Vimba vimba

  • Scientific name
  • Vimba vimba (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Baltic vimba

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 88%
Total data215
References26
Image of Vimba vimba

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs are very sticky Adhesive Shikhshabekov, 1979
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness The fertilized spawn adheres to the stones or becomes covered by the gravel of the river bottom Adhesive Wajdowicz, 1974
4 Egg adhesiveness Fertilized eggs were seperated using water-diluted milk and placed in 1.5 litre hatching jars. Non-Adhesive Lusk, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness The current study demonstrated that eggs of common carp (and of vimba, bleak and chub in unpublished data) became sticky within seconds after mixing with water and already 30 s after water contact was enough to develop the egg stickiness mechanism Adhesive Mansour, 2008
4 Egg adhesiveness Owing to their viscosity, become attached to the substrate Non-Adhesive Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
5 Incubation time 3-3.5 3.25 days Coad, 2005
5 Incubation time 2-3 2.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 2-10 6.0 days Keith and Allardi, 2001
5 Incubation time 8.2 [13.2°C], 3 [19.1°C] 8.2 days Herzig and Winkler, 1986
5 Incubation time 5-10 7.5 days Maitland, 1977
5 Incubation time 5 at about 18-20°C [Also described at 3.5-4 days at 13-15°C] 19.0 days Wajdowicz, 1974
5 Incubation time Hatching occurred on the 5th day within 6 hours after reaching 80-90 degree-days 85.0 days Lusk, 2005
5 Incubation time Embryonic development lasts for 3-4 days at 20-24°C, but can extend to 7 days at lower temperatures 3.5 days Luszczek, 2008
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-70 [70-77 hours at 17-22°C] 60.0 °C * day Coad, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation About 50-80 65.0 °C * day Wajdowicz, 1974
7 Degree-days for incubation 28 [Effective day-degrees] 28.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation Hatching occurred on the 5th day within 6 hours after reaching 80-90 degree-days 85.0 °C * day Lusk, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation Embryonic development lasts for 3-4 days at 20-24°C, but can extend to 7 days at lower temperatures 3.5 °C * day Luszczek, 2008
6 Temperature for incubation 17-22 19.5 °C Coad, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 12-20 for embryonic development, 10-23 in which normal development occurs and 10-11 lower lethal temperature and >24 upper lethal temperature 16.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation About 16-18°C [When during the incubation time the water temperature fell below 11-12°C, the development of the embryos was distinctly inhibited and those born were not vital] 17.0 °C Wajdowicz, 1974
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs incubated at 25 ± 0.5°C 25.0 °C Hliwa, 2003
6 Temperature for incubation Viable range 10-24, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 10.1 17.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation Water flowing through the apparatus had a temperature of 15-16°C, rising at the end of incubation to 17°C 15.5 °C Lusk, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 20-24°C 22.0 °C Luszczek, 2008
2 Egg size after water-hardening After fertilization the spawn of V. Vimba from the Czarna Orawa, similarly as that from the catchment area of the Baltic Sea, swells greatly in water, its volume increasing about twice No data Wajdowicz, 1974
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.0 [Not specified] 2.0 mm Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening The mean egg size on the 3rd day of incubation reached 1.95 mm (1.90-2.05 mm). 1.975 mm Lusk, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Deposit on gravel and stones] Demersal Coad, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy The fertilized spawn adheres to the stones or becomes covered by the gravel of the river bottom Demersal Wajdowicz, 1974
3 Egg Buoyancy Fertilized eggs drifting with the current fall upon the stony - gravel bottom Ambiguous Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 1.3-1.4 1.35 mm Coad, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.43 1.43 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 3 fractions of spawn with average grain of 1.4, 0.9 and 0.6 mm 3.0 mm Wajdowicz, 1974
1 Oocyte diameter "Two size groups of eggs were found in gonads, the first of size 1.15-1.63 mm in stage ""E"", the second with size 0.4-0.6 mm in stage ""C"". The mean egg size was 1.33 mm (1.26-1.41 mm). We obtained 9500 eggs (mean diameter 1.51 mm) from the female with SL= 213mm (age 5 years), and 7400 eggs (mean diameter 1.46 mm) from the female with Sl= 188 mm(age 4 years)" 1.39 mm Lusk, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter Egg diameter from the first batch is the largest (approx. 1.4 mm), in the final batch, eggs are much smaller (approx. O.6 mm in diameter). 1.4 mm Luszczek, 2008

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Vimba larvae were raised at a constant temperature of 25 ± 0/5°C 25.0 °C Hliwa, 2003
