Alosa alosa

  • Scientific name
  • Alosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Allis shad

  • Family
  • Clupeidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 80%
Total data207
References25
Image of Alosa alosa

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness No Non-Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Non-adhesive Non-Adhesive Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
5 Incubation time 7 7.0 days Billard, 1997
5 Incubation time 4-8 6.0 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 4-8 6.0 days Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
5 Incubation time About 4 [At 18-20°C] 19.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 4-8 6.0 days Taverny, 2000
5 Incubation time 4-8 6.0 days Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-80 at 24°C 70.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
7 Degree-days for incubation 67-125 96.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation Hatching occured 5 days after fertilization at 20°C 5.0 °C * day Leguen, 2007
7 Degree-days for incubation After a 5 day incubation at 19°C, larvae hatched 5.0 °C * day Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
6 Temperature for incubation >17 17.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation 18-20 [The hatching is only possible above 18°C] 19.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation >17 17.0 °C Taverny, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation The eggs are sensitive to water temperatures below 16-18°C, so temperatures above 18°C in June and July should be most favourable for incubation 17.0 °C Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation Just after fertilization, eggs were collected and incubated in Zoug bottles at 20°C, ± 1°C 20.0 °C Leguen, 2007
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs were collected by means of an egg trap and placed into 8 l McDonal jars for incubation. After a 5 day incubation at 19°C, larvae hatched 8.0 °C Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
6 Temperature for incubation Water was thermo-regulated (20 ± 1°C) 20.0 °C Bardonnet and Jatteau, 2008
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.5-4.5 3.5 mm Taverny, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.5-2 [Sometimes up to 4.4 ?] 1.75 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.5-4.5 3.5 mm Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
3 Egg Buoyancy Floats during a moment and then sinks to the bottom Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
3 Egg Buoyancy Pelagic and could derive during several kms but then sinks to the bottom Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Sink to the bottom Semi-Pelagic Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
3 Egg Buoyancy Semi-buoyant [Tend to drift dowstream, most falling to the bottom and remaining there in crevices, until they hatch, some eggs drift for long distances below the spawning areas, sometimes several tens of kilometres] Ambiguous Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2 1.75 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2 1.75 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1-2 1.5 mm Taverny, 2000
1 Oocyte diameter 1.6 1.6 mm Billard, 1997
1 Oocyte diameter 1-2 [Not specified] 1.5 mm Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 18-20 19.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
11 Temperature during larval development Larvae hatched and were put in troughs, at a density c. 50 larvae l-1.Temperature varie between 18.3 and 18.6°C, dissolved oxygen between 8.4 and 7.6 mg.l-1, pH was constant at 7.6) 18.5 °C Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
11 Temperature during larval development Aerated water at 20 (± 1°C) 20.0 °C Bardonnet and Jatteau, 2008
10 Reaction to light Photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
10 Reaction to light Previous experiments carried out on hatching larvae (from day 1 to day 3) showed that allis shad larvae photoreponse was positive at hatching. It is however, unknown as to whether this response changes with ontogenesis. […] Allis shad larvae exbited a positive photoresponse from hatching until one month old (total length = 20 mm). This behavior is not in agreement with first field observations which found larvae hidden in the substratum. Photopositive Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
10 Reaction to light Positive phototropism Photopositive Esteves and Andrade, 2008
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Yolk-sac resoprtion occured 6 days after fertilization at 20°C (less 5 for incubation) 6.0 °C * day Leguen, 2007
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding After yolk-sac resorption fish were fed twice a day (i.e. one day at 20°C post-hatching) 20.0 °C * day Leguen, 2007
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding By 3 days post-hatch [18-19°C], larvae were fed every 10 min with brine shrimp Artemia salini nauplii 18.5 °C * day Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
8 Initial larval size 7-12 9.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 7-12 9.5 mm Taverny, 2000
8 Initial larval size About 10 on hatching 10.0 mm Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
9 Larvae behaviour Remains in the gravel Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour After hatching, the young remain in the slow-flowing reaches of the lower parts of rivers, then move into the estuary and eventually into coastal waters and the open sea Demersal Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
