Pimephales promelas

  • Scientific name
  • Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

  • Common name
  • Fathead minnow

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 70%
Total data95
References12
Image of Pimephales promelas

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Gale and Buynak, 1982
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are adhesive Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs incubate in the spawning substrate Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
5 Incubation time 4 days at 25°C 4.0 days Duffy, 1998
5 Incubation time 4.5-6 at 25°C 5.25 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time About 4-6 days at 77°F, at 25°C 5.0 days Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time About 5 days at 61-77°F 69.0 days Markus, 1934
7 Degree-days for incubation About 100 [4 days at 25°C] 100.0 °C * day Duffy, 1998
7 Degree-days for incubation 120-140 [4.5-6 days at 25°C] 130.0 °C * day Kerr and Grant, 1999
7 Degree-days for incubation About 5 days at 61-77°F 69.0 °C * day Markus, 1934
6 Temperature for incubation 23 23.0 °C Cloud, 1988
6 Temperature for incubation 25°C 25.0 °C Duffy, 1998
6 Temperature for incubation 25 25.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
6 Temperature for incubation 77°F, i.e. 25°C 25.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation About 5 days at 61-77°F, i.e. 16-25°C 20.5 °C Markus, 1934
2 Egg size after water-hardening The eggs averaged 1.15 mm in diameter 1.15 mm Markus, 1934
2 Egg size after water-hardening Eggs expand as they water-harden No data Gale and Buynak, 1982
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Eggs are spawned on the undersurfaces of submerged or floating objects] Ambiguous Gale and Buynak, 1982
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Lay their eggs on the under side of objects that lie horizontal to or at an angle with the surface of water No category Markus, 1934
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.3 1.25 mm Mellinger, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.5 1.35 mm Cloud, 1988

Larvae (57%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 25-26 [About 70-80°F [A.M] and 80-90°F [P.M.]] 25.5 °C Markus, 1934
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Begin feeding the day of hatching No data Duffy, 1998
8 Initial larval size 5 5.0 mm Kerr and Grant, 1999
8 Initial larval size 4.75 4.75 mm Markus, 1934
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched fry are translucent Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999

Female (58%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value Mean GSI of 9.71 ± 0.5, up to 12 9.71 percent Jensen, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 1.7-4.0 2.85 thousand eggs/kg Gale and Buynak, 1982
27 Age at sexual maturity Most at 1, also at 2 1.0 years DeWitt, 1993
27 Age at sexual maturity As low as 2-3 months for male and female 2.5 years Markus, 1934
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous or asynchronous gonadal development Ambiguous Jensen, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity Annual fecundity of 6.8 to 10.6 egg per female 6.8 thousand eggs Duffy, 1998
15 Age at sexual maturity Females may mature in second summer No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity As low as 2-3 months for male and female 2.5 year Markus, 1934

Male (56%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Bears breeding tubercles Absent Gale and Buynak, 1982
30 Male sexual dimorphism The largest male displayed nutpial tuberculs and the typical breeding color pattern, whereas the smaller male displyed tubercules but had the female color pattern Absent DeWitt, 1993
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercles in reproductively-active male Present Jensen, 2001
30 Male sexual dimorphism Secondary sex characters were noted on the males approximatively thrity days before the first eggs were deposited, thus making it easy to distinguish males from females. The appereance of pearl organs or tubercles on the head and the coloration constitute the most evident secondary sexual characters. The secondary sexual characters began to fade immediatly after the close of the spawing period and by August 27th they were very faint and nearly obliterated. Absent Markus, 1934
33 Maximum GSI value 1.15 ± 0.02, 1.2 1.15 percent Jensen, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 5.2±0.2 5.2 cm DeWitt, 1993
29 Weight at sexual maturity 1.72 ± 0.21 g !!! 1.72 kg DeWitt, 1993

