Micropterus salmoides

  • Scientific name
  • Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802)

  • Common name
  • Largemouth bass

  • Family
  • Centrarchidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 98%
Total data287
References41
Image of Micropterus salmoides

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are adhesive Adhesive Spillmann, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhere to the substrate Adhesive Heidinger, 1976
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Williamson, 1993
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, attached to stones, sitcky when first deposited, lose their adhesiveness after water hardening Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Sticky Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Everly and Boreman, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs adhere to roots and stones on bottom of nest Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
4 Egg adhesiveness Fertilized eggs were adhesive Adhesive Roncarati, 2005
5 Incubation time 2 at 22°C (2 to 4 days in natural conditions) 2.0 days Heidinger, 1976
5 Incubation time 5-6 at 17°C 5.5 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 2 at 22°C, 5 at 19°C 2.0 days Newburg, 1975
5 Incubation time 2-4 (in natural conditions in Alabama) 3.0 days Williamson, 1993
5 Incubation time 2 [22°C], 5 [18.9°C] 2.0 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 3-4 days at 20°C 3.5 days Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
5 Incubation time 3-5 days in natural conditions in Canada 4.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 3-4 days when temperature is between 18.4-19.6°C 3.5 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 6.0 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 6.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time About 4-5 days at 21°C 4.5 days Meyer, 1970
5 Incubation time 4 days 4.0 days Jurgens and Brown, 1954
5 Incubation time Hatching was complete within 48 hours from the time of fertilization, at 70-72°F 71.0 days Tebo and McCoy, 1964
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 2-15 days 8.5 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 40-60 [max 130 at 10°C] 50.0 °C * day Heidinger, 1976
7 Degree-days for incubation 85-105 95.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-100 75.0 °C * day Newburg, 1975
7 Degree-days for incubation 85-105 95.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-80 [3-4 days at 20°C] 70.0 °C * day Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation About 40-50 [Initial hatch after 50 hours and 90% hatch after 64 hours at 23°C and sometime between 31 and 47 at 23°C respectively] 45.0 °C * day Carlson and Siebert, 1974
6 Temperature for incubation A temperature of 12°C is lethal, and lesser hatch occured between 12-15°C, 17-20 in natural conditions 13.5 °C Newburg, 1975
6 Temperature for incubation 18-22 (possible between 10-28) 20.0 °C Heidinger, 1976
6 Temperature for incubation 20-28 [Eggs exposed soon after fertilization rarely produce viable larvae at temperature above 30, best results were obtained at temperature between 26-28] 24.0 °C McCormick and Wegner, 1981
6 Temperature for incubation 18.4-19.6°C 19.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 70°F, or 21°C 21.0 °C Meyer, 1970
6 Temperature for incubation Nest temperature at time of collection was 70°F, or 21°C [Incubated then between 50 and 85°F, In all four nests hatching sucess of nonacclimated eggs was consistently high at constant temperatures between 55° and 75°F, generally lower at 50° and 80°, and lowest at 85°F] 21.0 °C Kelley, 1968
6 Temperature for incubation The water in the pond registered a temperature of 58°F, or 14.5°C 14.5 °C Jurgens and Brown, 1954
6 Temperature for incubation Test temperatures were 20 and 23°C within the optimum range and near the higher limit for incubation 20.0 °C Carlson and Siebert, 1974
6 Temperature for incubation Water temperature in the test media was checked periodically and varied between 70° and 72°F, i.e. 21-22°C 21.5 °C Tebo and McCoy, 1964
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.5-2.5 2.0 mm Williamson, 1993
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.5-1.7 [Fertilized egg] 1.6 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
2 Egg size after water-hardening Water-harden within 15 mn 15.0 mm Heidinger, 1976
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean of 1.6 with n=31 [Fertilized eggs] 1.6 mm Meyer, 1970
2 Egg size after water-hardening Fertilized eggs were spehrical with a 1.5-2.5 mm diameter 2.0 mm Roncarati, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal, settle to the bottom Demersal Heidinger, 1976
3 Egg Buoyancy Dermersal Demersal Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Dermersal Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy Drop to the bottom of the nest No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4-1.8 1.6 mm Heidinger, 1976
