Salmo trutta fario

  • Scientific name
  • Salmo trutta fario (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Brown trout

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 98%
Total data286
References67
Image of Salmo trutta fario

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
5 Incubation time 239.4 [2°C], 117.4 [4°C], 54.2 [8°C], 33.8 [12°C] 239.4 days Jungwirth and Winkler, 1984
5 Incubation time 40 [10°C] 40.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 48-52 [10.6°C], 30-33 [13.9°C] 50.0 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 105 [4°C], 50 [8°C], 40 [10°C] and 30 days [12°C] 105.0 days Ojanguren and Brana, 2003
5 Incubation time 90.4 [5°C], 57.9 [7.5°C], 38.3 [10°C] and 26 [12.5°C] for 50% hatch 90.4 days Jensen, 1997
5 Incubation time 44-48 days at 9.8 ±1.1°C 9.8 days Ojanguren, 1996
5 Incubation time Mean number of days to 50% hatching was 50 at 8.3 ±1.1 8.3 days Olsen and Vollestad, 2001
5 Incubation time Estimates of the number of days required for 50% of egg to hatch: 72 [5°C], 40 [10°C], and 29 [15°C] [In different populations: 49-69 [At 1.4-15.0°C]] 59.0 days Humpesch, 1985
5 Incubation time 148 [1.89°C], 122 [2.71°C], 95 [5.05°C], 46 [9.18°C] and 34.0 [11.24°C] 148.0 days Embody, 1934
5 Incubation time 50% hatch at 50 days at 8°C 50.0 days Luckenbach, 2001
5 Incubation time Number of fays from fertilisation to hatching 165 [At 2.8°C], 103 [At 5°C], 81 [At 6.6°C], 47 [At 10°C] and 32 [At 12.2°C] 165.0 days Gray, 1928
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 1-5 months at 57-35°F, usually in early February-early May 3.0 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 394 394.0 °C * day Barton, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 350-420 [Water temperature about 10°C] 385.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 400 400.0 °C * day Ombredane, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation From 425.6 to 437.3 425.6 °C * day Vollestad and Lillehammer, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation 325.5-452.0 [Between 5-12.5°C] 388.75 °C * day Jensen, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 410 410.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
7 Degree-days for incubation About 400 [Mean number of days to 50% hatching was 50 at 8.3 ±1.1] 8.3 °C * day Olsen and Vollestad, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 365-455 410.0 °C * day Bonislawska, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation 360 [i.e. 72 days at 5°C at ca. optimum temperature] 360.0 °C * day Humpesch, 1985
7 Degree-days for incubation 470 [Effective day-degrees] 470.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation Related to water temperature, the egg development time from fertilization to hatching ranges from 260 to 520 degree-days […]Duration of egg incubation of wild females and farmed females was the same (355-380 DD) 367.5 °C * day Randak, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 2-13 7.5 °C Barton, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Total losses occur at temperature as low as 12-13°C 12.5 °C Jungwirth and Winkler, 1984
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal 6.5, range 3-10 6.5 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Decrease from 7 to 4°C 7.0 °C Vollestad and Lillehammer, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation 1.4-11.0 is the temperature range for >50% survival to hatch [<1.4 and >15.5, lethal lower and upper limit] 6.2 °C Crisp, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 10.6, also up to 13.9 10.6 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation Survival was maximal at 8 and 10°C and decreased at higher and lower temperatures [No embryo hatched at 16 and 18°C, which suggests an upper thermal limit for development between 14 and 16°C] 8.0 °C Ojanguren and Brana, 2003
6 Temperature for incubation 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation 9.8 ±1.1°C [Range 7-13, in reared conditions], maintained in darkness 9.8 °C Ojanguren, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Incubation temperature was 8.3 ± 1.1°C 8.3 °C Olsen and Vollestad, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation The water temperature was maintained constant at 4°C during the experiment 4.0 °C Landergren and Vallin, 1998
6 Temperature for incubation The lower temperature limit at which brown trout hatched in laboratory studies was less than 1°C and the upper limit was in the range 10 to 16°C. Hatching success was optimal at about 5°C. In this study, although intra-gravel water temperatures rarely rose above 10°C during the egg incubation period, mean intra-gravel temperatures were above that considered optimal for successful hatching. 1.0 °C Acornley, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 10.3 10.3 °C Bonislawska, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum temperature was about 5°C [The lower limit for hatching was < 1°C and the upper limit was between ca. 10 and 16°C] 5.0 °C Humpesch, 1985
