Shireman and Smith, 1983


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Mating system Mating is promiscuous. Two to three males follow the female Promiscuity
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning of Tone river population occurs from early morning to early evening at dawn and twilight. In induced breeding, spawninfg was observed at all times of day with peak taking place at night. Also other demonstrated the possibility of nocturnal spawning in nature Ambiguous
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Pelagophilic spawner Pelagophils
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning temperature In the native range, reproduction occurs during the monsoon season, when water levels rise quickly, temperatures range between 20 and 30°C. A minimum temperature of 18°C has been reported for wuccessful spawning in most acclimatized populations 20.0 °C
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning water type Spawn in the primary channels of rivers and canals. [In relatively-large rivers] Stagnant water
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Female sexual dimorphism Females also have pearl organs, although they are not as higlhy developed as in males. When fully ripe, females exhibit soft bulging abdomens ans swollen pinkish vents Present
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Maximum GSI value 20% 20.0 percent
Ctenopharyngodon idella Male Male sexual dimorphism Extrnal sexual dimorphism appears in adults with the onset of maturity. Many authors have reported the presence of deciduous tubercles (pearl organs) on the dorsal and medial surfaces of the pectoral fins of male grass carp during the breeding season. Also found pearl organs on the dorsal fin and dorsum of the caudal peduncle Absent
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Egg adhesiveness The outer layer has adhesive properties which dissapear during fertilization Adhesive
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Incubation time Lasts from 16 to 60 hours at temperatures ranging from 30 to 17°C 16.0 days
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Relative fecundity For cultured Indian specimens, average 82 eggs/g of total weight [Also: Relative fecundity varied from 48 to 177 with an average of 110 eggs per gram weight of the body less viscera] 82.0 thousand eggs/kg
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Age at sexual maturity Males mature an average of one year earlier No data
Ctenopharyngodon idella Male Main spermatogenesis activity The relative gonad weight of mature males and females increase during spring, reach maxima just prior to spawning in June and July, then decrease progressively from august to October ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'October']
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Onset of oogenesis The gonads pass the winter in early maturity stages, develop to intermediate level during spring, and quickly reach final maturatrion just prior to spawning in June and July ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'February']
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Egg size after water-hardening The eggs attain a maximum diameter of 4.32-5.32 in 1.5-2 hours after fertilization 4.82 mm
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Egg Buoyancy The semi-buoyant eggs theoretically may drift from 50 to 180 km before hatching Ambiguous
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Intensifying oogenesis activity The gonads pass the winter in early maturity stages, develop to intermediate level during spring, and quickly reach final maturatrion just prior to spawning in June and July ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'February']
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Breeding migrations commence when water temperature reaches 15-17°C No data
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Oocyte development Many authors have noted asynchronous development of oocytes in females from China, the Tone River, Malaysia, the Amur River and the lower Volga River Asynchronous
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Oocyte diameter On ovulation, the egg is 1.2-1.3 in diameter 1.25 mm
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Absolute fecundity Ranges from tens of thousands to two millions eggs with an average of 500 000 for 5 kg to 7 kg brood stock [Also: about 90% of the fish had from 600 000 to 1 150 000 eggs] 500.0 thousand eggs
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning season A well-marked and limited season characterizes grass carp spawning in temperature climates. The breeding season expands and becomes less distinct in tropical areas. Mature females occur in middle Amur River of the USSR from late may to early August with breeding peaks during late June and early July. The indigeneous Chinese populations spawn from late April to June in the Yangtzed River and from April to September in the Pearl and West River breed from the end of May to the middle of June. The naturalized population of the Tone River, Japan reproduces from June to August with peak activity from late June to mid-July ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July']
Ctenopharyngodon idella Larvae Temperature during larval development Fry and fingerlings in India tolerated a temperature range of 16-40°C 28.0 °C
Ctenopharyngodon idella Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption 7 days: the mesolarva measures 7.5 to 8.1 mm, has absorbed its yolk sac and feed exogenously 7.0 °C * day
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Weight at sexual maturity For females: 4.76-7.03 [Cuttack], 5 [Israel], 2.3-3.2 |Malacca, Malaysia], 3.0-3.5 [Poland], 3+ [Taiwan] 5.895 kg
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Length at sexual maturity 58-67 cm in females 62.5 cm
Ctenopharyngodon idella Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding 4.5 days: Feeding is mixed 4.5 °C * day
Ctenopharyngodon idella Male Length at sexual maturity 51-60 for males 55.5 cm
Ctenopharyngodon idella Larvae Initial larval size Hatchlings measure 5.0-5.5 mm 5.25 mm
Ctenopharyngodon idella Larvae Larvae behaviour The pelagic larvae then have a behavior of alternately sinkink and swimming, which allows them to migrate farther downstream. Also: it lies on the bottom and occasionally swim vertically to the surface and drifts back to the bottom Demersal
Ctenopharyngodon idella Male Weight at sexual maturity For males: 4.54-6.61 [Cuttack, India], 0.95-1.40 [Cuttack, India], 4 [Israel], 2-3 [Malacca, Malaysia], 5.575 kg
Ctenopharyngodon idella Female Age at sexual maturity Maturity occurs at ages from 1 to 11 years in females 1.0 year
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning release Presents the only evidence for multiple-spawning by individual grass carp in one year Mutliple