at 25°Cwe found that at a temperature of 25°C, the onset of the larval period, i.e. the intake of the first food, to take place at 91 hhours (4 day) following impregantion, wich corresponds to 37 hours (2 days after hatching) 91.0 °C * day Penaz, 1983
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Exogenous feeding begins before the exhaustion of yolk and is marked by the taking of air to fill the swim-bladder No data Smith, 2004
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Received artificial diets starting from the 3rd day after hatching (i.e. 1st day of experiment = initiation of exogeneous feeding), at about 26 (25-27°C) 26.0 °C * day Kamler, 1990
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding At 20°C, inthe series A,the 4 days old larvae captured and ingested about 70% of prey, while the 7 days old ones,over 90% 20.0 °C * day Jezierska, 2006
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The larvae were fed by nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina since the 5th day at 21.5-22.5°C 22.0 °C * day Palikova, 2004
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding First feeding (day 1 of the experiment) started 2 days after hatching when larvae exhibited an inflated swim-bladder 1.0 °C * day Schlechtreim, 2004
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The gut evacuation time for four-day-old common carp larvae, taking their first food (Ewos C-10) is relaitvely short. It may be assumed that after 1 hour the larvae is emptied at 50% (at 24°C) 10.0 °C * day Szlamiska, 1987
8 Initial larval size 4.8-5.0 4.9 mm Horvath, 1992
8 Initial larval size 4.8-5.0 4.9 mm Billard, 1995
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5 4.75 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 6 [Not specified] 6.0 mm Linhart, 1995
8 Initial larval size Most average 4.38-5.70 [From 3.0 up to 6.69] 5.04 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size 4.7 4.7 mm Aldridge, 1999
8 Initial larval size 5-6 5.5 mm Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.5 4.5 mm Olden, 2006
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5 4.75 mm Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
8 Initial larval size About 5.5 [Deduced from graph] 5.5 mm Korwin-Kossakowski, 1988
8 Initial larval size The mean total length of embryos on hatching was 4.71 mm 4.71 mm Penaz, 1983
8 Initial larval size Total length of newly hatched larvae is 5.6-6.3 mm (mean 5.7 mm), length of head is 1.0-1.4 mm (mean 1.2 mm), body weight is about 1 mg 5.95 mm Matlak, 1970
8 Initial larval size Larval size of 5.5 mm immediatly after hatching 5.5 mm Osse, 1986
8 Initial larval size Average total length was 6.6 ± 0.2 mm for three-day carp larvae 6.6 mm Wozniewski, 1993
8 Initial larval size One day after hatching, two hundred larvae of koi (average length of 6.9 mm) 6.9 mm Ito, 2007
9 Larvae behaviour First fixed on aquatic plants then free Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour At bottom or attached to aquatic vegetation immediatly after hatching, then gradually in shallow water at bottom amon vegetation, occassionally in water column [Newly hatched larvae lay on their sides at the bottom of the aquarium] Demersal Internet, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour Remain fixed the first 2-3 days Demersal Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Immedialty after hatching the embryos remain passively on the bottom of the tank, with occasional jerly movements, and someindividuals begin to attach themselves by means of their special adhesive glands Demersal Penaz, 1983
9 Larvae behaviour After hatching, carp larvae a cement attach themselves to surface vegetation via cement glands on their head. They remain attached for 4-5 days while yolk is absorbed from a large yolk-sac and undergo organogenesis and other development Demersal Smith, 2004
9 Larvae behaviour Prolarvae settle to bottom immediatly after hatching and attach to plants or other objects, fry tend to leave spawning areas about 2 weeks after hatching but remain along shore among vegetation through summer Demersal Goodyear, 1982

Female (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism For female carp, they include the softening and enlargement of the abdomen and the reddening and protrusion of the cloaca Present Smith, 2004
24 Maximum GSI value 20-30 25.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value About 10% 10.0 percent Yaron and Levavi-Zermonsky, 1986
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 28%, up to 30% [June] 28.0 percent Crivelli, 1981
24 Maximum GSI value Maximum GSI values in female 17%, less than in other studies 29% 17.0 percent Dubost, 1997
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 18% up to 21-22% [In October in Australia] 21.5 percent Smith and Walker, 2004
