Pseudorasbora parva

  • Scientific name
  • Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck et Schlegel, 1846)

  • Common name
  • Stone moroko

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 78%
Total data138
References15
Image of Pseudorasbora parva

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Coad, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, stick to the substrate Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness highly adhesive due to the presence of a well expressed secondary membrane, the chorion, and they adhere strongly to the substrate Adhesive Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, eggs adhere to the ceiling of the cavity Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Sticky Adhesive Witkowski, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs are sticky Adhesive Boltachev, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Attached eggs Non-Adhesive Katano and Maekawa, 1997
5 Incubation time 12 [15-21°C], 5-7 [21-23°C], 6-8 [20°C] 18.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 4 [24-28°C], 5 [23-26°C] 26.0 days Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
5 Incubation time The embryonic development at water temperature of 20-28°C takes 4-8 days 24.0 days Witkowski, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation 150-200 175.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 95-130 [4 days at 24-28°C, 5 days at 23-26°C] 112.5 °C * day Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation 15-22 18.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 23-28 25.5 °C Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 20°C 20.0 °C Pinder, 2005
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.30-1.65 x 1.15-1.30 [After swelling] 1.475 mm Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.3-1.5 or 2-2.5 [Not specified] 1.4 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2-2.5 [Not specified] 2.25 mm Coad, 2005
2 Egg size after water-hardening Ellipsoidal (major diameter 2.0-2.5 mm), yellowish 2.25 mm Witkowski, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.4 x 0.8-1.0 [Just spawned eggs] 1.3 mm Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2 1.2 mm Rossechi, 2001a
1 Oocyte diameter 1.18 1.18 mm Rosecchi, 2001

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 23-28 25.5 °C Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20°C 20.0 °C Pinder, 2005
10 Reaction to light Their reaction to light is positive Photopositive Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Changeover of larvae to exogenous feeding only. Under aquarium conditions the larvae were around 7.6 mm long at an age of 8 days. The yolk sac was fully resorbed and the larvae fed on exogenous food only. 7.6 °C * day Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Mixed feeding of the larvae. The filling of the swim bladder with air occurs during the first days after hatching. The length of the larvae at an age of 5-5.5 days is 6.3-6.5 mm. During these days the yolk is considerably resorbed. […] The larvae swim actively and begin to feed gradually. 5.25 °C * day Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
8 Initial larval size 4-4.5 4.25 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5 4.75 mm Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
8 Initial larval size 4.7-5.5 5.1 mm Pinder, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour After hatching the prolarvae swim actively in jerks Demersal Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982

Female (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Horny pads on the jaws Absent Coad, 2005
18 Female sexual dimorphism The female becomes clearly lighter Absent Witkowski, 2006
24 Maximum GSI value 27 27.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value Up to 30% [June, prior to spawning] 30.0 percent Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
24 Maximum GSI value Up to 27% 27.0 percent Billard, 1997
24 Maximum GSI value 27.9 [May] 27.9 percent Rosecchi, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 253-1733 [Relationships between the total number of eggs laid by individual females and their body weight. The regression equation was Y=986.3 X - 1718.9, Y = number of eggs, X = body weight in April., with weight ranging mainly from 2.0 to 3.5 g] 993.0 thousand eggs/kg Katano and Maekawa, 1997
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Sex not specified] 1.5 years Rossechi, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Not specified] 1.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex] 1.0 years Rosecchi, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity The fish is sexually dimorphic with males larger than females and reaches maturity at the age of one to two years No data Katano and Maekawa, 1997
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous Asynchronous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity Its fecundity is on average 5,000 eggs. The fecundity determined by us varied betwenn 470 and 990 eggs. 5.0 thousand eggs Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
20 Absolute fecundity Fecundity is about 5000 ellipitical eggs 5000.0 thousand eggs Internet, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity The fertility ranges from a few hundred to a few thousands eggs: Amur -388-3060, Czech Republic: 2018-5326, Danube: 610-3200, 800-4200 1724.0 thousand eggs Witkowski, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity The total number of eggs (fecundity) laid by individual females varied from 0 to 6285, different means ranging from 632 ± 805 to 2053 ± 1442 632.0 thousand eggs Katano and Maekawa, 1997
20 Absolute fecundity It has a fecundity level high for its size, reaching 4400 eggs 4400.0 thousand eggs Boltachev, 2006
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.6-4.2 g 2.4 kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
17 Weight at sexual maturity 1.0-4.5 g 2.75 kg Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
16 Length at sexual maturity The length of sexually mature females varied between 3.5-6 cm, they were considerably smaller in the Amur 4.75 cm Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
16 Length at sexual maturity 7.5 7.5 cm Rosecchi, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity When it reaches length of 30 mm (sex not specified) 30.0 cm Boltachev, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity The mean (± SD) total length of fish captured in April and used in the experiment was 6.6 ± 0.3 cm (n=68, range 6.0-7.4) for males 6.6 cm Katano and Maekawa, 1997
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Sex not precised] 1.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Sex not specified] 1.5 year Rossechi, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Not specified] 1.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Spawns when one year old No data Witkowski, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity In their second year of life (sex not specified) No data Boltachev, 2006

