Pungitius pungitius

  • Scientific name
  • Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Ninespine stickleback

  • Family
  • Gasterosteidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 82%
Total data137
References20
Image of Pungitius pungitius

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Sticky Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 8-15 at 10°C 11.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 10-20 15.0 days Lafaille and Feunteun, 2001
5 Incubation time 7 days at 18°C 7.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 4-6.75 days [96 hours at 20°C, 162 hours at 15°C] 5.375 days Shadrin, 1996
5 Incubation time Embryogenesis lasts about seven days (162 hours) at 15°C 162.0 days Shadrin and Ozernyuk, 2002
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 9 days or less, in 4 or 5 days at 64-66°F 65.0 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 100-150 125.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation About 130 [7 days at 18°C] 130.0 °C * day Fishbase, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-100 [96 hours at 20°C, 162 hours at 15°C] 90.0 °C * day Shadrin, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 10 10.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 18 18.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 15-20 can be considered the optimum [5° is beyond the lower limit of tolerant zone, 28-30 the upper limit] 17.5 °C Shadrin, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 15 15.0 °C Shadrin and Ozernyuk, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mainly 1.2, varying between 1.2-1.25 [Drifting eggs] 1.225 mm Copp, 2002b
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.5 1.35 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Mean of 1.366, from 0.52 to 1.872 [Maturing eggs] 1.366 mm Sokolowska and Skora, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.7 [Large mature oocytes] 1.7 mm Copp, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2 [Not specified] 1.2 mm Copp, 2002b
1 Oocyte diameter Means or most common values and ranges in parentheses => 1.42 (1.18-1.55) in Alaskan Lake, 1.3 in Newfoundland, 1.76 (1.53-1.98) in Lake Superiour USA, (1.4-1.8) in Indiana Lake USA 1.365 mm Heins, 2003

Larvae (71%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 15 15.0 °C Shadrin and Ozernyuk, 2002
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Male eat egg and fry Absent Fitzgerald, 1983
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About five days after hatching at 15°C, begin the transition to mixed feeding 15.0 °C * day Shadrin and Ozernyuk, 2002
8 Initial larval size 2-3 2.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.2-4.57 4.385 mm Shadrin, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larvae move to the top of the nest and settle to it Demersal Fishbase, 2006
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larve move to the top of the nest where they remain relativelt inactive Demersal Bradbury, 1999

Female (75%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value About 35 in end of March [With eviscerated weight, i.e. about 25%] 35.0 percent Copp, 2002
24 Maximum GSI value In females, the ovaries wan make up as much as 20% of the total weight during the reproductive period 20.0 percent Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
19 Relative fecundity Mean of 109 [Range from 47 to 393] 109.0 thousand eggs/kg Sokolowska and Skora, 2001
19 Relative fecundity About 100 100.0 thousand eggs/kg Copp, 2002
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Sex not precised] 1.0 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Sex not precised] 1.0 years Lafaille and Feunteun, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Unsexed] 1.5 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Not specified] 1.0 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity Mean or most common values and ranges in parenthses => 2+ in Alaskan Lake, 1+ (2+) in Québec river, 2+ in Québec Lake, 2+ (1-3+) in Lake Superior USA, 1+ (2-3) in English stream 2.0 years Heins, 2003
26 Resting period September to February No data Copp, 2002
26 Resting period Based on GSI graph, in August and perhaps until november No data Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
22 Onset of oogenesis Based on GSI graph, slight increase between November to February ['February', 'November'] Copp, 2002
22 Onset of oogenesis Based on GSI graph, slight increase between August and September and another between November and December ['August', 'November', 'December', 'September'] Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Based on GSI graph, in February GSI increased from 5 to 35% in females ['February'] Copp, 2002
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Based on GSI graph, from April until July (during the spawning season) ['April', 'July'] Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Maximum fecundity recorded is 0.199 0.199 thousand eggs Sokolowska and Skora, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity Mean clutch size: 0.076, range 0.37-0.176 0.273 thousand eggs Fitzgerald, 1983
20 Absolute fecundity Cluth size in different areas, means or most common values whereas ranges are in parentheses => 126 (63-269) in Alaskan Lake, 31 (10-71) in Québec River, 76 (37-176) in Québec tidal creek, (32-170) in English stream 166.0 thousand eggs Heins, 2003
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.244-0.953 g 0.5985 kg Sokolowska and Skora, 2001
17 Weight at sexual maturity 1.095-1.298 g and smallest female were 0.66-0.69 1.1965 kg Heins, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity 3.7 [Unsexed] 3.7 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 3.8-5.7 [Female] 4.75 cm Sokolowska and Skora, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 5.33-5.8 [Mean size of reproducing female], with smallest of 4.47-4.81 5.565 cm Heins, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity 3.5 [SL, smallest individual with ripe eggs] 3.5 cm Copp, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Sex not precised] 1.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Sex not precised] 1.0 year Lafaille and Feunteun, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Unsexed] 1.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Adult female] 2.0 year Heins, 2003
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Not specified] 1.0 year Environment agency, 1996