24 Maximum GSI value About 25% [May] 25.0 percent June, 1977
24 Maximum GSI value Recorded estimates are usually around 20% for males 20.0 percent Smith, 2004
25 Oogenesis duration 3-4 [August until December] 3.5 months Yaron and Levavi-Zermonsky, 1986
19 Relative fecundity 100-300 200.0 thousand eggs/kg Linhart, 1995
19 Relative fecundity 80-150 115.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 100-200 150.0 thousand eggs/kg Horvath, 1992
19 Relative fecundity 100-300 200.0 thousand eggs/kg Billard (Atelier)
19 Relative fecundity 120-180 150.0 thousand eggs/kg Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 100-200 150.0 thousand eggs/kg Environment agency, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 100 100.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
19 Relative fecundity Different means vary between 290 to 588 290.0 thousand eggs/kg Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
19 Relative fecundity Estimates of instantaneous fecundity (the average number of strippd eggs per kilogram of fish) ranged from 114,000 to 163,000 eggs per kg 114.0 thousand eggs/kg Smith, 2004
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 years Horvath, 1992
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 years Billard (Atelier)
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Male] 2.0 years Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 4.5 [Both sex] 4.5 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity The common carp becomes sexualy mature in the Romanian Danube River at the age of 3 years for male 3.0 years Ciolac, 2004
27 Age at sexual maturity In temperate climates, for males, spawning occurs during the second or third year of life No data Dubost, 1997
27 Age at sexual maturity In Victoria, males and females mature at 1 and 2 years of age. On average males mature one year earlier than females 1.0 years Smith, 2004
26 Resting period Few weeks after spawning No data Bieniarz, 1978
26 Resting period About two months [June-July] No data Yaron and Levavi-Zermonsky, 1986
26 Resting period About 5% in December-January 5.0 months Smith and Walker, 2004
26 Resting period Post-spawning period: June-August No data Bieniarz, 1979
26 Resting period July and august are a quiescent period of gonadal activity, a stage of regeneration No data Crivelli, 1981
26 Resting period Re-maturation of the ovaries requires > 3-4 months 3.5 months Smith, 2004
22 Onset of oogenesis GSI increased gradually from August until February ['February', 'August'] Yaron and Levavi-Zermonsky, 1986
22 Onset of oogenesis June-July ['June', 'July'] Bieniarz, 1978
22 Onset of oogenesis October ['October'] Crivelli, 1981
22 Onset of oogenesis January [In Australia] ['January'] Smith and Walker, 2004
22 Onset of oogenesis GSI increase from 1.7 +/- 0.4 in September 28 to 6.2 +/- 1.1 in November 12 for big-belly and 0.4 +/-0.1 to 1.1 +/- 0.2 for Gold in Israel ['November', 'September'] Hulata, 1974
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity October to December ['October', 'December'] Yaron and Levavi-Zermonsky, 1986
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity October to November ['October', 'November'] Bieniarz, 1978
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity A dramatic growth is observed in April ['April'] Crivelli, 1981
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity September [In Australia] ['September'] Smith and Walker, 2004
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous Asynchronous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
21 Oocyte development Carp ovary development is asynchronous Asynchronous Dubost, 1997
21 Oocyte development Common carp are asynchronous, multiple batch spawners with indeterminate breeding season fecunidty. At the individual level, oocytes at all developmental stages occured in some ovaries, but discrete batches of oocytes typically matured in synchrony. Not all eggs from the same batch were necessarily spawned at once, and it is likely that some fish spawned again within weeks (one individual retained a portion of mature oocytes in the anterior of each ovary after spawning). Asynchronous Smith and Walker, 2004
20 Absolute fecundity 200-1500 850.0 thousand eggs Horvath, 1992
20 Absolute fecundity 36-2208 1122.0 thousand eggs Internet, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity 190.778-375.000 in four different populations [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 282.889 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Average of 85 85.0 thousand eggs Ciolac, 2004
20 Absolute fecundity The average fecundity of a 3-year-old, 44-48 cm, 1.9-2.75 kg, common carp is around 224,000 pieces. For a 5-year-old, 54 cm, 3.5 kg common carp, the fecundity is around 447,000 pieces. 46.0 thousand eggs Naca, 1989