Male (56%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male are darker than females and the flank has a metallic violet sheen, horny pad developps on the jaws, sharp tubercules Present Coad, 2005
30 Male sexual dimorphism The sharp tubercules on the head of males during spawning time serve as protection Absent Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
30 Male sexual dimorphism The sexual dimorphism becomes pronounced during spawning. In males breeding tubercles appear on the head. The greatest accumulation of sharp tubercles is located in the anterior part of the head, on the frons, near nostrils and below and above the eye. Few tubercles are observed also on the lower lip. In that period the males darken distinctly, and their fins become black while the operculum gets violet Absent Witkowski, 2006
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males were significantly larger than females Absent Katano and Maekawa, 1997
33 Maximum GSI value 2.3 [May] 2.3 percent Rosecchi, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity Mature males used were 5.95 ± 0.95 cm 5.95 cm Konishi and Takata, 2004
28 Length at sexual maturity The mean (± SD) total length of fish captured in April and used in the experiment was 7.9 ± 0.5 cm (n=68, range 7.0-8.9) for males 7.9 cm Katano and Maekawa, 1997
29 Weight at sexual maturity Mature males used were 3.76 ± 1.77 g 3.76 kg Konishi and Takata, 2004

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system One male and few females Polygyny Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system Sneak: pairspawing with sneakers or satellites, territorial male mated alone with female on 23 of 29 occassions, 3 occassions with sneaker, on 3 occassions the female mated with 2 territorial males (in aquarium) No category Ah-King, 2004
47 Mating system One male may spawn with a consecutive females No category Witkowski, 2006
47 Mating system Females usually deposit eggs in several batches in several male territories on a day, and repeat matings several times during the course of a spawning period. When mating, a female moves rapidly along the susbtrate, releasing and attaching to the surface eggs which are inseminated soon after by the territorial males No category Katano and Maekawa, 1997
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Morning Day Coad, 2005
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning only occrured in the morning, about 8.00 Day Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Mating does not occur during the night Night Katano and Maekawa, 1997
50 Parental care Protected by the male using the head tubercules to drive away other fishes. Males clean the eggs and remove dead ones No category Coad, 2005
50 Parental care Males protect the spawning No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care The male protect the batch, driving away other small fish [Also, males clean the eggs and evidently remove dead ones] Male parental care Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
50 Parental care Male guards eggs Male parental care Billard, 1997
50 Parental care Non guarders, brood hiders, the male leaves the nest before the eggs hatch No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Eggs are guarded by males Male parental care Rossechi, 2001
50 Parental care The territorial male defends the ggs until they hatch Male parental care Ah-King, 2004
50 Parental care The male guards the eggs till hatching, and aggressively drives away others, often larger fish Male parental care Witkowski, 2006
50 Parental care The male protects actively the egg clutch, thus increasing the survival rate of juveniles Male parental care Boltachev, 2006
50 Parental care The males entices several females to lay their eggs, fertilizes the eggs and guards the fertilized eggs until the embryos hatch No category Konishi and Takata, 2004
50 Parental care A territorial male defends eggs until the embryos hatch Male parental care Katano and Maekawa, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Lower surfaces of stones, occassionnaly on mollusc shells Lithophils Coad, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Stones Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Stones, sometimes on sticks, in the empty shells of molluscs and even on objects which have accidently fallen into the water Ambiguous Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Various substrates No category Rossechi, 2001