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development Tested temperature 19, 22, 25, 28, and 31°C 19.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development The average temperature was 24.0 ± 0.5°C, pH 8.6 ± 0.2, and dissolved oxygen 7.9 ± 0.3 mg.l-1. 24.0 °C Ostaszewska, 2008
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature was established to 23 ± 1°C and was monitered continously in 1-hour interval 23.0 °C Hamackova, 2009
10 Reaction to light Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Yolk resorption last up to 14 days 14.0 °C * day Luszczek, 2008
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding First feeding larvae age 5 days post-hatching at 20°C, Lt 7.8 ± 0.2 mm, body weight 2.0 ± 0.2 mg 7.8 °C * day Wolnicki, 2005
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The larvae (2 ± 0.34 mg, 8.4 ± 0.24 mm) were fed from the sixth day after hatching . The average temperature was 24.0 ± 0.5°C, pH 8.6 ± 0.2, and dissolved oxygen 7.9 ± 0.3 mg.l-1. 2.0 °C * day Ostaszewska, 2008
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Larvae begin to swim freely 7 days after hatching, and feed on day later 7.0 °C * day Luszczek, 2008
8 Initial larval size 5.5 5.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size Larvae hatched in the VII th development stage at a mean length of 4.7 mm, eyes without pigmentation and pectoral fins just beginning to form 4.7 mm Lusk, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour Hathing proceeds initially in hiding between stones. Then, after a few days, the hatched fish either swim actively down the river or are swept down by the current to the reservoir Demersal Wajdowicz, 1974

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females may also develop tubercules but to a lesser extent Absent Coad, 2005
18 Female sexual dimorphism As a rule, the females are slightly larger than males of the same age Absent Kuliev, 1988
24 Maximum GSI value Mean 14.2%, but up to 18.0 [3 June] 14.2 percent Hliwa, 2002
24 Maximum GSI value The average weight of the gonads calculated from 10 specimens of V. vimba obtained in 1972, of body weight 550-750 g g., constitued about 13 to over 24 per cent of the body weight of the fish, the mean being 17.3 per cent 17.3 percent Wajdowicz, 1974
24 Maximum GSI value The mean GSI in eight examined females amounted to 13.9% (12.1-17.3%) 14.7 percent Lusk, 2005
19 Relative fecundity 25.6-120.1 72.85 thousand eggs/kg Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
19 Relative fecundity 34.5-74.5 thousands grains 54.5 thousand eggs/kg Wajdowicz, 1974
19 Relative fecundity In eight females with mean SL=196.7 mm (188-213 mm) and mean weight 149.1 g (126-175 g), the relative fecundity varied between 133000 to 155000 eggs per kg of female weight (mean 133000 eggs per kg) 200.5 thousand eggs/kg Lusk, 2005
19 Relative fecundity The individual fecundity of the investigated Rega vimbs of the body lengths ranging within 25.0-38.0 cm amounts to 33800-139000 eggs (the mean value 77500), while its relative fecundity ranges from 81000 to 159000 eggs per 1 kg of fish (the mean value is 114600) [...] Other studies: With the body length range of 25.0-38.0 cm to vary from 40000 to 100000 eggs, the mean value being 66000 [...] Niemen vimbs within the range of 38000-130000 (the mean valu 73,600) 31.5 thousand eggs/kg Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 years Shikhshabekov, 1979
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Coad, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex not specified] 3.5 years Keith and Allardi, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Unsexed] 3.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Vimba mature in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. The caspian vimba matures at the age of 3. Fish of age 2-5 participate in spawning, and 4-year-old fish are predominant in the spawning population. 3.5 years Kuliev, 1988
27 Age at sexual maturity Males become mature at the age 5. A common age of spawning vimba is 6-7 years 6.5 years Kesminas, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity The youngest mature males in the spawning shoal in 1993 were four years old - 14 males and only one female (year class 1990). In 1995 seven mature males aged 3 years (year class 1992) and four mature females 4 years old (year class 1992) were found. Males generally matured one year-earlier than females. Analysis of the age structure of the spawning shoals sampled on 3 June, 1993 and 2 June, 1995 showed that they comprised mainly 4 to 6 year old fish, with a predominance in two year classes: four -and five -year old males comprising 91.97% of 83 individuals in 1993 and 82.30% of 96 individuals in 1995, whereas females consisted mainly of fishes in the age of five to six years in 1993 (=74.19% from 31 ind.) and four to six years in 1995 (=82.30% of 39 ind.) 5.0 years Lusk, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity The fourth age group almost exclusively comprised males, females being rarely encoutered. This indicates that males reach the maturity state in their fourth year of life, i.e., a year earlizer than females No data Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