6 Temperature for incubation Temperature fluctuated between 7.0 and 8.5°C with a mean of 7.9°C 7.0 °C Hansen, 1985
6 Temperature for incubation There were no significant differences in eyeing or to swim-up among the four strains at an incubation temperature of 7 or 4°C. However, at 2°C there was significantly lower survival among all four strains 7.0 °C Stonecypher, 1994
6 Temperature for incubation Incubation temperature was 8°C [The range of 4 and 8°C, which is optimal for early development of brown trout] 8.0 °C Luckenbach, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Normal trout larvae can be raised from eggs incubated at any temperature between 2.8°C and 13°C without high mortality. Above 15°C the mortalityishigh 2.8 °C Gray, 1928
6 Temperature for incubation The water temperature during the experiments amounted to 10 ± 1°C 10.0 °C Sobocinski and Winnicki, 1974
6 Temperature for incubation All the spawn was incubated in stagnant water in vessels placed in a water bath at a temperature of 11-12°C 11.5 °C Cykowska and Winnicki, 1972
2 Egg size after water-hardening 5.01 ± 0.80, n=778 [Eggs stripped from mature females, fertilized and incubated in water: hydrated eggs] 5.01 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening The egg size at 2 days post-fertilization varied from 5.78 ±0.29 and 6.41 ± 0.28 5.78 mm Vollestad and Lillehammer, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening 6.1 [Maximum egg diameter] 6.1 mm Coad, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 4.25-6.56 [Smaller female (1.5 kg, TL 56 cm) produced small eggs: 4.25-5.4, while bigger female (weight 3.9, TL 79 cm) had much bigger eggs, with diameter about 5.75-6.56] 5.405 mm Bonislawska, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening Average diameter on the spawning area: 5.5 mm 5.5 mm Plasseraud, 1990
2 Egg size after water-hardening The mean length of maximum diameter of swollen eggs calculated for all females (n=40) ranged from 5.296 to 5.780 mm 5.296 mm Papala, 1998
2 Egg size after water-hardening Swollen egg diameter: 5.225 ± 0.327 (Rega), 5.100 ± 0.319 (Parseta), 5.149 ± 0.285 (Wieprza), 5.090 ± 0.287 (Grabowa) 5.225 mm Chelkowski, 1990
2 Egg size after water-hardening Range of diameters of swollen eggs of sea trout from Rega river at 4.5-5.45 mm. In this study the values found were 4.3-5.7 mm 4.975 mm Chelkowski, 1985
2 Egg size after water-hardening The collected eggs were submerged in water for hardening. […] The mean diameter of the eggs if individual females ranged from 4.08 to 5.85 mm, while in subsequent age groups the mean diameter of ten eggs ranged from 4.45 mm to 5.31 mm in four-and seven-year females 4.08 mm Bartel, 2005
2 Egg size after water-hardening Egg diameter mean ± S.D. : 4.57 ± 0.28 [Wild females] and 4.34 ± 0.16 [Farmed females] in 2002 4.57 mm Randak, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [The female dig few nests] Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Eggs incubate under gravel or on other substrate in redd Demersal Goodyear, 1982
1 Oocyte diameter 4-5 4.5 mm Mellinger, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 4-5 4.5 mm Barton, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 4-5 4.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 5.06 ± 0.18 [Ovocytes] 5.06 mm Billard and Fremont, 1980
1 Oocyte diameter 3-5 [Not specified] 4.0 mm Ombredane, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 4-5 4.5 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 4.9-5.6 [Not specified, seems to be unswollen] 5.25 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 4.5 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 4.5 mm Olden, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Average egg diameter among 70 females of age groups I-IV ranged from 3.2 to 4.8 mm 4.0 mm Taure, 1976
1 Oocyte diameter Range: 3.64-6.94, mean 5.41 5.29 mm Purtscher and Humpesch, 2006

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 7 7.0 °C Vollestad and Lillehammer, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development Survival between hatching and the end of the embryonic development was >80% in the range between 6 and 12°C and decreased sharply, to < 50% at 14 and 4°C 9.0 °C Ojanguren and Brana, 2003
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 12.5 ±1.0°C 12.5 °C Ojanguren, 1996
11 Temperature during larval development 13 13.0 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Temperature fluctuated between 7.6 and 8.9°C with a mean of 8.5°C 7.6 °C Hansen, 1985
11 Temperature during larval development Mean water temperature in the hatchery was 8.9 ± 3.6°C during the period from hatching until the death of the last specimens 8.9 °C Randak, 2006
10 Reaction to light Photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism It is probable that the smaller brown trout may be successful in picking up a few of the eggs of their own species Absent Greeley, 1932