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-1.7 1.6 mm Melinger, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.45-1.5 1.475 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-1.7 and 1.63-1.71 1.6 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4-1.8 1.6 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.3-1.8 1.55 mm Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.30 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 1.3 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-1.7 [Not specified, but seems unswollen] 1.6 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 1.7 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 1.7 mm Olden, 2006

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 20°C 20.0 °C Heidinger, 1976
11 Temperature during larval development The polled mean TL50 (=temperature at which percent viable hatch is 50%) were about 32°C 32.0 °C McCormick and Wegner, 1981
11 Temperature during larval development The first month of growth is optimal at 25°C to 29°C 25.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 21°C 21.0 °C Meyer, 1970
11 Temperature during larval development Reared between 22 and 25°C [In other studies, trained frt more successfully at 27°C than at 22 or 25°C] 22.0 °C Willis and Flikinger, 1981
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20 and 23°C 20.0 °C Carlson and Siebert, 1974
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 72°F, i.e. 22.5°C 22.5 °C Tebo and McCoy, 1964
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature was maintained at 21°C 21.0 °C Roncarati, 2005
10 Reaction to light During daylight, fry remain about 0.6 m from the bottom in water from 3.0 to 3.4 m deep. During the night the brood becomes more closely packed and seeks out cover in vegetated areas in water 0.6 to 0.9 m deep Photophobic Kerr and Grant, 1999
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Apparently cannibalism had not decimated the new year classes in ponds stocked with bass alone Present Jonhson and McCrimmon, 1967
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism occured among 24-mm fish, which reduced overall success rates Present Meyer, 1970
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Present Present Chodorowski, 1975
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism can be a significant influence on young-of-the-year largemouth bass populations, especially when forage fish of suitable size are not available Present Deangelis, 1979
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism described Present Bry, 1992
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Do cannibalims but not precised when ! Absent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism is frequent Present Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism During the indoor rearing, to reduce size variability and control cannibalism, it was necessary to submit fingerlings to frequent grading: the first at 150-200 mg, the second at 300 mg and third at 400 mg mean weight Present Roncarati, 2005
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 260 260.0 °C * day Heidinger, 1976
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 180 [Whithin 10 days at 20°C, the largemouth bass fry become free-swimming shortly after which the yolk sac is fully absorbed] 180.0 °C * day Kerr and Grant, 1999
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 60-80 [Three or four days after hatching, at 21°C, larvae became free-swimming at approximatively 6.1 millimetres] 70.0 °C * day Meyer, 1970
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 120-130 [The yolk sac was absorbed and all fry were free-swimming 168 hours (less 48 hours for hatching) after fertilization, at 70-72°F, i.e. 20-22] 125.0 °C * day Tebo and McCoy, 1964
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 75-105 [Initial feeding at 193 hours after fertilization and 90% hatch at 64 at 20°C and 124 hours and 90% hatch at 47 at 23°C, i.e. 5.3 days at 20°C and 3.2 days at 23°C] 90.0 °C * day Carlson and Siebert, 1974
8 Initial larval size 3.5-5.5 4.5 mm Heidinger, 1976
8 Initial larval size 4 4.0 mm Williamson, 1993
8 Initial larval size 2.3 2.3 mm Spillmann, 1961
8 Initial larval size 3-5 4.0 mm Newburg, 1975
8 Initial larval size As small as 2.3, 3.6-4.1 [recently hatched fish collected in the field] 3.85 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size 2-3 2.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 3.2-5 4.1 mm Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
8 Initial larval size 3 3.0 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size 5.5-6.5 6.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 3.0-5.5 4.25 mm Kerr and Grant, 1999
8 Initial larval size 6.1 6.1 mm Olden, 2006
