Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004



Citation


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Mating system During the spawning process, each female is usually by two or more males No category
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Optimum spawning temperature is generally thought to be between 20 and 22°C, but others reported water temperatures 26-30°C in China 28.0 °C
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning water type Primary channels of rivers and canals during high water, upper part of the water column over rapids and sand bars, preferred spawning habitat is found in turbid, turbulent water at the confluence of rivers or below dams, prefer to spawn in water currents ranging from 0.6 and 1.5 m/s, but will spawn in current as low as 0.2 m/s, or even in ponds where current is absent [Increases in water level exceeding 122 cm within 12 hour period are required for spawning] Ambiguous
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Female sexual dimorphism Females may also develop deciduous tubercles, but thay are not as highly developped as in the males. Females exhibit soft, bulging abdomens and swollen, pinkish vents at onset of maturity Present
Ctenopharyngodon idella Male Male sexual dimorphism Appereance of tubercles on the dorsal and medial surfaces of the pectoral fins in males Absent
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Egg adhesiveness Non-adhesive Non-Adhesive
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Incubation time Hatched in 26-60 hours at 17-30°C, about 20-40 43.0 days
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Age at sexual maturity 2 to 4, up to 6-10 in their natural range, and 4-5 in the United States, and 1-8 in the introduced countries [Sex not specifed] 8.0 years
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Degree-days for incubation Hatched in 26-60 hours at 17-30°C, about 20-40 43.0 °C * day
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Temperature for incubation Optimal temperature is 21-26°C, with mortality increasing below 20°C 23.5 °C
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Egg size after water-hardening 5-6 [After swelling] 5.5 mm
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Egg Buoyancy Semi-buoyant [eggs may travel downstream 50 to 180 km] Ambiguous
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning migration period In their native areas, grass carp begin migration to spawning areas when water temperatures reach 15-17°C No data
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Oocyte diameter 2.0-2.5 [Said when release] 2.25 mm
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Absolute fecundity Range from 0.001 to 2 million eggs, but generally average 0.5 million for a 5 kg brrod stock, in the Amru basin, fecundity ranged from 0.2-1.7 million eggs with an average of 0.8 million 0.95 thousand eggs
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Length at sexual maturity 50-86 cm [Sex not specified] 68.0 cm
Ctenopharyngodon idella Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding 3 or 4 days after hatching larval grass begin carp feeding on rotifers and protozoans 3.0 °C * day
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Age at sexual maturity 2 to 4, up to 6-10 in their natural range, and 4-5 in the United States, and 1-8 in the introduced countries [Sex not specified] 8.0 year
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning release Multiple spawning in a year has been reported, but probably rarely occurs Mutliple
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Parity Live between 5-11, and up to 15 years No category