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 800 [For emergence from the substrates] 800.0 °C * day Ombredane, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 561 to 752 [Degree-days, life span after hatching, without external food] 561.0 °C * day Vollestad and Lillehammer, 2000
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 650 [52 days at 12.5°C] 650.0 °C * day Ojanguren, 1996
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 300-350 [About 25 days at 14°C to 75 days at 4°C] 325.0 °C * day Ojanguren and Brana, 2003
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding [At the commencement of first feeding, 35 days after haching at a temperature which fluctuated between 7.6 and 8.9°C with a mean of 8.5°C] 35.0 °C * day Hansen, 1985
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding After 91 days post-fertlization [50 days for incubation] at 8°C, embryos in the control had completely resorbed their yolk supplies and were feeding exogeneously 91.0 °C * day Luckenbach, 2001
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Freely swimming fry, a few days after the yolk had been completely resorbed, the fry had already strated actively feeding and were behaving as fully formed organisms. The fry measured 25-35 mm 30.0 °C * day Formicki, 2004
8 Initial larval size 15-25 20.0 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 15-25 20.0 mm Ombredane, 2001
8 Initial larval size 19 19.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 14.5 and 16.2 [Size at hatching] 14.5 mm Vollestad and Lillehammer, 2000
8 Initial larval size About 13 [When eggs reared at 14°C] to about 16 [When eggs reared at 4°C] 13.0 mm Ojanguren and Brana, 2003
8 Initial larval size 15-17.5 16.25 mm Olsen and Vollestad, 2001
8 Initial larval size 12.1 12.1 mm Olden, 2006
8 Initial larval size 15 15.0 mm Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
8 Initial larval size Range: 10.01-18.66, mean 15.55 14.335 mm Purtscher and Humpesch, 2006
9 Larvae behaviour The alevins stay in the gravel until the yolk sac has almost been absorbed Demersal Groot, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour Remains in the substrate until the yolk sac completion Demersal Ombredane, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour delayed, gradual dispersion after a passive phase Demersal Urho, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour Pre-emergent fry remain in the gravel until the yolk sac is absorbed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour From hatch until two-thirds of the yolk sac was resorbed, this time intervalwas deliberately selected because from hatch until two-thirds of the yolk sac has been resorbed, the trout larvae, or -strickly speaking-, eleutherembryo, excessevely weighted by the yolk sac, stays immobile and close to the bottom and performs only slight movement in the water column Demersal Formicki, 2004

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value About 22 [October] 22.0 percent Billard, 1987
24 Maximum GSI value 20-22 [September-October] 21.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value About 20% [mid-october, independent of the distance from the sea to the spawning site] 20.0 percent Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 18.5 (range 15-25.4) for anadromous population, mean of 12.9 (range 9.9-15.8) for resident population 20.2 percent Fleming, 1998
25 Oogenesis duration Ovulation did not exceed one month No data Billard, 1987
19 Relative fecundity 1.54 1.54 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 3.7112 3.7112 thousand eggs/kg Billard and Fremont, 1980
19 Relative fecundity About 2 2.0 thousand eggs/kg Ombredane, 2001
19 Relative fecundity About 1.5 1.5 thousand eggs/kg Coad, 2006
19 Relative fecundity 2 2.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
19 Relative fecundity 2.054 Age 2] 2.054 thousand eggs/kg Plasseraud, 1990
19 Relative fecundity Relative fecundity of females in Czech brown trout populations ranges from 2000 to 3000 eggs.kg-1 2000.0 thousand eggs/kg Randak, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Male] 1.0 years Ombredane, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-3 [Male] 2.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Most at 3 [No specified, but males attain maturity at an earlier age than females] 3.0 years Kerr and Grant, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity 3.0 [Both sex] 3.0 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Males: Age I [32%], age II [79], age III [93%] and age IV [100%] 2.0 years Taure, 1976
27 Age at sexual maturity Spawning males were significantly younger 2+ and 4+ years. The oldest male was 6+ years 2.0 years Rubin, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity It matures at age 2 and 4 years and males usually mature one year earlier than females. 2.0 years Randak, 2006
26 Resting period From January until April No data Billard, 1987
22 Onset of oogenesis May-June ['May', 'June'] Billard, 1987
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity From July until beginning of October ['October', 'July'] Billard, 1987
