Smith and Walker, 2004


Smith, B.B. and Walker, K.F. (2004) Spawning dynamics of common carp in the River Murray, south Australia, shown by macroscopic and histological staging of gonads. Journal of fish biology, pp. 336-354

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Cyprinus carpio Female Age at sexual maturity In tropical climates, carp mature at 3-6 months, and in temperate climates at 3-5 years. Males mature earlier than females 4.5 year
Cyprinus carpio Female Length at sexual maturity In tropical climates, carp mature at 90-140 mm, and in temperate climates at 355-430 mm. Males mature earlier than females. In the present study the majority of fish in the lower Murray are mature by 350 mm 115.0 cm
Cyprinus carpio Female Oocyte development Common carp are asynchronous, multiple batch spawners with indeterminate breeding season fecunidty. At the individual level, oocytes at all developmental stages occurred in some ovaries, but discrete batches of oocytes typically matured in synchrony. Not all eggs from the same batch were necessarily spawned at once, and it is likely that some fish spawned again within weeks (one individual retained a portion of mature oocytes in the anterior of each ovary after spawning). Asynchronous
Cyprinus carpio Female Onset of oogenesis January [In Australia] ['January']
Cyprinus carpio Female Intensifying oogenesis activity September [In Australia] ['September']
Cyprinus carpio Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 18% up to 21-22% [In October in Australia] 21.5 percent
Cyprinus carpio Female Resting period About 5% in December-January 5.0 months
Cyprinus carpio Male Onset of spermatogenesis January in Australia ['January']
Cyprinus carpio Male Main spermatogenesis activity January in Australia ['January']
Cyprinus carpio Male Maximum GSI value About 7% in March in Australia 7.0 percent
Cyprinus carpio Male Spermatogenesis duration Spermatogenesis was continuous and spermatogonia, psermatocytes, spermatids and sperm co-occurred in most testes throughout the spawning and non-spawning periods. Thus, males are euipped to spawn at any time during the year, but there is a defined gonadal cycle with a peak in Ig before the onset of spawning No data
Cyprinus carpio Male Resting period Lower in december-January, about 2% 2.0 months
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Longest recorded period for common carp spawning in Australia. It continued from mid-november 2001 to mid-May 2002 (7 months), and recommnced in mid-september 2002 2001.0 weeks
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning release As long as conditions are met, and there is appropriate habitat, common carp will spawn repeatedly. Thus, common carp in tropical fresh waters are perennial spawners, and females annually release four to five discrete batches of eggs. Multiple