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the nest, postlarvae venture to the surface in small schools and eventualy disperse Demersal Heidinger, 1976
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the nest during 2-3 month, and than leave the nest but stay together during 2-3 months Demersal Spillmann, 1961
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larvae remain in the nest, postlarvae venture to the surface in small schools and eventually disperse into shallow weedt waters Demersal Internet, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour They remain in the bottom of the nest until the yolk is absorbed, usually 6-7 days, then they rise, begin feeding and schooling Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour Three of four days after hatching, larvae became free-swimming at approximatively 6.1 millimetres Demersal Meyer, 1970
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae remain in nest for 5-10 days Demersal Goodyear, 1982

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism In female the genital papilla is elliptical or pear shaped Present Heidinger, 1976
18 Female sexual dimorphism Female have a pear-shaped or elliptical opening, also gravid female can be recognized by the distended belly and inflamented vent prior to spawning Absent Newburg, 1975
18 Female sexual dimorphism The urogenital opening in female is elliptical or pearshaped, obviously distended and soft abdomen Present Williamson, 1993
18 Female sexual dimorphism A gravid female can readily be determined by the distention of the ovarian region of the abdomen and by the swollenn ibflamed vent- immediatly before spawning. No method of distinguishing a ripe male from an unripe, pporly developed, or sterile male or female has been described to date Present Snow, 1963
24 Maximum GSI value 7-10% (unknown sources) 8.5 percent Heidinger, 1976
24 Maximum GSI value 4.57 for 15 forage-fed females (March), 6.97 ± 0.52 for 20 pelled-fed female (April and early May) 6.97 percent Rosenblum, 1994
24 Maximum GSI value About 12 (March) 12.0 percent Rosenblum, 1999
24 Maximum GSI value About 8 [April-May] 8.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value 8% [May] 8.0 percent Kokkidis, 2000
24 Maximum GSI value Maximal GSI observed for females were 8.2 (unheated) and 8.8 (heated) in March 8.2 percent Bennett and Gibbons, 1975
24 Maximum GSI value For Low Altitude sample, GSI reach 7.34% [In May] and for high altitude sample, 10.08, up to 11.23% [Early July] 7.34 percent Martin, 1997
24 Maximum GSI value Gonadosomatic index were highest between July and October for female fish:, peak in beginning of August about 4, range from 2 to 7 based on Fig 5 (n=145) 4.0 percent Beamish, 2005
25 Oogenesis duration 5-6 (From November to Mid-March 5.5 months Rosenblum, 1994
19 Relative fecundity 4.4-6 5.2 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 2-7 per pound 4.5 thousand eggs/kg Scott and Crossman, 1973
19 Relative fecundity 16-45 30.5 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 (less than one year in tropical or subtropical regions) 4.0 years Heidinger, 1976
27 Age at sexual maturity At least two years No data Newburg, 1975
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-5 [Sex not specified] 3.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sex not specified] 2.5 years Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Male] 4.5 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 2.5 [Both sex] 2.5 years Olden, 2006
26 Resting period 2 (September and October), < 1 (between September and October, declined between August, and mid-September) 2.0 months Rosenblum, 1994
26 Resting period GSI were minimal ind mid-summer No data Bennett and Gibbons, 1975
22 Onset of oogenesis Gonadal recrudescence for the following spawning period was observed from November through December, as GSI increased significantly ['November', 'December'] Rosenblum, 1994
22 Onset of oogenesis Recrudescence commenced in September-October ['October', 'September'] Bennett and Gibbons, 1975
22 Onset of oogenesis The average increase of GSI was extremely weak from November to February ['February', 'November'] Martin, 1997
22 Onset of oogenesis March ['March'] Beamish, 2005
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity February ['February'] Bennett and Gibbons, 1975
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity March-April for altitude pond sample, and May for plain pond ['April', 'March', 'May'] Martin, 1997
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity May ['May'] Beamish, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity 2-3 [about 1/8 of female weight] 2.5 thousand eggs Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity 2-81.582 [more detailled] 41.791 thousand eggs Newburg, 1975
20 Absolute fecundity 2-94 up to 110 48.0 thousand eggs Internet, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity 2-176 89.0 thousand eggs Williamson, 1993