9 Larvae behaviour Remain close to the bottom Demersal Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour It has been observed that larvae would grow under the gravel, which could suggest that their photoresponse evolves from a strong positive photoresponse at hatching to negative photoresponse in the course of larval stage. […] larvae were caught near the surface Demersal Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
9 Larvae behaviour After hatching, yolk sac larvae swam directly from the jars into the small containers equipped with a net at their outflow to prevent any larval escapement Demersal Bardonnet and Jatteau, 2008

Female (58%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Female grow faster than males Absent Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females grow faster and mature later than males Absent Aprahamian, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value 16-27% [Not precised] 21.5 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value Max 21.63 21.63 percent Maitland and Lyle, 2005
24 Maximum GSI value Calculated based on Table 1. Around 18-20% in April-May 19.0 percent Collares-Pereira, 1999
19 Relative fecundity 125 125.0 thousand eggs/kg Billard, 1997
19 Relative fecundity About 50 50.0 thousand eggs/kg Spillmann, 1961
19 Relative fecundity 100-250 175.0 thousand eggs/kg Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
19 Relative fecundity 100-240 [98-110 in Gironde, France] 170.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 77-576 [Extreme values] 326.5 thousand eggs/kg Cassou-Leins, 2000
19 Relative fecundity From 60 to 236 [There is an indication of an increase in relative fecundity with increasing latitude, from approximatively 60,000 in Morrocco to 200,000 in the River loire] 60.0 thousand eggs/kg Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
19 Relative fecundity 125-156 140.5 thousand eggs/kg Boisneau, 1990
27 Age at sexual maturity 4-7 5.5 years Billard, 1997
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 4.0 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 4 [mode, but between 3-6] 4.5 years Mennesson-Boisneau, 2000
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 [Male] 4.0 years Maitland and Lyle, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Male] 3.5 years Bengen, 1991
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-5, male 3.5 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Both sex] 3.5 years Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
27 Age at sexual maturity Adults range from 3 and 8 years 3.0 years Aprahamian, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 4 [Male] 4.0 years Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
27 Age at sexual maturity Most of spawners of both sex were 5 years old, the spawning adutls of age 3 and 7 years were less than 0.2% for both sex 5.0 years Lambert, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity Sampled individuals in 2001 and 2002 were between 3 and 6 years for males 4.5 years Acolas, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 25-636 [Extreme values] 330.5 thousand eggs Cassou-Leins, 2000
17 Weight at sexual maturity 1.3-3.5 2.4 kg Billard, 1997
17 Weight at sexual maturity 1.845 1.845 kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
17 Weight at sexual maturity In females, sizes range from 600-3100 g 1850.0 kg Acolas, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 36-60 48.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 48.1 48.1 cm Maitland and Lyle, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity 45-50 47.5 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 30-40 [Both sex] 35.0 cm Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
16 Length at sexual maturity In females, sizes range from 445-670 mm 557.5 cm Acolas, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-6 4.5 year Billard, 1997
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-6 5.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 5 [mode, but between 3-8] 5.5 year Mennesson-Boisneau, 2000
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-6 [Female specified] 5.0 year Maitland and Lyle, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-6 [Female] 5.0 year Bengen, 1991
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-6 [Female] 4.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Both sex] 3.5 year Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
15 Age at sexual maturity Adults range from 3 and 8 years 3.0 year Aprahamian, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 5 [Female] 5.0 year Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity Most of spawners of both sex were 5 years old, the spawning adutls of age 3 and 7 years were less than 0.2% for both sex 5.0 year Lambert, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity Sampled individuals in 2001 and 2002 were between 4 and 7 years for females 5.5 year Acolas, 2006

Male (56%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism None Absent Spillmann, 1961
33 Maximum GSI value 7.5-10% [Not precised] 8.75 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
33 Maximum GSI value 8.6% 8.6 percent Maitland and Lyle, 2005
28 Length at sexual maturity 32-56 44.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 42.1 42.1 cm Maitland and Lyle, 2005
28 Length at sexual maturity 30-35 32.5 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity 30-40 [Both sex] 35.0 cm Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
28 Length at sexual maturity In males, sizes ranged from 370 to 585 mm 370.0 cm Acolas, 2006
29 Weight at sexual maturity 1.2-2.5 1.85 kg Billard, 1997
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.985 0.985 kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
29 Weight at sexual maturity From 510 to 2000 g 510.0 kg Acolas, 2006

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Monogamy : by pairs Monogamy Billard, 1997
47 Mating system One female followed by 5-6 males Polyandry Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system By pair Monogamy Cassou-Leins, 2000