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 1.5-4 2.75 thousand eggs Barton, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 1.789 ± 0.221 1.789 thousand eggs Billard and Fremont, 1980
20 Absolute fecundity Average 2 2.0 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity 0.924-1.220 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 1.072 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Up to 13.648 13.648 thousand eggs Coad, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 107 [Fewest for a female age I, 193 mm ] and up to 2419 [Age IV, 462 mm] 107.0 thousand eggs Taure, 1976
17 Weight at sexual maturity Between year 1969 and 1994, mean body weight range from 2.1 to 3.4, and overall range from 1.2 to 4.7 kg 1969.0 kg Papala, 1998
17 Weight at sexual maturity The Mt of spawning females ranged from 55 to 8130 g 55.0 kg Rubin, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity 40.6 40.6 cm Barton, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity 14.7 14.7 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Most between 20.2-22.8 [Female] 21.5 cm Kerr and Grant, 1999
16 Length at sexual maturity 20.5 [Both sex] 20.5 cm Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Nearly all females were mature when they are 304 mm long 304.0 cm Taure, 1976
16 Length at sexual maturity Between year 1969 and 1994, mean total length range from 61.2 to 72.5, and overall range from 40.0 to 91.5 cm 1969.0 cm Papala, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity Total length of the females spawning in Själsoänduring the season1992/1993 at 1999/2000, ranged from 185 to 890 mm (mean 572+/- 112 mm, n=238) 572.0 cm Rubin,2004
16 Length at sexual maturity The Lt of spawning females ranged from 185 to 890 mm. The distribution was unimodal for females with a mean +/- SD of 572 +/- 112 mm (n=283) 572.0 cm Rubin, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity Length range of mature sea trout females (cm) in Pomeranian rivers: 36-91 (Rega), 34-93 (Parseta), 49-92 (Grabowa) 63.5 cm Chelkowski, 1990
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 4.5 year Barton, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-5 or 3-6 [Not well established] 3.5 year Groot, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Female] 2.0 year Ombredane, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Female] 3.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [31-36 months, age at maturation] 3.0 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity Average 3+ [Not specified] 3.0 year Kerr and Grant, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity 3.0 [Both sex] 3.0 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Females: Age I [16%], age II [77%], age 3 [88%] and age 4 [100%] 16.0 year Taure, 1976
15 Age at sexual maturity Spawning males were significantly younger 2+ and 4+ years, than females 3+ to 5+ years. The oldest female was 8+ years 2.0 year Rubin, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity It matures at age 2 and 4 years and males usually mature one year earlier than females. 2.0 year Randak, 2006

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Weak [See for details] Absent Coad, 2006
30 Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present Willson, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male bigger than female Absent Fleming, 1998
30 Male sexual dimorphism Once the large males, ('hooknoses', males which showed a kype on the lower jaw and Lt > 300 mm) entered Själsöan, they generally occupied a territory where they stayed. In contrast, small males ('sneakers', males without a kype on the lower jaw, and Lt> 300 mm) did not have any specific territorty and moved frequently up and downstream Present Rubin, 2005
31 Onset of spermatogenesis May-June ['May', 'June'] Billard, 1987
33 Maximum GSI value 6 6.0 percent Suquet, 1994
33 Maximum GSI value 5-6 5.5 percent Billard, 1987
33 Maximum GSI value 4-5 [i.e. 1/5 or 1/7 of the RGS of female] 4.5 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 2.9 (range 2.7-3.0) for anadromous population, mean of 2.3 (range 1.9-2.6) for resident population 2.85 percent Fleming, 1998
32 Main spermatogenesis activity From July until September, spermatogenetic activity was highest ['July', 'September'] Billard, 1987
35 Resting period < 0 (April and May) 0.0 months Billard, 1987
34 Spermatogenesis duration Spermatogenesis is a very rapid process, about 2 months (or less) 2.0 months Billard, 1987
28 Length at sexual maturity 12.5 [Male] 12.5 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Most at 17.7-20.2 18.95 cm Kerr and Grant, 1999
28 Length at sexual maturity 20.5 [Both sex] 20.5 cm Olden, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Nearly all males were mature when they have reached 253 mm 253.0 cm Taure, 1976
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean natural tip length at maturity increased from 318 mm for those spawing at the river mouth to 434 mm at 40 km inland 318.0 cm Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity The Lt of spawning males ranged from 184 to 815 mm. The distribution was multimodal for males (n=232) with most frequent length classes 300, 400 and 550 mm 184.0 cm Rubin, 2005