20 Absolute fecundity 2-109 55.5 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity 33.216 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 33.216 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 4.7 [Total number of eggs or offsprings per breeding season] 4.7 thousand eggs Olden, 2006
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.2 0.2 kg Heidinger, 1976
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.09-0.15 0.12 kg Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 25 25.0 cm Heidinger, 1976
16 Length at sexual maturity 26 26.0 cm Newburg, 1975
16 Length at sexual maturity 22-24 (in Southern US) 23.0 cm Williamson, 1993
16 Length at sexual maturity 25 25.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 17-22 19.5 cm Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 21.5 [Both sex] 21.5 cm Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 (less than one year in tropical or subtropical regions) 4.0 year Heidinger, 1976
15 Age at sexual maturity At least 2 years 2.0 year Newburg, 1975
15 Age at sexual maturity May mature at 8 months in the southern U.S. 8.0 year Williamson, 1993
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-5 [Sex not specified] 3.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sex not specified] 2.5 year Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Female] 3.5 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [24 months, age at maturation] 2.0 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 2.5 [Both sex] 2.5 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Reproduction occured in all populations of bass of age 2 2.0 year Jonhson and McCrimmon, 1967

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Externally bass greater than 35 cm in total length could be sexed correctly 92 percent, in male the scaleless area surrounding and immediately adjacent to the urogenital opening is nearly circular in shape Absent Heidinger, 1976
30 Male sexual dimorphism In the male, the genital papilla is usually conical (swollen)and red in color Absent Newburg, 1975
30 Male sexual dimorphism The urogenital opening in male is nearly circular Absent Williamson, 1993
30 Male sexual dimorphism The genital papilla method (i.e.the presence on females and the absence on males of a genital papilla, a redish protuberance surronding the urogenital papilla) was successufl during the spring but only 48% successful during the fall. The shape of the urogenital opening (round in males, ovale in females) was a poor indicator of sex (53% of the fish were sexed correctly). Probing the urogenital opening was the best single method, it provided success rates of 90% (probe depth) and 94/ (probe length) Absent Benz and Jacobs, 1986
30 Male sexual dimorphism No nuptial tubercles but colours darken on spawning males Absent Scott and Crossman, 1973
31 Onset of spermatogenesis A recrudescence of testicular recrudescence was evident from October through December ['October', 'December'] Rosenblum, 1994
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Recrudescence commenced in September-October ['October', 'September'] Bennett and Gibbons, 1975
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Slight increase in GSI in March, based on graph ['March'] Beamish, 2005
33 Maximum GSI value 0.87 ± 0,07 (Beginning of April) but also 1,20 for pellet-fed male ( 0.87 percent Rosenblum, 1994
33 Maximum GSI value Maximal value of GSI for males were 0.85 (unheated) and 0.81 (heated) in March 0.85 percent Bennett and Gibbons, 1975
33 Maximum GSI value Gonadosomatic index were highest between July and September for male fish, peak in mid-July: about 0.4, range from 0.25 to 1.1 based on Fig 5 (n=309) 0.4 percent Beamish, 2005
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Initial gonadal growth occured between January and April ['April', 'January'] Rosenblum, 1994
32 Main spermatogenesis activity January-February ['February', 'January'] Bennett and Gibbons, 1975
32 Main spermatogenesis activity May-June ['May', 'June'] Beamish, 2005
35 Resting period < 0,1 (September, sharp decrease in August) 0.0 months Rosenblum, 1994
34 Spermatogenesis duration 6-7 (From October to March-April) 6.5 months Rosenblum, 1994
28 Length at sexual maturity 22 22.0 cm Heidinger, 1976
28 Length at sexual maturity 26 26.0 cm Newburg, 1975
28 Length at sexual maturity 22 22.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 21.5 [Both sex] 21.5 cm Olden, 2006
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.160 0.16 kg Heidinger, 1976

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Promiscuous (full description), one female may mate with several male in different nests in short intervals Promiscuity Heidinger, 1976
47 Mating system By pair Monogamy Spillmann, 1961
47 Mating system During a spawning season, a female may mate with several males in different nests No category Internet, 2005