Spawning conditions (80%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Male may spawn with several females No category Gale and Buynak, 1982
47 Mating system Males accept eggs from multiple females, each female may oviposit with several males No category DeWitt, 1993
47 Mating system By pair Monogamy Jensen, 2001
47 Mating system It was found that more than one female deposits eggs on the same nest cared for by a single male No category Markus, 1934
47 Mating system For the genus Pimephales, sneak spawning: two males and one female were found at one site (probably spawnning), one male had female color pattern - suggesting sneaking No category Ah-King, 2004
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night and early morning, no spawning occured between dusk and 2400 hours Ambiguous Gale and Buynak, 1982
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning usually takes place at night, but will spawn during daylight hours Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Eggs were always deposited during the night Night Markus, 1934
50 Parental care Guarders No category Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Male guards the nest and drives off other males Male parental care Gale and Buynak, 1982
50 Parental care Males establish and defend territory and care for eggs laid there No category DeWitt, 1993
50 Parental care Adult males guard the nest and deposit a mucus layer on the spawning surface that may enhace egg survival by imporving egg attachment Male parental care Duffy, 1998
50 Parental care Males guard nest Male parental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care Males remain at spawning site to guard nest No category Goodyear, 1982
50 Parental care The male performs three important functions when caring for the eggs during the incubation period. One is protection. Second, his constant movement underneath the eggs which keeps the water continually agitated. The third funtion is keeping the nest free from sediment that may be deposited from the water. No category Markus, 1934
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are spawned on the undersurfaces of submerged or floating objects No category Gale and Buynak, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Nest sites are typically depressions under benthic debris or the cleared lower surfaces of submerged objects No category DeWitt, 1993
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are laid on the underside of a rock, branch or log, also on stems of hardstem bulrush Lithophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are laid in a nest hollowed out in mud or sand under submerged objects, such as rocks, sticks or cans. They are deposited in a mass on the underside of the objects Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Nests may be found under rocks, timber, concrete, metal or tile if there is enough space underneath the object for activity of male Lithophils Markus, 1934
45 Spawning site preparation Nesters Nest built by both parents Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Males establish and defend territory and care for eggs laid there No category DeWitt, 1993
45 Spawning site preparation Males construct nest Nest built by male Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are laid in a nest hollowed out in mud or sand under submerged objects, such as rocks, sticks or cans. They are deposited in a mass on the underside of the objects Susbtrate chooser Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation It seems evident that the male chooses the location of a nest for he is often seen wandering about for hours, aournd a suitable place, where eggs were found later. No category Markus, 1934
41 Spawning temperature 15.6-28.9 [The critical temperature at which spawning starts seems around 16°C] 22.25 °C Gale and Buynak, 1982
41 Spawning temperature Begins spawning when water temperature approach 18°C and continues until it drops below 18°C 18.0 °C Duffy, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 15-18, 14.4-18.3, 15.6-28.9 16.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature [60-85°F], 15.5-29°C 72.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
41 Spawning temperature Water temperature was 64°F, i.e. 17.8°C 64.0 °C Markus, 1934
40 Spawning period duration 10-12 [From late May and ends sometimes in August] 11.0 weeks Kerr and Grant, 1999
40 Spawning period duration The spawning interval for reproductively-active pairs over the course of the study ranged from 1-15 days, with the majority of values falling in the range of 3-4 days 8.0 weeks Jensen, 2001
40 Spawning period duration Spawning occurs more than once, and the season extends most of the summer No data Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration From May 5th to July 23rd, the spawning period of an individual female is about two months during the spawning season 5.0 weeks Markus, 1934
42 Spawning water type Ponds Stagnant water Gale and Buynak, 1982
42 Spawning water type Ponds Stagnant water DeWitt, 1993
42 Spawning water type Protected areas, such as lake margins and marshes Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Ponds Stagnant water Markus, 1934
43 Spawning depth Under 1 m 1.0 m DeWitt, 1993
43 Spawning depth 0.6-0.9 m deep 0.75 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth 3-18 inches 10.5 m Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Between May 22 and August 22 ['August', 'May'] Gale and Buynak, 1982
39 Spawning season May or June until August ['August', 'May', 'June'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Late April-early September ['April', 'September'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season In the spring of 1931 the first eggs appeared May 16th and in 1932 on May 5th ['April', 'May', 'June'] Markus, 1934
48 Spawning release Fractional spawner Fractional Gale and Buynak, 1982
48 Spawning release Multiple of fractional spawner Ambiguous Jensen, 2001
48 Spawning release Fractional spawner: can result in from 16 to 26 spawning events per females Fractional Duffy, 1998
48 Spawning release Fractional spawner Fractional Kerr and Grant, 1999
49 Parity Postspawning mortality is often great for both males and females No category Gale and Buynak, 1982
49 Parity They are short live, with most dying adter spawning at an age of 1 year, althoufh a small proportion of any population lives at and age of 2+ years No category Duffy, 1998
49 Parity The death rate of the adult minnows is very high after the spring spawning period Semelparous Markus, 1934