47 Mating system Males participated in more spawning acts (up to 60) than females (2) No category Acolas, 2004
47 Mating system By pair Monogamy Boisneau, 1990
47 Mating system Egg spawning last 4 to 7 seconds No category Belaud, 2001
47 Mating system In 2001 and 2002, the visual observation of the number of spawners participating in a spawning act showed that > 2 individuals were involved in 45% of the spawning acts No category Acolas, 2006
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night Acolas, 2004
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night Billard, 1997
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night : during 1 and 5 a.m. Night Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the night Night Spillmann, 1961
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition At the beginning of the night : chiefly during 2 to 3 hours [Longer in the Alosa alosa compared to other Alosa] Night Cassou-Leins, 2000
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Takes place at night Night Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the night [Mostly around 2 hours in the morning] Ambiguous Boisneau, 1990
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Only during the night, mostly between 2 and 3h30 in the morning Ambiguous Belaud, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the night Night Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During 2001 and 2002, the hourly distribution of spawning acts fluctuated during the spawning period but 50% of the spawning acts were observed in a short period of time (2:00 to 4:00 U.T +2). Otherwise, water temperature reduced the length of the nocturnal spawning activity by progressively shifting the reproduction peak towards the end of the night (between 4:00 to 5:00 U.T. +2) Night Acolas, 2006
50 Parental care None No category Spillmann, 1961
50 Parental care None No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Die after reproduction No category Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Gravels to coarse pebbles Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravels and pebbles Lithophils Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Pebbles and gravels: mainly 5-9 cm but vary between 0.2-18 cm Lithophils Cassou-Leins, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Coarse gravel Lithophils Bengen, 1991
44 Spawning substrate Pelagophilous Pelagophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate They deposit their eggs over a substrate that can vary from sand (0.02-2 mm) to pebbles (2-20 cm) Ambiguous Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Sand, gravels but no pebbles Ambiguous Boisneau, 1990
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Belaud, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Coarse gravel Lithophils Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are spread in the water column No category Bardonnet and Jatteau, 2008
41 Spawning temperature Over 14 14.0 °C Acolas, 2004
41 Spawning temperature 22-24 [Optimum, but could start when the temperature reaches 14°C] 23.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature Always above 12°C, but mainly at 15-18 16.5 °C Cassou-Leins, 2000
41 Spawning temperature 15-24 19.5 °C Maitland and Lyle, 2005
41 Spawning temperature Above 15 15.0 °C Aprahamian, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Mostly around 15°C 15.0 °C Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
41 Spawning temperature Between 12 and 25°C during the whole spawning season [But spawning starts above 16°C] 12.0 °C Boisneau, 1990
41 Spawning temperature Above 15, stops if below 15.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
41 Spawning temperature Over the study period, the temperatures observed during spawning period varied over the range 13.3-23°C. The minimum temperature below which reproduction activity seemed to be inhibited was between 13.9 and 14°C. 18.15 °C Acolas, 2006
40 Spawning period duration Several months No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
40 Spawning period duration 5-14 In Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea populations 9.5 weeks Cassou-Leins, 2000
40 Spawning period duration 8-11 but Male and female residency times on the sapwning area are, respectively 111 days and 1-7 days 9.5 weeks Acolas, 2004
40 Spawning period duration 8 weeks 8.0 weeks Boisneau, 1990
42 Spawning water type Rapid current Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
42 Spawning water type Quite rapid current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Rapid current Flowing or turbulent water Spillmann, 1961
42 Spawning water type Chiefly 50-100 m wide, with water current of 0.9-2 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Cassou-Leins, 2000
42 Spawning water type Streams, water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bengen, 1991
42 Spawning water type In flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
42 Spawning water type Water with current, 0.45 to 0.90 m/sec Flowing or turbulent water Boisneau, 1990
42 Spawning water type Water ccurent about 1m/s Flowing or turbulent water Belaud, 2001
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
42 Spawning water type Water flows observed during spawning period over the three years varied between 2.7 and 47.6 m3 s-1. In 2001 and 2002, current surface speeds ranged between 0.1 and 1.5 m s-1. Flowing or turbulent water Acolas, 2006
43 Spawning depth Shallow : 0.50-1.50 m 1.0 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Near the surface No data Spillmann, 1961
43 Spawning depth In water less than 3 m deep 3.0 m Cassou-Leins, 2000
43 Spawning depth 0.5-1.5 m 1.0 m Bengen, 1991