44 Spawning substrate The species beloongs to the indifferent litho-phytophilous reproductive guild. The eggs are laid on plants, sand, stones, mollusc shells and other substrata Ambiguous Witkowski, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are laid on stones, valves of mollusks, sunken trees, and other bottom susbrates as well as on underwater vegetation Ambiguous Boltachev, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Around smooth surfaces of rocks, boulders and plants Ambiguous Katano and Maekawa, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation Male clean the surface of one or several gravel of 13-31 cm of diameter Nest built by male Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation The fish choose a suitable place for spawning and clean it of ooze and overgrouwth No category Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Nests under stones and the male cleans the cavity with its pearl organs Nest built by male Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Before spawning, the female carefully cleans the susbtratum for egg-laying No category Witkowski, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation In Pseudorasbora, a mature males establish a territory around spawning susbtrates (e.g., stones, plants or shells) onto which females will deposit their eggs. Almost all dominant males attacked other males with aggressive behavior such as chasing, head butting, or circling between males Susbtrate chooser Konishi and Takata, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation Males set up mating territories around smooth surfaces of rocks, boulders and plants No category Katano and Maekawa, 1997
41 Spawning temperature 16-18 17.0 °C Coad, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 19.5-20°C 19.75 °C Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
41 Spawning temperature In the Amur basin the spawning starts when the temperature of 15-19°C 17.0 °C Witkowski, 2006
41 Spawning temperature The stock tanks were maintained on a constant photoperiod of 14 h light (from 07:00 to 21:00) and 10 h of dark at 20°C 14.0 °C Konishi and Takata, 2004
41 Spawning temperature Water temperatures ranged from 11.8 to 27°C during experiments, which was similar to the range of water temperature (from 13.6 to 26°C) when minnow spawned in the reservoir 11.8 °C Katano and Maekawa, 1997
40 Spawning period duration 8 8.0 weeks Coad, 2005
40 Spawning period duration 8 8.0 weeks Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 10-12 11.0 weeks Rosecchi, 2001
40 Spawning period duration Extended period from April to August No data Pinder, 2005
40 Spawning period duration Spawning occurred from 30 April to 21 August 30.0 weeks Katano and Maekawa, 1997
42 Spawning water type Warm, shallow and calm waters No category Coad, 2005
42 Spawning water type Warm and calm waters, inshore areas of ponds Stagnant water Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
42 Spawning water type Ponds and rivers Stagnant water Katano and Maekawa, 1997
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Coad, 2005
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
43 Spawning depth Takes place in the littoral No data Witkowski, 2006
43 Spawning depth Shallow parts of ponds and rivers No data Katano and Maekawa, 1997
36 Spawning migration distance No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
39 Spawning season April-August ['April', 'May', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Coad, 2005
39 Spawning season April-July ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Rossechi, 2001
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season April-July ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Rosecchi, 2001
39 Spawning season In the Amur basin the spawning is in May-August, whereas it spawns earlier: in April-June ['April', 'August', 'May', 'June'] Witkowski, 2006
39 Spawning season Apparently, the mass spawning of stone mroco in Kuchki pond happened in the second half of May or in June. The stone moroco spawns from late May to July in Ukraine, and from the end of June to the beginning of August in the basin of the Amur ['August', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Boltachev, 2006
39 Spawning season In Japan, the spawning season lasts from April to August ['April', 'August'] Katano and Maekawa, 1997
48 Spawning release Intermittent spawning, the number of batches which the female lays during the spawning season may be 60 or more Ambiguous Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
48 Spawning release Under optimal temperature, female spawns each 5 days No category Billard, 1997
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning Mutliple Rossechi, 2001
48 Spawning release Intermittent Spawning with up to 85 eggs per batch. up to 60 batches og eggs may be laid in a spawning season Ambiguous Coad, 2005
48 Spawning release Multiple Mutliple Rosecchi, 2001
48 Spawning release Batch spawner Mutliple Pinder, 2005
48 Spawning release During one act it lays up to several dozen eggs. Mutliple Witkowski, 2006
48 Spawning release Spawning is intemittent No category Boltachev, 2006
48 Spawning release Is a multiple spawner that lay eggs repeatedly duting the spawning season. Mutliple Katano and Maekawa, 1997
49 Parity Lifespan is about 5 years with maturity attained at 1-2 years, usually at 1 year in Europe No category Coad, 2005
49 Parity NO INFORMATIONS No category Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982