47 Mating system By pair Monogamy Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system By pair, a female may spawn with several males in different nests Monogamy Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system Female may lay eggs in more than one nest during a single spawning season No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Some bass lay their eggs during midday, but most spawning occurs at night near dusk or dawn Ambiguous Heidinger, 1976
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Late afternoon or early morning Day Williamson, 1993
50 Parental care Male is a vey attentive parent. closely follows and guards the bass larvae, continues to guard the young fish for several weeks after they hatch No category Heidinger, 1976
50 Parental care The spawning is guarded by the male and larvae are also guarded during 3 to 4 weeks after the hatching. Male parental care Spillmann, 1961
50 Parental care Male guard the spawning and ventilate the eggs, very aggressive, during 2-3 weeks Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Male guards the eggs and alevins, during that period he is very agrressive and eat few Male parental care Billard, 1997
50 Parental care The male guards and fans the eggs Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care A long period of protection by one sex (> 1 month) or brief care by both sexes Biparental care Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
50 Parental care Male guards the nests, even after the eggs have hatched Male parental care Everly and Boreman, 1999
50 Parental care Almost any substrate may be used as a nest site from rock to organic substrate. But mostly over gravel (coarse and fine), and mud, sand to mud below boulders No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care The male parent, whose function it i to guard and fan the nest during the egg stage of the young bass, deserts the nest with the lowering of the water temperature. The result of his action is that the eggs are left without aeration, and death follows No category Jurgens and Brown, 1954
50 Parental care Males aggressively guarding the nests No category Beamish, 2005
50 Parental care Little movement from spawning site, male guards nest and fry until fry are about 1 inche long, may move to somewhat deeper water after spawning Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Almost any substrate may be used as a nest site from rock to organic substrate. But mostly over gravel (coarse and fine), and mud, sand to mud below boulders Ambiguous Heidinger, 1976
44 Spawning substrate Nesting substrates vary from sand or gravel bottoms, to organic debris and mats of needle rush Ambiguous Newburg, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Mostly over gravel, but also mud, sand to mud below boulders Ambiguous Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Over sandy ground Psammophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Over various substrate No category Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Muddy bottoms No category Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Gravelly sand (more rarely) to marl and soft mud in eeds, bullrushes or water lilies Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Largemouth are known to nest on a wide variety of bottom mineral including sand, gravel, clay and mud or on roots of emergent vegetation Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Nest is usually among vegetation or near structures, such as logs or stumps Phytophils Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Male construct a nest Nest built by male Spillmann, 1961
45 Spawning site preparation Male buid a nest in the spring when the temperature reaches 15-24°C Nest built by male Heidinger, 1976
45 Spawning site preparation Little nesting will be observed before water temperatures average 15.5 No category Newburg, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation The males construct a nest, usually a depression near the shore Nest built by male Internet, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation Male built a nest Nest built by male Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Built a nest No category Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation The male which becomes aggressive and territorial builts the nest No category Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Nest building by very aggressive and territorial males, nest are 61.0-91.5 cm in diameter, and depending on the hardness of the bottom 25-303 mm deep No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Both zygotes and embryos are maintained in a nest] No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Nest spawner No category Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Nest builder [One or two days prior to egg laying the male largemouth bass selects a nest which is often situated near the protection of rocks, stumps, logs or weeds] No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in a nest made in almost any substrate, including gravel, rock, clay, sand, mud, detritus, or vegetation, soft substrate is excavated down to firm bottom, may spawn over nests of rock bass Susbtrate chooser Goodyear, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 16-18 17.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature 15.5-20 (the last most successful or ideal temperature) 17.75 °C Newburg, 1975