20 Absolute fecundity The females are highly fecund and depending on body size, produce between 500,000 and 3 million eggs per spawning 500.0 thousand eggs Smith, 2004
20 Absolute fecundity Eggs numbers ranging from 36,000 eggs in a 15.5-inch (394 mm) fish to 2,208,000 eggs in a 33.5 inch (851 mm) fish. The latter weighed 22.23 pounds (10.1 kg) 36.0 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
17 Weight at sexual maturity 4-5 4.5 kg Horvath, 1992
17 Weight at sexual maturity 3-5 [But 0.8-1 in France] 4.0 kg Billard (Atelier)
17 Weight at sexual maturity Females of 5 years, 3-4 kg were used 3.5 kg Bieniarz, 1979
16 Length at sexual maturity 30-40 35.0 cm Horvath, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity 62.5 [Both sex] 62.5 cm Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Beetween means of 36.2 to 41.0 according to different areas for females 36.2 cm Ciolac, 2004
16 Length at sexual maturity In tropical climates, carp mature at 90-140 mm, and in temperate climates at 355-430 mm. Males mature earlier than females. In the present study the majority of fish in the lower Murray are mature by 350 mm 115.0 cm Smith and Walker, 2004
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 4.5 year Horvath, 1992
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 4.5 year Bieniarz, 1978
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 4.0 year Billard (Atelier)
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Female] 3.0 year Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [24-36 months, age at maturation] 2.5 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Females] 4.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 4.5 [Both sex] 4.5 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity The common carp becomes sexualy mature in the Romanian Danube River at the age of 4 years for female 4.0 year Ciolac, 2004
15 Age at sexual maturity Under the climatic conditions in Poland, female carp reach sexual maturity at the age of 4-5 years 4.5 year Bieniarz, 1979
15 Age at sexual maturity In temperate climates, sexual maturity is reached at the age of 3-4 years 3.5 year Dubost, 1997
15 Age at sexual maturity In tropical climates, carp mature at 3-6 months, and in temperate climates at 3-5 years. Males mature earlier than females 4.5 year Smith and Walker, 2004
15 Age at sexual maturity In the Changjiang River and Yellow River basins, generally reach maturity at 2 years. In northeastern China, sexual maturity arrives later when the fish is larger 2.0 year Naca, 1989
15 Age at sexual maturity In Victoria, males and females mature at 1 and 2 years of age. In tropical climates, carp mature at 3-6 months. In temperate-mediterranean climates, the age-at-maturity varies between 1 and 5 years. 4.5 year Smith, 2004

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Develop pimples on the gills Present Mickaels, 1988
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males bear nuptial tubercles on head and body Present Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercles fine and scattered Present Scott and Crossman, 1973
30 Male sexual dimorphism The abdomen of male carp does not become obviously distended but may become darker in colour and nuptial tubercles appear on the head and on pectoral fin rays Present Smith, 2004
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Spermatogenesis occur in summer and spermatozoa are found in the testis in autumn ['September', 'August', 'December', 'July', 'October', 'November'] Billard, 1995
31 Onset of spermatogenesis August ['August'] Crivelli, 1981
31 Onset of spermatogenesis January in Australia ['January'] Smith and Walker, 2004
33 Maximum GSI value 7 7.0 percent Suquet, 1994
33 Maximum GSI value 6.9 ± 2.6 6.9 percent Saad and Billard, 1987
33 Maximum GSI value Range between 10.62 and 11.97 for individuals studied but not specified if the maximum and the date 10.62 percent Belova, 1981
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 8.2, up to 9.2 [Beginning of April] 8.2 percent Crivelli, 1981
33 Maximum GSI value Maximum GSI for males 11% less than in other studies 15% 11.0 percent Dubost, 1997
33 Maximum GSI value About 7% in March in Australia 7.0 percent Smith and Walker, 2004
33 Maximum GSI value Recorded estimates are usually around 10% for males 10.0 percent Smith, 2004
33 Maximum GSI value GSI reaches 16.3 +/- 2.0 for big-belly and 7.0 +/- 0.7% for Gold in November 12 in Israel 16.3 percent Hulata, 1974
32 Main spermatogenesis activity August-September, then increase slowly until March ['August', 'March', 'September'] Crivelli, 1981
32 Main spermatogenesis activity January in Australia ['January'] Smith and Walker, 2004