43 Spawning depth In water depths of 0.5-1.5 m [Spawning involves much noisy splashing at the surface] 1.0 m Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
43 Spawning depth From 0.95 to 1.60 m deep 0.95 m Boisneau, 1990
43 Spawning depth Less than 2 meters 2.0 m Belaud, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
36 Spawning migration distance Up tp 650 km from the sea 650.0 km Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
36 Spawning migration distance Up to 700 km 700.0 km Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance It originally migrated over 100 km upstream 100.0 km Maitland and Lyle, 2005
36 Spawning migration distance In some of the larger European rivers, allis shad habe been known to ascend upstream for several hundred kilometres-for exemple, more than 500 km in the river Loire 500.0 km Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
36 Spawning migration distance 575 km from the Ocean 575.0 km Boisneau, 1990
37 Spawning migration period February to June ['February', 'June'] Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
37 Spawning migration period March to June-July [Water temperature of 10-11°C] ['March', 'June', 'July'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
37 Spawning migration period Spring No data Billard, 1997
37 Spawning migration period Move into estuaries of large rivers, migrating into fresh water during late spring (April to June) Males migrate upstream first, followed by females on or two weeks later] ['April', 'May', 'June'] Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
37 Spawning migration period All anadromous populations have common biological characteristics: the migration (december-June) ['June'] Aprahamian, 2001
37 Spawning migration period Make their spawning migrations in April and June [In Gironde], migrations occured between 7.5-24°C, and 90% below 17.5-20°C ['April', 'June'] Rochard, 2001
37 Spawning migration period During the three years upstream migration occurred between April 6 and August 15. The main movement took place between April 29 and June 18 in 2000 (96% of the migrants), between April 25 and June 16 in 2001 (94% of the migrants) and between April 19 and May 27 in 2002 (91% of the migrants). [...] Over the three years the temperature observed during the migration varied between 10.5°C and 23°C. The temperature threshold under which migration would be inhibited seemed to be close to 11°C and was recorded in 2001 only ['April', 'August', 'May', 'June'] Acolas, 2006
39 Spawning season June-July ['June', 'July'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season May to July ['May', 'July'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season March to August depends on the latitude [In Europe mainly in May] ['August', 'March', 'May'] Cassou-Leins, 2000
39 Spawning season May 12 to July 12 and Between April 21 to July 11 ['April', 'May', 'July'] Acolas, 2004
39 Spawning season April-July ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Maitland and Lyle, 2005
39 Spawning season All anadromous populations have common biological characteristics: the reproduction (April-July), above 11 ['April', 'July'] Aprahamian, 2001
39 Spawning season Throughout the range of the allis shad, reproduction occurs from April to July, but in Britain, May to July seems to have been the main period ['April', 'May', 'July'] Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
39 Spawning season End of May-June and also in July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Boisneau, 1990
39 Spawning season May and mid-August ['August', 'May'] Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
39 Spawning season The migration in La loire is inFebruary to July. Yet, during our study, the first fish were captured on April 16, thus one month and half later. It sems that a temperature of 11°C is required for migration ['February', 'April', 'July'] Boisneau, 1985
39 Spawning season Reproduction took place between April 24th and July 11th ['April', 'July'] Acolas, 2006
38 Homing Adults usually migrate in the streams where they were born Present Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
38 Homing Although there is some evidence of homing in shads, it it not known if adults return to their natal rivers or the same gravels over which they have previously spawned Present Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
38 Homing Seem to return to their natal stream Present Belaud, 2001
48 Spawning release Batch spawner Mutliple Acolas, 2004
48 Spawning release 5 to 7 batches during a spawning season Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Several batches Mutliple Spillmann, 1961
48 Spawning release Only one batch by night, 5 to 7 batches during a spawning season Mutliple Cassou-Leins, 2000
48 Spawning release 5 to 7 spawnings per spawning season No category Boisneau, 1990
49 Parity Semelparous, un grand nombre de reproducteurs meurt après la fraye Semelparous Acolas, 2004
49 Parity Semelparous, most fish die after psawning [10-11% of male and 19% of female survive in the Dordogne, France] Semelparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity Numerous exhausted spawners die after spawning Semelparous Spillmann, 1961
49 Parity Most die after spawning Semelparous Maitland and Lyle, 2005
49 Parity Part of spawners die after the spawning season and survivors get back to sea immediatly Semelparous Billard, 1997
49 Parity Almost all allis shad die after spawning Semelparous Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
49 Parity Populations are semelparous No category Aprahamian, 2001
49 Parity Most spawners die after the first migation Semelparous Belaud, 2001
49 Parity 95% of individuals make their spawing migration only once No category Rochard, 2001
49 Parity The percentage of multispawners was very low (2.1-2.5%) No category Acolas, 2006