41 Spawning temperature 15 (Observation of the first spawning) 15.0 °C Rosenblum, 1994
41 Spawning temperature 14-16 (begin of spawning) 15.0 °C Williamson, 1993
41 Spawning temperature 14-16 [start and up to 24°C] 15.0 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 16-18 but 23°C in USA 17.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 15-25 20.0 °C Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Wen temperature reach 15 15.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Nest building starts at about 15.6, but spawning usually takes place at 16.7-18.3 17.5 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 15-18 16.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Between 15-24, also 16.7-18.3, the optimum being 21°C 19.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 14 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 14.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature At 58-70°F 64.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
41 Spawning temperature At the water temperature of 19 ± 2°C 19.0 °C Roncarati, 2005
40 Spawning period duration 4-14 9.0 weeks Rosenblum, 1994
40 Spawning period duration 12-16 14.0 weeks Heidinger, 1976
40 Spawning period duration 4-12 [The average duration of the effective reproduction period of largemouth bass (independent of stock) was 40 days, but was highly variable among ponds and years from 25 to 84 days] 8.0 weeks Isely and Noble, 1987
40 Spawning period duration 12 [3.00 months, length of breeding season] 12.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration Long breeding season No data Chodorowski, 1975
40 Spawning period duration The average duration of the effective reproductive period for largemouth bass (independent of stock) was 40 d, but was highly variable among ponds ans years. Peak nothern largemouth bass reproduction occurred 11 d before peak florida largemouth bass reprodcution, resulting in considerable overlap in ages of suspecifi progeny 40.0 weeks Isely, 1987
42 Spawning water type Nest may be constructed almost anywhere in a lake, but it is not unusal for them to be grouped on certain shorelines or in specific coves Stagnant water Heidinger, 1976
42 Spawning water type Calm waters No category Spillmann, 1961
42 Spawning water type Waters of ponds, lakes, reservoirs, soughs of the Delta, creeks and some irrigation ditches [usually nests are built in areas without current or wave action] Ambiguous Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Areas protected from wave action No category Mesing and Wickler, 1986
42 Spawning water type Protected litoral areas in lakes or tributaries, including marshes, bays, harbors, sloughs, lagoons, and creek mouths Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Mainly in water deep 0.33 to 1.3 meter (up to 5.5 m) 0.33 m Heidinger, 1976
43 Spawning depth Nest are constructed mainly in shallow waters (45-80cm) 62.5 m Spillmann, 1961
43 Spawning depth Range from 30 cm to 8 m but mainly in less than one meter 30.0 m Newburg, 1975
43 Spawning depth Shallow inshore waters No data Internet, 2005
43 Spawning depth Shallow : 0.3-1.3 m 0.8 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth Usually 30.5-122 cm deep 76.25 m Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth 0.33-1.33 deep 0.83 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth To 15 ft, usually less than 6 ft 15.0 m Goodyear, 1982
36 Spawning migration distance Move into the shallower water to spawn and the entire population is on the shoreline, large numbers move out of lakes over weirs and spillways No data Heidinger, 1976
36 Spawning migration distance Nonmigratory species No data Everly and Boreman, 1999
36 Spawning migration distance Movements of largemouth bass of all ages appear somewhat limited, range from 1.1 to 25.6 km 1.1 km Kerr and Grant, 1999
36 Spawning migration distance Two of five largemouth bass in Lake Yale migrated 2.5 and 2.8 km, respectively, to calm cove and calm areas of the lake in February 1980, when surface water temperature was approximatively 13°C. Five of six largemouth bass in lake Eustis migrated up to 3 km from their respective home ranges to canals after mean dialy water temperature increased from 11.4 to 14.5°C during 25-30 January 1981. 27.5 km Mesing and Wickler, 1986