35 Resting period Lower in december-January, about 2% 2.0 months Smith and Walker, 2004
34 Spermatogenesis duration Spermiogenesis is very short in carp [the completion of spermatogenesis is in october] No data Billard, 1995
34 Spermatogenesis duration Although the spermatogenesis is continuous there is a male gonadal cycle which increases in September and decreases around May No data Crivelli, 1981
34 Spermatogenesis duration Spermatogenesis was continuous and spermatogonia, psermatocytes, spermatids and sperm co-occured in most testes throughout the spawning and non-spawning periods. Thus, males are euipped to spawn at any time during the year, but there is a defined gonadal cycle with a peak in Ig before the onset of spawning No data Smith and Walker, 2004
28 Length at sexual maturity 25-30 27.5 cm Horvath, 1992
28 Length at sexual maturity 62.5 [Both sex] 62.5 cm Olden, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Between means of 28.9 to 34.9 according to different areas for males 28.9 cm Ciolac, 2004
28 Length at sexual maturity Individuals studied were 56.3 ± 1 and 54.2 ± 0.7 56.3 cm Belova, 1981
29 Weight at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 kg Horvath, 1992
29 Weight at sexual maturity 1 [0.5 in France] 1.0 kg Billard (Atelier)
29 Weight at sexual maturity Individuals studied were 1.930 ±124 and 1.907 ± 113 1.93 kg Belova, 1981

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system One female and several males Polyandry Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system Usually a female will be accompanied by 2 or 3 males No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system Polygamous: a female is usually followed by several males No category Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system Group: communal spawning, several males pursue female for some time before spawning Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
47 Mating system In estrus, two or three males chase one female, the male repeatedly hits its head against the female's abdomen until the female is lying on its side adjacent to some aquatic plants. No category Naca, 1989
47 Mating system Spawning involves polygamous groups of one female and several males and is apparently triggered, at certain times of the year, by rising water that inundates terrestrial vegetation and periods of fine, warm weather Ambiguous Smith, 2004
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Ovulation and spawing usually occur between midnight and early morning Ambiguous Aida, 1988
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Dawn and less in dusk Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Courtship starts early in the morning, about 6-7 am and finishes about noon Day Mickaels, 1988
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Dawn Dawn Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Warm sunny morning Day Scott and Crossman, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occurred mainly early in the morning until 10.00 hours, although some carp were observed just before the sunset Day Crivelli, 1981
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning activity proceeds from midnight to dawn. If environmental conditions are favourable, however, these fish can spawn the whole day Ambiguous Naca, 1989
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occurs during daylight Day Smith, 2004
50 Parental care Not described in that review No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
50 Parental care Non-guarding No care Smith, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Submerged plants, grass roots of undercut tanks, dead leaves, floating plants and logs Phytophils Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil : aquatic plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Foliage or roots No category Mickaels, 1988
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Submerged weeds, grasses or roots Phytophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Obligatory plant spawners Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes, <5 cm in diamter Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Deposit their eggs on plants Phytophils Kennedy, 1969
44 Spawning substrate Dense weed, bulrushes Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils Phytophils Kamler, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Member of the phytophilous group Phytophils Belova, 1981
44 Spawning substrate Abundant and fixed vegetation (macrophytes, red or even in the Camargue sansouire) Phytophils Crivelli, 1981
44 Spawning substrate The fundamental requirement for spawning is the presence of susbstrat (e.g. aquatic plants) that the eggs can adhere to Phytophils Naca, 1989
44 Spawning substrate Scattered thair adhesive eggs on vegetation in the littoral zone of tributary embayments Phytophils June, 1977