26 Resting period 3 (June until August) 3.0 months Shikhshabekov, 1979
26 Resting period [July until October] No data Hliwa, 2002
22 Onset of oogenesis October (already at stage III in November, in which they remained the entire winter ['March', 'January', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Shikhshabekov, 1979
22 Onset of oogenesis November ['November'] Hliwa, 2002
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity May ['May'] Hliwa, 2002
21 Oocyte development Asynchonicity of oocyte maturation Asynchronous Hliwa, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 89.2-200 144.6 thousand eggs Coad, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity 100-300 200.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 9.56-157 83.28 thousand eggs Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 25-150 87.5 thousand eggs Keith and Allardi, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 15-20 at the age of 6-7 years 17.5 thousand eggs Fishbase, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 25-115 70.0 thousand eggs Maitland, 1977
20 Absolute fecundity With an average body weight of 600 g., thus in the age groups VII-IX, was determined on almost 40 thousand grains of various sizes. Also describes in other studies: 27.5-115.5 thousand grains 71.5 thousand eggs Wajdowicz, 1974
20 Absolute fecundity In 1960, the fecundity of vimba in Kyzylagach bay was 8900-39600 eggs, average 27400 eggs. According to the data collected in 1963, the absolute fecundity of vimba of 13.5-20.5 cm varied from 8300 to 29200 eggs. The absolute fecundity of vimba from the Arakum waterbodies (central Caspian) was in the range of 7000-89200 eggs. The mean fecundity was: 25000 eggs in 1965, 23500 eggs in 1966, and 35200 eggs in 1967. Vimba in the Terek basin varied from 11900 to 65300 eggs. 24250.0 thousand eggs Kuliev, 1988
20 Absolute fecundity In eight females with mean SL=196.7 mm (188-213 mm) and mean weight 149.1 g (126-175 g), the absolute fecundity varied between 15,600 and 23,100 eggs (mean 19,300 eggs) 200.5 thousand eggs Lusk, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity The individual fecundity of the investigated Rega vimbs of the body lengths ranging within 25.0-38.0 cm amounts to 33800-139000 eggs (the mean value 77500), while its relative fecundity ranges from 81000 to 159000 eggs per 1 kg of fish (the mean value is 114600) [...] Other studies: With the body length range of 25.0-38.0 cm to vary from 40000 to 100000 eggs, the mean value being 66000 [...] Niemen vimbs within the range of 38000-130000 (the mean valu 73,600) 31.5 thousand eggs Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity A vimba can lay a total of 30,000-120,000 eggs in two or three batches. 60.0 thousand eggs Luszczek, 2008
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.045-0.41 0.2275 kg Shikhshabekov, 1979
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.166-0.693 0.4295 kg Hliwa, 2002
17 Weight at sexual maturity The average of body weight of spawners caught in 1969 and 1970 was about over 0.460 kg [Both sex] 1969.0 kg Wajdowicz, 1974
17 Weight at sexual maturity In all studied year, mature females ranges from 48-114 g [Age 3], 89-140 [Age 4], 133-177 [Age 5] 81.0 kg Kuliev, 1988
17 Weight at sexual maturity A common weight for both sex is 331-408 g 369.5 kg Kesminas, 1999
17 Weight at sexual maturity Spawners used in the experiments were 5-7+, and size was 239.4 ± 93.6 239.4 kg Hliwa, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity 15-31 23.0 cm Shikhshabekov, 1979
16 Length at sexual maturity >27 27.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 16-23 [Length of most spawning females] 19.5 cm Coad, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity 24 24.0 cm Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
16 Length at sexual maturity 22.2-34.0 28.1 cm Hliwa, 2002
16 Length at sexual maturity The average of body length of spawners caught in 1969 and 1970 was about 36 cm [Both sex] 1969.0 cm Wajdowicz, 1974
16 Length at sexual maturity The major part of the spawning population consists of 16-23 cm females. In all studied year, mature females ranges from 13.5-17.8 [Age 3], 16.8-18.9 [Age 4], 19.4-20.9 [Age 5] 19.5 cm Kuliev, 1988
16 Length at sexual maturity Migrating females are 28-30 cm long. A common size is 25.5-29.6 cm 29.0 cm Kesminas, 1999
16 Length at sexual maturity Spawners used in the experiments were 5-7+, and size was 24.9 ± 2.45 24.9 cm Hliwa, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity 845 spawners with the body length (logitudo corporis) ranging from 24.5 to 40.5 cm and the total length (longitudo totalis) range of 29.5-48.5 cm 39.0 cm Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 year Shikhshabekov, 1979
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 year Coad, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 4.5 year Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 5 and more 5.0 year Hliwa, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex not specified] 3.5 year Keith and Allardi, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Unsexed] 3.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 year Maitland, 1977