29 Weight at sexual maturity The Mt of spawning males ranged from 56 to 6000 g 56.0 kg Rubin, 2005

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system By pair, one male and one female Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system The male courts the female while she is digging the nest and defends the nesting territory against intrundinf males. When the nest is finished, female and male simultaneously deposit ova and sperm during a short spawning act No category Groot, 1996
47 Mating system The male, a larger fish then the female at all observed instances of spanwing, darts to a position agasint one side of the female and curves his body toward hers in such a manner as to hold her against the bottom [Both males and females participate in several mating acts before becoming entirelyfinished with the reprodcutive activities of a single season] No category Greeley, 1932
47 Mating system "Only one spawning couple was observed at one time above the redd. It was composed of a spawning female and a ""hooknose"" courting her. Sometimes, smaller 'sneakers' were also observed near the spawning couple. 'Sneakers' stayed downstream from the couple and waited until the female spawned. At that moment, they rapidly swam between the spawning female and male, released their sperm and swam away." No category Rubin, 2005
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night and day Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning activity takes place during the day Day Kerr and Grant, 1999
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Species were more active during the mid-day period when the light was bright than in early morning and late evening Day Greeley, 1932
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning took place exclusively at night in Själsöan. During the day, spawning were difficult to see as they generally hide under the streambanks Ambiguous Rubin, 2005
50 Parental care The female defends the redd against other females searching for a place to spawn Ambiguous Groot, 1996
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care When spawning is completed, the female covers the redd with gravel Female parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
50 Parental care The female, throughout the long period of egg covering (a process continued for one to several hours) resents the presence of any fish at or just above the spot where the eggs lie [Male defence lasts only trough early stages of egg covering] No category Greeley, 1932
50 Parental care None after nesting No care Fleming, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Gravels: 0.2 mm -2 cm [Lithophil] Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravels: range : 0.3 to 10 cm with a preference for sizes 1 to 7 cm Lithophils Groot, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Gravels [Big pebbles >60 mm and sand <4 mm led to less survival] Ambiguous Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Ombredane, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravelly Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Banks of fine gravel Lithophils Crisp, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Gravel substrate: size preference to be 10 to 20 mm in diameter [If no gravel can be found, spawning is known to occur in areas of sand or hard clay perticles] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Female spawners usually select clean gravel as spawning sites. The gravel composition chosen by sea trout, 210 cm diameter Lithophils Landergren and Vallin, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Gravel-beds Lithophils Acornley, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Kamler, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Greeley, 1932
44 Spawning substrate Gravels: bigger than 3.7 cm are the most frequent Lithophils Plasseraud, 1990
44 Spawning substrate At some locations, especially in the lower sections, the substratum was dominated by fine sediment. These areas were never used for spawning. All the spawning grounds were exclusively lovated on clean gravel areas Lithophils Rubin,2004
44 Spawning substrate Spawning gravel Lithophils Rubin, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean, coarse gravel and rubble or in firm sand or hard play if gravel not available Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Salmo and trout preferred pebbles (16-64 mm) fpr spawning Lithophils Louhi, 2008
44 Spawning substrate Gravel bed Lithophils Meyer, 2008