44 Spawning substrate Obligatory plant spawners Phytophils Smith, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are broadcast at random near the surface over mud, muck, silt, sand, matted roots or dead grass, and abundant emergent, submergent, and floating vegetation, also over gravel, rock and rubble Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited randomly Susbtrate chooser Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum eggs scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Not any male spawning territory No category Ah-King, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Kamler, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Open-substratum No category Smith, 2004
41 Spawning temperature 18-22 is the optimum [Peaking at 22-26, but from 15-28°] 20.0 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 16-22 19.0 °C Horvath, 1992
41 Spawning temperature 20-22 21.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 18 18.0 °C Bieniarz, 1978
41 Spawning temperature Above 18 18.0 °C Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Spawning does not commence in earnest until temperatures reach a level of at least 62.6°F (17°C) and may continue for several weeks. Spawning activities begin to decline when temperatures reach 78.8°F (26°C) and cease altogether at 82.4°F (28°C). In lake St. Lawrence, it was observed that spawning may be interrupted if cooler wheather prevails and the temperature drops below 62.6°F (17°C), but will recommence when the water warms up again 62.6 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 15-20 17.5 °C Fishbase, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 16-22 19.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 16-22 19.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 16-22 19.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
41 Spawning temperature 17 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 17.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 18-20 19.0 °C Kamler, 1996
41 Spawning temperature The water temperature of 18°C to 20°C is the optimum for spawning 18.0 °C Ciolac, 2004
41 Spawning temperature Begins when water temperature reaches 18°C, although cases are reported of females spawning at lower temperature e.g., 14°C 18.0 °C Bieniarz, 1979
41 Spawning temperature A temperature around15-16°C 15.5 °C Crivelli, 1981
41 Spawning temperature Although the spawning season begins at different times, water temperature requirements are identical, at least 18°C 18.0 °C Naca, 1989
41 Spawning temperature Spawning is low from 15-18°C, optimum 18-23°C, and ceases at 28°C 16.5 °C Smith, 2004
40 Spawning period duration Spawning may continue for several weeks […] Spawning is usually extended when water temperatures permit and in the Great Lakes region may extend from May to August No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
40 Spawning period duration 4-26 [1.00-6.00 months, length of breeding season] 15.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration Duration of spanwing of carp from different areas: March to August [Camargue, France], Mid-March to August [scutari Lake, Y.U.], Mid-April to July [Terek delta, U.S.S.R], Mid-April to August [Danube Delta, Rou.], May to July [St-Lawrence Lake, Canada], May-June [South Dakota, U.S.A] No data Crivelli, 1981
40 Spawning period duration Longest recorded period for common carp spawning in Australia. It continued from mid-november 2001 to mid-May 2002 (7 months), and recommnced in mid-september 2002 2001.0 weeks Smith and Walker, 2004
42 Spawning water type Tidal and non-tidal fresh water, either in fresh water or oligohaline water (10 ppt) No category Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Flooding areas if available No category Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
42 Spawning water type Weedy and grassy shallows No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Spawn in marginal, shallow, weed-infested areas No category Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Stagnant water or with a weak flow Stagnant water Belova, 1981
42 Spawning water type A shallow flooded area No category Crivelli, 1981
42 Spawning water type Fish spawning out of the tributary area: carp, pikeperch, catfish Silurus glanis and eel No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
42 Spawning water type Naturally reproduce in the still or running waters of Southern and Nothern China No category Naca, 1989
42 Spawning water type Preferred spawning sites are lentic habitats with abundant food, warm water and protection from predators No category Smith, 2004