15 Age at sexual maturity Marked inhibition of the growth rate of the body length took place after the fifth year of life, thus after reaching sexual maturity, this being usually more pronounced in females No data Wajdowicz, 1974
15 Age at sexual maturity Vimba mature in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. The caspian vimba matures at the age of 3. Fish of age 2-5 participate in spawning, and 4-year-old fish are predominant in the spawning population. 3.5 year Kuliev, 1988
15 Age at sexual maturity females become mature at the age 6. A common age of spawning vimba is 6-7 years 6.5 year Kesminas, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity The rapid growth facilitates an early maturation of the vimba: both males and females become sexually mature at the age of 3-5 years 4.0 year Ermolin and Shashulovskii, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity The fourth age group almost exclusively comprised males, females being rarely encoutered. This indicates that males reach the maturity state in their fourth year of life, i.e., a year earlizer than females No data Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity Under natural conditions, vimba becomes sexually mature at 4-5 years of age, although 3-year-old females have been found in spawning schools in the moutain tributaries of the Vistula River, in the Vistula lagoon, wimba first enter reproduction at the age of 7-8 years 4.5 year Luszczek, 2008

Male (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism A well-expressed spawning livery, the appearance of black stripes along the dorsal and ventral part of the body is usually observed in ripe males Absent Shikhshabekov, 1979
30 Male sexual dimorphism The males become black on the back, reddish on the belly, their fins become red and the tips of the dorsal and caudal fins become dark, and they develop minute tubercles on the body during the spawning season Absent Coad, 2005
30 Male sexual dimorphism Brighter colors of males, brown sides and red belly Present Billard, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Take on mating colours, the dorsal part and sides becoming navy-blue and the fins and some ventral parts assuming and intensive colour. As a rule, after each migration, especially one connected with spawning, the runs swims back to the reservoir. Absent Wajdowicz, 1974
33 Maximum GSI value Mean GSI in 14 males was 2.48% (1.68-3.38%) 2.53 percent Lusk, 2005
28 Length at sexual maturity 15-31 23.0 cm Shikhshabekov, 1979
28 Length at sexual maturity >20 20.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 13-19 16.0 cm Coad, 2005
28 Length at sexual maturity The major part of the spawning population consists of 13-19 cm males. In all studied year, mature males ranges from 13.1-16.6 [Age 3], 15.6-18.6 [Age 4], 17.3-20.1 [Age 5] 16.0 cm Kuliev, 1988
28 Length at sexual maturity Males migrating are 24.8-28.0 cm long 26.4 cm Kesminas, 1999
28 Length at sexual maturity 845 spawners with the body length (logitudo corporis) ranging from 24.5 to 40.5 cm and the total length (longitudo totalis) range of 29.5-48.5 cm 39.0 cm Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.045-0.41 0.2275 kg Shikhshabekov, 1979
29 Weight at sexual maturity In all studied year, mature males ranges from 39-87 g [Age 3], 60-124 [Age 4], 87-175 [Age 5] 63.0 kg Kuliev, 1988

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system The spawning behaviour and the course of spanwing was similar to those of the nase carp Chondrostoma nasus. The spawning ground was occupied by the shoal consisting of males, whereas females stayed downstream of the place. Ripe females came individually to the spawning site where the group of males joined them. The whole group of one female and several males moved upstream with simultaneous releasing of gametes. Males were found only sporadically away from the spawning place Ambiguous Lusk, 2005
47 Mating system The spawners gathered in the spawing site form groups consisting of several individuals, one female being always accompanied by a few males […] The spawning as a rule is very boisterous, accompanied by the water splash, vigorous swimming and movements of fishes Promiscuity Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition The spawning itself begins most often in the early morning Day Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
50 Parental care No protection, after spawning the vimba does not stay in the spawning grounds No care Shikhshabekov, 1979
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care Soon after spawning, the spawners migrate toward river mouths, where they feed until the next spawning season No category Kuliev, 1988
44 Spawning substrate Gravel or stones Lithophils Shikhshabekov, 1979