45 Spawning site preparation The female dig few nests Susbtrate chooser Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation The female chooses the nest site and prepares the nest No category Groot, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Female dig nest Susbtrate chooser Ombredane, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation The female creates a shallowo depression (redd) in the gravel Susbtrate chooser Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation The female excavates a saucer-shaped nest in the gravel No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are buried in substrates No category Billard, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Kamler, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation The digging of spawning pit is exclusively a phase of female behavior [Both male and female trout defend the redd against other fish in the period just preceding spawning] Susbtrate chooser Greeley, 1932
45 Spawning site preparation Nest by female Best build by female Fleming, 1998
45 Spawning site preparation Cleaning of a restricted bed area from fine sediments is also achieved by digging salmonid females, which build spawning redds up to 30 cm depth, ensuring sufficient oxygenation of the deposited eggs and for developing larvae after hatching Susbtrate chooser Meyer, 2008
41 Spawning temperature 1-10, 2-6, 7-9, 9-13 5.5 °C Barton, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Below 12°C, the optimum is 5-6°C 5.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 6-9 but may as high as 12.8 7.5 °C Groot, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 6.7-8.9 7.8 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 6-9 7.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 6-9°C 7.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 4 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 4.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 8-10 9.0 °C Kamler, 1996
41 Spawning temperature When the temperature is falling from 55 to 44°F 55.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 2 [0.50 months, length of breeding season] 2.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 8-9 8.5 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration From November 4 to November 25 [An individual may remain on the spawning grounds for a smuch as 25 days] 4.0 weeks Greeley, 1932
40 Spawning period duration The spawning period lasts for c. 3 weeks 3.0 weeks Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
40 Spawning period duration Males usually entered the stream first and stayed longer, so the sex-ratio at the beginning and at the end of the spawning season was usually slanted towards males. Most of the females entered the stream and spawned the same or the next night. In contrast males tended to stay much longer in the stream (21.3% between 2 and 3 weeks) before spawning 21.3 weeks Rubin, 2005
42 Spawning water type Rivers [Rapid current, 30 to 70/80 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Small streams at the head of riffle areas or on the downstream end of pools, where the gravel slopes upward [water freely flowing through the gravel and upwelling water, suitable velocities range from 15 to 90 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
42 Spawning water type Water with current [Upper parts] Flowing or turbulent water Ombredane, 2001
42 Spawning water type Streams, headwaters No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Water velocities of 0.204-0.814 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Crisp, 1996
42 Spawning water type Riffles od sand and gravel beds No category Coad, 2006
42 Spawning water type Spawn in clear headwaters of large rivers and streams or in tributaries of lakes, also known to spawn over shallow reefs and shoals alog lakes shores, stream spawning fishes use riggle areas Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type Streams No category Landergren and Vallin, 1998
42 Spawning water type Large chalk stream No category Acornley, 1999
42 Spawning water type Spring streams, near sources of spring water No category Greeley, 1932
42 Spawning water type Mot of the streams were first order streams running directly into the sea No category Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
42 Spawning water type Rivers [Rapid current, 30 to 70/80 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Papala, 1998
42 Spawning water type Fast water in headwaters or mid-reaches of cool, shaded streams, if denied access to tributaries, spawning occurs on shoals near stream mouths, or elsewhere along shore Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Trout selected slightly shallower and slower flowing spawning site (15-45 cm, 20-55 cm s-1) Flowing or turbulent water Louhi, 2008
43 Spawning depth 20-40 cm 30.0 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth 15-90 cm [Optimal depths are from 24-46 cm with the preferred depth arounf 31-32] 52.5 m Groot, 1996
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth "0.15-0.91 m and 0.30-0.45 m given as ""optimum""" 0.53 m Crisp, 1996
43 Spawning depth Mean depth of 28 cm, min 10 cm and max 54 cm 28.0 m Plasseraud, 1990
43 Spawning depth Water depths at the spawning grounds were similar 20-30 cm 25.0 m Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
43 Spawning depth To 4 feet 4.0 m Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth 15-45 cm 30.0 m Louhi, 2008