42 Spawning water type Protected areas of lakes and rivers, including bays, harbors, marshes, sloughs, flooded shorelines, and river mouths, also on shoals and reefs Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Shallow areas, near surface No data Internet, 2005
43 Spawning depth Shallow areas No data Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth Shallow areas No data Crivelli, 1981
43 Spawning depth The spawning act occurs in shoreline areas (water < 1 m deep) 1.0 m Smith, 2004
43 Spawning depth To 20 Ft, but usually less than 3 feet, and often 3 inches-1 feet 20.0 m Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Many an early morning, the bass fisherman, casting into weedy shallows, has been startled by the sudden arrival of one or more groups of spawning carp No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
36 Spawning migration distance Localised spawning migrations No data Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Move from littoral waters into marshes beginning in April or early May at about 45°F, also ascend tributaries, usually only short distances, but sometimes as far as 10-15 mi 12.5 km Goodyear, 1982
37 Spawning migration period The carp migration usually starts in April when the water temperature is about 12°C and it has the highest intensity in May when the water temperature is aournd 16°C. The water temperature of 18°C to 20°C is the optimum for spawning. ['April', 'May'] Ciolac, 2004
37 Spawning migration period Adults move into weedy and grassy shallows No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Horvath, 1992
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season March to July [Peak spawning in May through July] ['March', 'May', 'July'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season May-July [March-August] ['August', 'March', 'May', 'July'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season May ['May'] Bieniarz, 1978
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
39 Spawning season Carp spawn in the spring and summer […] ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Herzig and Winkler, 1986
39 Spawning season Spawn from the end of March to early April in Central and central eastern part of China, from April to May in Northern China, and in June on northeastern China. ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Naca, 1989
39 Spawning season The spawning of carp in the Camargue begins in March and ens generally in August: for Europe this is the longest known spawing period ['August', 'March'] Crivelli, 1981
39 Spawning season Mean peak spawning 27 May [Range: 21 April - 26 June] in Lake Oahe, South and North Dakota ['April', 'May', 'June'] June, 1977
39 Spawning season The studies were conducted in experimental ponds at the Fish and Aquaculture Research station, Dor. All the fish spawned within a single week in April. ['April'] Hulata, 1974
39 Spawning season May-August at 52-90°F, peak spawning occurs in late Mat-early June at 65-73°F, spawning may extend throughout summer subject to interruption by cool weather ['May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season In May, the natural spawning period for this fish species ['May'] Brzuska and Bialowas, 2002
48 Spawning release Able to spawn more than once during the breeding season Mutliple Internet, 2005
48 Spawning release Eggs are released in two or three times over a period of 10-14 days No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Sometimes several batches Mutliple Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
48 Spawning release Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
48 Spawning release Carp may spawn repeatedly during the same year if environmental conditions are favourable. Multiple maturation was confirmed by histological analysis Mutliple Dubost, 1997
48 Spawning release As long as conditions are met, and there is appropriate habitat, common carp will spawn repeatedly. Thus, common carp in tropical fresh waters are perennial spawners, and females annually release four to five discrete batches of eggs. Ambiguous Smith and Walker, 2004
48 Spawning release Carp are fractional spawners with indeterminate breeding season fecundity. Depending on local thermo and photo conditions, each female may spawn one to five batches of eggs per year. In India, carp spawn once. In southern France, Bengladesh, and west Bengal they may spawn twice. In tropical climates, carp are perennial spawners and spawn 4-5 times per year Ambiguous Smith, 2004
49 Parity Iteroparous, one cycle/year when reared in an outside natural pond [but up to five if maintained at 20-24°C] Iteroparous Linhart, 1995
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity In Victoria, estimates of longetivy range between 15-40 years No category Smith, 2004
49 Parity Disperse after spawning but remain in shallows throughout the summer, No category Goodyear, 1982