Smith, 2004



Citation


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Mating system Spawning involves polygamous groups of one female and several males and is apparently triggered, at certain times of the year, by rising water that inundates terrestrial vegetation and periods of fine, warm weather Ambiguous
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occurs during daylight Day
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Parental care Non-guarding No care
Rhodeus sericeus Spawning conditions Parental care Males defend territories around one or several mussel No category
Blicca bjoerkna Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Spawn amongst dense beds of submerged macrophytes No category
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Obligatory plant spawners Phytophils
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Spawn in the main river channel over gravel substrata Lithophils
Rhodeus sericeus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Mussels Ostracophils
Rutilus rutilus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Spawn over willow tree roots and long-leafed vegetation Phytophils
Tinca tinca Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Spawn amongst dense beds of submerged macrophytes No category
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Open-substratum No category
Rhodeus sericeus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Males defend territories around one or several mussel No category
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Spawning is low from 15-18°C, optimum 18-23°C, and ceases at 28°C 16.5 °C
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature NO INFORMATIONS No data
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning water type Preferred spawning sites are lentic habitats with abundant food, warm water and protection from predators No category
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning depth The spawning act occurs in shoreline areas (water < 1 m deep) 1.0 m
Cyprinus carpio Female Female sexual dimorphism For female carp, they include the softening and enlargement of the abdomen and the reddening and protrusion of the cloaca Present
Rhodeus sericeus Female Female sexual dimorphism Long ovipositors that they use to place their eggs onto the gills of a mussel trough the mussel'sexhalant siphon Absent
Cyprinus carpio Female Maximum GSI value Recorded estimates are usually around 20% for males 20.0 percent
Cyprinus carpio Male Male sexual dimorphism The abdomen of male carp does not become obviously distended but may become darker in colour and nuptial tubercles appear on the head and on pectoral fin rays Present
Rhodeus sericeus Male Male sexual dimorphism Develop bright nuptial coloration Present
Cyprinus carpio Egg Egg adhesiveness Carp eggs are adhesive in water and stick to plants Adhesive
Cyprinus carpio Egg Incubation time At 20°C carp eggs hatch after approximatively 3.5 days 20.0 days
Rhodeus sericeus Egg Incubation time 1.5 1.5 days
Cyprinus carpio Female Relative fecundity Estimates of instantaneous fecundity (the average number of strippd eggs per kilogram of fish) ranged from 114,000 to 163,000 eggs per kg 114.0 thousand eggs/kg
Cyprinus carpio Male Maximum GSI value Recorded estimates are usually around 10% for males 10.0 percent
Cyprinus carpio Female Age at sexual maturity In Victoria, males and females mature at 1 and 2 years of age. On average males mature one year earlier than females 1.0 years
Rhodeus sericeus Female Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex] 1.0 years
Cyprinus carpio Egg Degree-days for incubation In carp, the time between egg-fertilisation and hatching ranges from 60-80 degree days 70.0 °C * day
Cyprinus carpio Female Resting period Re-maturation of the ovaries requires > 3-4 months 3.5 months
Rhodeus sericeus Egg Egg Buoyancy Dense, sinking quickly in freshwater Semi-Pelagic
Cyprinus carpio Egg Oocyte diameter Unfertilized eggs are about 1-1.7 mm, and average 1.2-1.4 mm 1.35 mm
Rhodeus sericeus Egg Oocyte diameter 2.4-3.1 [Not specified] 2.75 mm
Cyprinus carpio Female Absolute fecundity The females are highly fecund and depending on body size, produce between 500,000 and 3 million eggs per spawning 500.0 thousand eggs
Rhodeus sericeus Female Absolute fecundity 0.08-0.250 are the typical breeding season fecundity 0.165 thousand eggs
Rhodeus sericeus Spawning conditions Spawning season April-August with a peak in May ['April', 'August', 'May']
Rhodeus sericeus Larvae Reaction to light Negatively phototaxic Photophobic
Rhodeus sericeus Female Length at sexual maturity 3-3.5 3.25 cm
Cyprinus carpio Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding Exogenous feeding begins before the exhaustion of yolk and is marked by the taking of air to fill the swim-bladder No data
Rhodeus sericeus Male Length at sexual maturity 3-3.5 [Both sex] 3.25 cm
Rhodeus sericeus Larvae Initial larval size 3.3 3.3 mm
Cyprinus carpio Larvae Larvae behaviour After hatching, carp larvae a cement attach themselves to surface vegetation via cement glands on their head. They remain attached for 4-5 days while yolk is absorbed from a large yolk-sac and undergo organogenesis and other development Demersal
Rhodeus sericeus Larvae Larvae behaviour Positively rheotaxic, remains in the mussel Demersal
Cyprinus carpio Female Age at sexual maturity In Victoria, males and females mature at 1 and 2 years of age. In tropical climates, carp mature at 3-6 months. In temperate-mediterranean climates, the age-at-maturity varies between 1 and 5 years. 4.5 year
Rhodeus sericeus Female Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex] 1.0 year
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning release Carp are fractional spawners with indeterminate breeding season fecundity. Depending on local thermo and photo conditions, each female may spawn one to five batches of eggs per year. In India, carp spawn once. In southern France, Bengladesh, and west Bengal they may spawn twice. In tropical climates, carp are perennial spawners and spawn 4-5 times per year Ambiguous
Rhodeus sericeus Spawning conditions Spawning release Batch spawners with determinate fecundity, breeding season is fixed at the onset of the spawning season. with egg number in the ovary declining over the spawning season Mutliple
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Parity In Victoria, estimates of longetivy range between 15-40 years No category