36 Spawning migration distance May move short distances inshore or into marshes No data Goodyear, 1982
37 Spawning migration period In the spring prior to the spawning, very short migrations ['April', 'May', 'June'] Heidinger, 1976
37 Spawning migration period The February activity peak was related to spawning migrations ['February'] Mesing and Wickler, 1986
39 Spawning season In southern Florida spawning starts in Mid-December to Mid-January, peaks in February, and stops in April ['February', 'April', 'January', 'December'] Heidinger, 1976
39 Spawning season Mid-April until end of May ['April', 'May'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season From spring trough early summer ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Williamson, 1993
39 Spawning season Late April to July (in Minnesota) ['April', 'July'] Newburg, 1975
39 Spawning season Mid-March ['March'] Rosenblum, 1994
39 Spawning season Florida largemouth bass begin spawing earlier than nother largemouth bass and that considerable overlap in spawing periods may result in the production of intergrades ['May'] Isely and Noble, 1987
39 Spawning season April through June, peaking in early May ['April', 'May', 'June'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season April-May or June [In France] ['April', 'May', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season March to July ['March', 'July'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season End of April to July ['April', 'July'] Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
39 Spawning season March to June [France], May to August |North America] ['August', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Late spring to mid-summer with the peak usually early to mid-June ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Spawn from late May to early August ['August', 'May'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Spawning in heated and unheated areas of Par Pond occured predominantly during March and April ['April', 'March'] Bennett and Gibbons, 1975
39 Spawning season June, at this month spawning period of the pain pond females had begun ['June'] Martin, 1997
39 Spawning season Spawno the in lake Manyame occurs from late-winter to early-spring, just prior to the onset of the first rains in Zimbabwe ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'February'] Beamish, 2005
39 Spawning season April-August, usually late may-early july ['April', 'August'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season In the years 2001-2002, on a total of 20 couples/year, 16 and 15 broodstocks laid eggs respectively, from the half to the end of April at the water temperature of 19 ± 2°C ['April'] Roncarati, 2005
38 Homing Not described Absent Heidinger, 1976
38 Homing Home ranges Present Mesing and Wickler, 1986
48 Spawning release Females tend to spawn once a year. However, the spawing act may be prolonged and females may lay their eggs in more than one nest Total Heidinger, 1976
48 Spawning release Bass spawned intermittently during the spawning season as revealed by (i) the presence of fry over the entire duration of the spawning season, (ii) pattern of GSI : values returned to the regressed level gradually Fractional Rosenblum, 1994
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning periods have been observed during one spawning season Mutliple Newburg, 1975
48 Spawning release Several batches of eggs are deposited into the nests at short intervals Mutliple Internet, 2005
48 Spawning release Most ripe eggs are released with the initial spawn, each subsequent spawn normally contains approximatively half the eggs of the preceding spawn No category Williamson, 1993
48 Spawning release Females lay their eggs in several nests nut in a short period of time, fractionnal spawner [each nest could contain 5000-40000] Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release A female may spawn with several males on different nests Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release From two to four spawning per year No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release "The experiment did not allow to check the occurrence of ""multiple spanwing"". If it does occur, then it did running within a very short period of time, since in early June there were no stage IV occytes observed in the ovary sections, only stage I oocytes, oocytes in the degenerative process or empty oocytes remained. In other studies: eggs occurred of different development stages and spawning was made by small batches, over a more or less long period" Mutliple Martin, 1997
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Heidinger, 1976
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity Female probably spawn yearly between the age of 5 to 12 No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
49 Parity Female spawn once a year No category Kerr and Grant, 1999