36 Spawning migration distance The distance (km), which varies from 0.2 to 45 km, was measured from the mouth of the river to the spawning ground where the fish were caught 0.2 km Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
36 Spawning migration distance The natural spawning grounds under study are in Själsöan, a stream located 7 km north of Visby, with a river basin are of 35 km² 7.0 km Rubin,2004
37 Spawning migration period Male and female migrations seem to peak between 7.6 and 7.8°C No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Anadromous brown trout spawning in large rivers, may enter fresh water some 6 months before arriving at the spawning areas, whereas brown trout spawning in small streams often ascend in a short period of time just prior to spawning ['May'] Rubin, 2005
37 Spawning migration period Enter and ascend tributaries in late summer and fall, beginning in July, runs are often limited by low stream flow ['August', 'July', 'September'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season October-January ['October', 'November', 'January'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season October-November until January-February ['February', 'October', 'November', 'January'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season Late autumn to early winter ['March', 'January', 'December', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Groot, 1996
39 Spawning season November to end of february ['November'] Ombredane, 2001
39 Spawning season October to January, and up to March ['October', 'March', 'January'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Start about October 15 and continue through early November, may extend into January ['October', 'November', 'January'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Spawn in autumn of the year ['October', 'November', 'December'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season From mid-November to end of January ['November', 'January'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season Salmo and most char are fall breeders No data Willson, 1997
39 Spawning season Brown trout were observed spawning at the study sites from mid October to early January ['October', 'January'] Acornley, 1999
39 Spawning season Winter spawner [Other authors described between September and January] ['January', 'September'] Humpesch, 1985
39 Spawning season December ['December'] Plasseraud, 1990
39 Spawning season Spawned in late October to early November ['October', 'November'] Crisp, 1994
39 Spawning season Peak spawning in mid-October ['October'] Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
39 Spawning season The spawning season was from 3 November 1992 to 9 January 1993 ['November', 'January'] Rubin,2004
39 Spawning season September-January, usually October-November ['October', 'November', 'January', 'September'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Reproduction of the farmed fish annually occurred in November, which was the usual period under conditions corresponding to this latitude ['November'] Randak, 2006
38 Homing Homing is present Present Ombredane, 2001
38 Homing Salmon and trout tend to return from the sea to the river of their birth [Within the river system these anadromous fish and resident trout seek to return to their natal tributary to spawn] Present Crisp, 1996
38 Homing Return to their natal stream to spawn Present Landergren and Vallin, 1998
48 Spawning release Once No category Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Several nests are generally completed in succession by the female during the spawning season before she is spent, with each nest containing a few hundred eggs Mutliple Groot, 1996
48 Spawning release The process is repeated many times, but when spawning is completed, the female covers the redd with gravel No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
48 Spawning release A female may dig three to four redd No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
48 Spawning release Mean of 34 (range 5-69%) of repeat spawning for anadromous populations, Mean of 64.6% for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998
48 Spawning release Each female spawned all her eggs on a single spawning area in only one redd generally over one to two nights Total Rubin, 2005
49 Parity Brown trout as old as thirteen years of age have been reported No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
49 Parity Age ranges from 2 to 15 years No category Crisp, 1994
49 Parity Few anadromous brown trout spawned more than once in Själsöan (7.3% of the males and 5.7% of the females). Fourteen males and 11 females were observed spawning in Själsöan 2 years in succession, and three males and two females 3 years in succession Iteroparous Rubin, 2005
49 Parity Some fish spawned and left the river, some died after spawning, while others died unspent Semelparous Aarestrup and Jepsen, 1998
49 Parity Return to lake after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
49 Parity It lives for 3 to 5 years and older individuals are less abundant No category Randak, 2006