Male (78%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
31 Onset of spermatogenesis February-March ['February', 'March'] Copp, 2002
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Early spermatogenetic stages, e.g. spermatogonia and spermatocytes began to dominate after spawning in August ['August'] Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
33 Maximum GSI value 7.4-8 [August] 7.7 percent Copp, 2002
33 Maximum GSI value Based on GSI graph: 1.0 in February 1.0 percent Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
32 Main spermatogenesis activity March-April ['April', 'March'] Copp, 2002
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Based on GSI graph: strong increase between July and August and then remained relativelt constant ['August', 'July'] Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
35 Resting period About 1% [From September to February] 1.0 months Copp, 2002
28 Length at sexual maturity 3.7 [Unsexed] 3.7 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Average of 4.97-5.02 4.995 cm Heins, 2003
29 Weight at sexual maturity Average 1.015-1.03 g ! 1.0225 kg Heins, 2003

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system More than one female may deposit eggs in the nest No category Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system By pair, but a nest contains eggs coming from different females Monogamy Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system As many as 7 females may be encouraged to deposit eggs in one nest No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system Males mate with 4 different females [Polygamous] Polygyny Fitzgerald, 1983
47 Mating system Sneak: pairspawning with sneakers or satellites No category Ah-King, 2004
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Courtship of females and fertilization of eggs generally occured on warm sunny days Day Fitzgerald, 1983
50 Parental care Male guard its nest and the spawning until and after the htaching of eggs Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care The male guards and aerates the eggs Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care The nest is guarded by the male who engages in considerable fanning at the entrance, causing a current ot flow through the nest and aerate the eggs within [The male may build a second nest] Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Males care for eggs and fry Male parental care Fitzgerald, 1983
50 Parental care Male guarding and fanning Male parental care Ah-King, 2004
50 Parental care Male guards the nest and aerate the eggs through fanning with their pectoral fins Male parental care Bradbury, 1999
50 Parental care Male guards nest and fry Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
50 Parental care The fry remain close to the males and do not swim far from the nest No category Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils Lafaille and Feunteun, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Among the weeds Phytophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Prefers to nest in relatively thick vegetation, but are not confined to these areas (rocks) Ambiguous Fitzgerald, 1983
44 Spawning substrate Weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Ariadnophil No category Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Areas containing dense aquatic vegetation Phytophils Bradbury, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in nest built on vegetation, rock, or rubble, or inhighly organic mud or sand Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Male built a nest with parts of aquatic plants Nest built by male Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Male builts a nest among aqutic plants, using piece of plants Nest built by male Lafaille and Feunteun, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation The male builts the nest with plant fragments and binds it together with a kidney secretion Nest built by male Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Both sex are aggresive in breeding season. The male builts a nest, usually off the bottom, in the plants, using fragments of aquatic vegetation bound together (gluing) by the threadlike, kidney secretion that hardens on contact with water Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation The sexually mature male establishes a territory on or near the substrate and then builts a nest No category Fitzgerald, 1983