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil : pebbles [Rarely on aquatic plants when there is flood] Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited on gravel or stones, concrete structures and flooded fields Lithophils Coad, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Gravels, or plants Ambiguous Keith and Allardi, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Stones and gravel, flooded grasses Ambiguous Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Generatively lithophilous. Use for spawning the stony-gravelled bottom parts of the River Czarna orawa above the reservoir Lithophils Wajdowicz, 1974
44 Spawning substrate Gravelled segments of the riverbed Lithophils Kesminas, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Its belong sto the lithophilous group Lithophils Ermolin and Shashulovskii, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Deposit eggs on stony and gravel beds Lithophils Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
44 Spawning substrate On a gravel bottom covered with pebbles or larger stones Lithophils Luszczek, 2008
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Female lays their eggs on substrate No category Keith and Allardi, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
41 Spawning temperature 16-17, mostly between 1-20 16.5 °C Shikhshabekov, 1979
41 Spawning temperature 16-20°C 18.0 °C Coad, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 14-23 18.5 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature At temperatures ranging from 14°C to 18°C 14.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
41 Spawning temperature Water temperature of 17-18°C for the first spawning 17.5 °C Wajdowicz, 1974
41 Spawning temperature 18-20°C 19.0 °C Kuliev, 1988
41 Spawning temperature 14-18 16.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Conditions during the spawning: 19.1-20°C [Somewhat cloudy, in 1-3 June 1993], 19.3-19.8 [Sunshine, 2-3 June 1994], 19.0-20.2°C [Overcast, 28-30 May 1995], 19.8 [Overcast, 1-2 June 1996], 20.2 [Somewaht cloudy, 3-4 June 1997] 19.55 °C Lusk, 2005
41 Spawning temperature The spawning itself begins most often in the early morning, when the water temperature is 16-18°C 17.0 °C Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
40 Spawning period duration 5 [But usually shorter] 5.0 weeks Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 4 4.0 weeks Hliwa, 2002
40 Spawning period duration Spawns in Malyy Kyzylagach bay at the end of April and continues until the end of May No data Kuliev, 1988
40 Spawning period duration The spawning of V. vimba in the studied locality occurred once each year according to our observations, and lasted 2-3 days, no other spawning sites were found in this part of the River Dyje. 2.5 weeks Lusk, 2005
42 Spawning water type High rate flow : current of 0.6-0.9 m/second Flowing or turbulent water Shikhshabekov, 1979
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Current of 0.6-0.9 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Coad, 2005
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Maitland, 1977
42 Spawning water type Spawns in a swift current Flowing or turbulent water Wajdowicz, 1974
42 Spawning water type There is the largest number of vimba spawning grounds in this part of the river. For instance, one of the major factors, the average velocity of the flow in the Middle Nemunas fluctuates from 0.7 to 0.9 m/s and there are plenty of shallow gravelled segments of the riverbed there Flowing or turbulent water Kesminas, 1999
42 Spawning water type Favorable places for this fish are water bodies with weak current: bays, lakes, and reservoirs. Ambiguous Ermolin and Shashulovskii, 2006
42 Spawning water type For the spawning purposes the vimbs enter streams with clear water and fast current Flowing or turbulent water Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
42 Spawning water type Fast-flowing river currents, in well oxygenated waters Flowing or turbulent water Luszczek, 2008
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Maitland, 1977
43 Spawning depth Shallow gravelled segments of the riverbed there No data Kesminas, 1999
36 Spawning migration distance Anadromous migration: sometimes up to 870 km 870.0 km Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Long migrations No data Keith and Allardi, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Anadromous, but this population is stationary and non-migratory No data Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
36 Spawning migration distance Semimigrating anadomic. For reproduction they migrate up the rivers. Migrating along the River Vistula, Vimba vimba reached even the River Raba about 800 km. Distant from the coast. Vimba vimba also develops local forms living only in fresh flowing waters, expecially in places where rivers have been artifically dammed. In these cases the existence of V. vimba in the dam reservoir is conditioned by the possibility of undertaking short spawning migrations to the non-damned part of the river as isthe case in natural conditions 800.0 km Wajdowicz, 1974
