Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996



Citation


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Mating system Several males follow one female. In the spawning ground they form a tight group. Females release spawn, which is immediatly fertilized. Spawninf act may be repeated with different frequency which depends on temperature. Time intervals between batches are inversely related to spawners' body length Promiscuity
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Just before spawning fish go to shallow places overgrown with aquatic plants Phytophils
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Overgrown with vegetation Phytophils
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Spawning begins at temperature > 14°C 14.0 °C
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning water type Near-shore parts of water bodies Stagnant water
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Just before spawning fish go to shallow places overgrown with aquatic plants No data
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning depth Shallow water No data
Carassius carassius Female Maximum GSI value Total mass of eggs related to body mass ranged from 11.7-20.3%, which is much higher than the data of other authors (0.9-12.8%) 16.0 percent
Carassius auratus Male Male sexual dimorphism During spawning fish are more brightly coloured than usually. During spawning males have hish locomotor activity, they are covered with breeding tubercles especially on the head and abdomen near pectoral fins, and their general coloration changes to purple Present
Carassius carassius Male Male sexual dimorphism Thre is a popular belief that crucian carp have no externally visible secondary or tertiary sexual dimorphisms. However, several authors report on higher weight of females than males at same length. Females live longer than males in the same environment. Absent
Carassius auratus Egg Egg adhesiveness Spawn of goldfish is yellow-green and sticks to the substrate Adhesive
Carassius carassius Egg Incubation time Eggs incubate during 4-7 days 5.5 days
Carassius carassius Female Relative fecundity Fecundity varies with age, body length and, above all, with body mass. Females age 3+ to 7+ produce 16 460 eggs on the average,which is equivalent to about 163 eggs per g of body mass. Relative fecundity was very variable: 15-700 thousand eggs per kg of body mass. 357.5 thousand eggs/kg
Carassius carassius Egg Degree-days for incubation 95-100 97.5 °C * day
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Crucian carp are considered to be non-migratory fish. In spring, they move from deeper part of water bodies toshallower parts which are warmer and better endowed with oxygen. Crucian carp move slowly. In autumn they return to deeper waters No data
Carassius carassius Egg Oocyte diameter Crucian carp eggs just before spawning have 0.8-1.2 mm in diameter. They are much larger than the eggs from the anterior part of the ovary, which are depostied later, before the first spawning they have 0.2-0.7 mm in diameter. Detailed observations and measurements revealed that the diameter of the eggs from the polder Novo-Marievskij was 0.91, 0.98, 0.93, 0.80-0.91 and 0.90 mm in March, April, May, June and August, respectively, mean egg diameter in the population studied was 0.903 mm 1.0 mm
Carassius carassius Female Absolute fecundity Fecundity varies with age, body length and, above all, with body mass. Females age 3+ to 7+ produce 16 460 eggs on the average,which is equivalent to about 163 eggs per g of body mass. Also described as for females of of 18-22 cm long, ranged from 137 to 224 thousand eggs. In Poland absolute fecudity of crucian carp females reached maximally 400 000 eggs per female, but is is usually much lower. In the lake Pogorzelisko fish (size: 11-21 cm and 34-320 g) produced 0.7-81-5 thousand eggs per female. Fecundity of crucian carp females of similar length (11.0-20.2 cm) and mass (53-313 g) from the lake Girijal ranged from 5-155.6 thousand, and that of females from the lake Ilmen (body mass 278-500 g) ranged from 137-207 thousand eggs, from which the first batch contained 24.0-90.4 thousand eggs 20.0 thousand eggs
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawning season of goldfish begins in spring and lasts up to the end of summer ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July']
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawn in May, June and July. Peak of spawning occurs between 20 May and 20 July, depending on geographic position ['May', 'July', 'June']
Carassius auratus Female Age at sexual maturity In their natural area of distribution goldfish mature at the age of 1-2 years 1.5 year
Carassius carassius Female Age at sexual maturity Crucian carp mature at the age of 3-5 years, usually 4 years. Typically males mature a year earlier than females. Maturation is reached earlier in the regions situated near the sourthern limit of the distribution area. In Roumania fish maturing in their second year of life were observed, whereas in Northern Russia - in fifth. Because of better nutritional conditions in ponds, maturation is earlier than in natural water bodies 4.0 year
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning release Duirng on spawning event they spawn about 2 thousand eggs. One gram of spawn contains 1.2 thousand eggs No category
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning release Spawn in 3-5 batches during each summer Mutliple
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Parity They continue reproduction yearly during 6-8 years No category