45 Spawning site preparation Male builds nest Nest built by male Environment agency, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Nest spawner No category Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Male have territories and have nests No category Ah-King, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation Males construct a nest made of algae and other plants debris. Nest built by male Bradbury, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs incubate in nest constructed of fine plant fragments held together by secretions of the male No category Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation In the nest of a single male No category Heins, 2003
41 Spawning temperature >15°C [Little courtship occur when water temperature often exceed 25°C] 15.0 °C Fitzgerald, 1983
41 Spawning temperature At 49-62°F, peak spawning occurs at 52-54°F 55.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 4-6 5.0 weeks Fitzgerald, 1983
40 Spawning period duration 4-5 4.5 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration The females were able to spawn for almost four months of the year in Puck Bay No data Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
42 Spawning water type Shallow tidal Pools No category Fitzgerald, 1983
42 Spawning water type Although ninespine stickleback have a relatively high salinity tolerance, they have only been reported to spawn in freshwater No category Bradbury, 1999
42 Spawning water type Quiet areas in vegetated bays and creeks, 1-5 feet from shore, may also spawn along exposed shoreline but this is not as successful Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Generally nest in water less than 30 cm deep 30.0 m Fitzgerald, 1983
43 Spawning depth Shallow areas, yet spawning has been observed at depths of 5-40 m in some areas 22.5 m Bradbury, 1999
43 Spawning depth To 144 feet, but usually less than 60 feet, usually nests 1-8 inches above substrates 4.5 m Goodyear, 1982
36 Spawning migration distance No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
36 Spawning migration distance Move inshore to shoals and harbors or upstream into creeks No data Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April-May and in July in Nothern region ['April', 'May', 'July'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Lafaille and Feunteun, 2001
39 Spawning season May-June [Also in April until August] ['April', 'August', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Summer No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Heins, 2003
39 Spawning season Last week of May and most nest building was finished by mid-June and was extremely rare after June 30 [Sexually mature individuals were found in the pools in early May] ['May', 'June'] Fitzgerald, 1983
39 Spawning season April-July ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season In most areas thoughout its range, spawning occurs in the summer in relatively shallow areas containing dense aquatic vegetation ['August', 'July', 'September'] Bradbury, 1999
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season The breeding season in the Bay begins at the end of April and ends in July ['April', 'July'] Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner Mutliple Fitzgerald, 1983
48 Spawning release Female release about 100 eggs No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Female lays about 50 to 80 eggs No category Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release 20-30 batches of eggs Mutliple Scott and Crossman, 1973
48 Spawning release Estimated number of clutches per female is about 21.3 No category Copp, 2002
48 Spawning release The range of clutch size in the two lakes was similar accross the 2 years. In Airolo Lake clutches ranged in size from 43 to 291 eggs (females 40.3-70.4mm Ls), whereas clutches in Dog Bone Lake contained 36-261 eggs (females 40.5-68.7 mm Ls) No category Heins, 2005
48 Spawning release May spawn more than once a season Mutliple Goodyear, 1982
48 Spawning release The presence of partly spent females shows that spawning in this species is portioned: a female can spawn several times during one breeding season. After one clutch of eggs has been laid in the nest the next batch of oocytes begins to mature in the ovaries Mutliple Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
48 Spawning release In most populations probably produce multiple clutches of eggs during a spawning season Mutliple Heins, 2003
49 Parity Several spawns per year No category Billard, 1997
49 Parity Die few weeks after spawning Semelparous Lafaille and Feunteun, 2001
49 Parity Longevity of the river form was 1 year and some months, whereas the lake form lived for more than 2 years No category Bradbury, 1999