36 Spawning migration distance Until Kaunas hydroelectric power station was built, vimba used to migrate along the Nemunas to Stolbcai town (Belarus), which made 850 km from the river mouth. After Kaunas HPS dam was built and when transferring and marking of vimba reproducers was started, it was determined that the furthest distance of their migration reached 500 km, which was a bit shorter than before the dam building 850.0 km Kesminas, 1999
36 Spawning migration distance While migrating from the sea to the Trzebiatow spawning ground, the vimbs cover the distance of about 20 km 20.0 km Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
36 Spawning migration distance The fish engage in short-distance anadromous migration, moving to spawn upstream in barbel or grayling regions. No data Luszczek, 2008
37 Spawning migration period Exclusively in spring, in April-May at a temperature not lower than 10-12 ['April', 'May', 'June'] Shikhshabekov, 1979
37 Spawning migration period The spawning migration begins in March or April at 10-13°C ['April', 'March'] Coad, 2005
37 Spawning migration period The first migration, usually the most numerous, normally takes place in the middle of May, and the last one in the 1st, or less frequently in the 2nd decade of June ['May', 'June'] Wajdowicz, 1974
37 Spawning migration period At the beginning of the spawning migration in Kyzylagach Bay (March). At the and of march and beginning of April, the spawning migration of kutum and vobla is nearly finished, mass entry of vimba into the Malyy Kyzylagach is observed. In Dagestan waters, the most vimba enter the Terek, Sulak, samur rivers, and the Arakum waterbodies for spawning from April onward at water temperatres of 10-13°C/ mass-scale migration was recorded in the second half of May in water temperatures of 19-20°C ['April', 'March', 'May'] Kuliev, 1988
37 Spawning migration period The vimb spring migration is held in spring (April-May), a month before the spawning itself ['April', 'May', 'June'] Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
39 Spawning season First days of May ['May'] Shikhshabekov, 1979
39 Spawning season Spring No data Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April to June-July ['April', 'June', 'July'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season End of April until the end of May or into June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Coad, 2005
39 Spawning season From Beginning of May until the first ten days of June ['May', 'June'] Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
39 Spawning season End of April, Beginning of May, until end of May or End of June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Hliwa, 2002
39 Spawning season April and June ['April', 'June'] Keith and Allardi, 2001
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season V. vimba span in the Zeller Ache, one of the main tributaries of Mondsee, at the end of May and beginning of June ['May', 'June'] Herzig and Winkler, 1986
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Maitland, 1977
39 Spawning season Spawns in Malyy Kyzylagach bay at the end of April and continues until the end of May ['April', 'May'] Kuliev, 1988
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
39 Spawning season The vimb breeding in Rega usually takes place in late May or in the beginning of June ['May', 'June'] Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
39 Spawning season Between May and July ['May', 'July'] Luszczek, 2008
48 Spawning release Spawning is non-intermittent, however it could also spawn intermittently (as many as 3 batches of eggs with interval of 14-15 days) Ambiguous Shikhshabekov, 1979
48 Spawning release Spawning is non-intermittent Fractional Coad, 2005
48 Spawning release Usually spawn twice in one season, or even three times No category Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
48 Spawning release Three batches Mutliple Hliwa, 2002
48 Spawning release As a portion-spawning fish, V. vimba usually makes, with favourable weather conditions, 2-3 spawning migrations from this reservoir No category Wajdowicz, 1974
48 Spawning release Ovaries, close to the spawning, contain small (24-45%) and large (55-75%) eggs, which indicates spawning in batches Mutliple Kuliev, 1988
48 Spawning release According to our examination wimba has a single spawning per season in the studied population. According to other study, V. vimba in the basins of the Baltic and Black seas is a repeat spawner (2-3 batches) and it is therefore impossible to compare those results with ours Ambiguous Lusk, 2005
48 Spawning release Batch spawning Mutliple Luszczek, 2008
49 Parity Life span is 6 years in Iran, at least 7 years elsewhere No category Coad, 2005
49 Parity At least six age class, from 4+ to 9+ participate in the spawning season No category Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
49 Parity Mature females range from 5+ to 9+ No category Hliwa, 2002
49 Parity Soon after spawning, the spawners migrate toward river mouths, where they feed until the next spawning season No category Kuliev, 1988
49 Parity The oldest individual found in our study was a female of 10 years and 300 mm Sl. One aged 9 years and three aged 8 years were also females. The oldest males (n=6) were 7 years old and there were 8 females of this age No category Lusk, 2005