Carassius auratus

  • Scientific name
  • Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Goldfish

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 86%
Total data183
References37
Image of Carassius auratus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Highly adhesive Adhesive Spillmann, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Released eggs stick to the leaves of plants within a few seconds irrespective of whether fertilisation has been successful Adhesive Horvath, 1992
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Scholfield, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness When first laid the whole surface is adhesive, but the quality is lost as they have become water hardened a,d attached to aquatic plants [The eggs are of a mucilaginous character and adhere readily to aquatic plants to which they usually attached singly, rarely in twos or threes and at intervals of one-half to one inch] Adhesive Battle, 1940
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
4 Egg adhesiveness Release eggs adhere to the vegetation Adhesive Kobayashi, 2002
4 Egg adhesiveness Spawn of goldfish is yellow-green and sticks to the substrate Adhesive Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs adhere to substrate, usually vegetation at spawning site Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
4 Egg adhesiveness The goldfish eggs adhered to the Petri dish and were not dislodged by this procedure Adhesive Wiegand, 1988
5 Incubation time About 7 7.0 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time Few days No data Horvath, 1992
5 Incubation time 5 [20°C], 3-4 [20-27.5°C] 3.5 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 8 [20°C] 8.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 3-4 [15.5-29.5], 64-72 hours [24-28°C], 76 hours at [25°C] 3.5 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 3-7 days 5.0 days Scholfield, 2005
5 Incubation time [46 to 54 hours at 84°F, 4-14 days, 5-7 days at 70-75°F, 3-4 days at 18.5-29.5°C] 9.0 days Battle, 1940
5 Incubation time 6.0 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 6.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time The mean time to 50% hatch at 27°C was 2.0 days in all four experiments, involving that temperature. At 22°C, the mean time to 50% hatch was 3.8 ±0.4 days and at 17°C it was 7.1 ± 0.4 days. At 12°C, the mean time to 50% hatch was more variable at 14.1 ±2.5 days. 3.8 days Wiegand, 1988
5 Incubation time Hatching occurs after 5-8 days 6.5 days Szczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
5 Incubation time About 1 week 1.0 days Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 2-1/2 to 7 days at 82-60°F 1.5 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-100 90.0 °C * day Internet, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation 100-160 130.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 75 [3 days at 25°C] 75.0 °C * day Persat, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation About 70-90 80.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation About 90 90.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
6 Temperature for incubation 20-27.5 23.75 °C Internet, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 20°C 20.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 24-28 [But could be incubated at 15.5-29.5] 26.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 25 [18.5-29.5°C] 24.0 °C Battle, 1940
6 Temperature for incubation The optimum temperature for rearing eggs and larvae was 22°C [At 27°C and 17°C, there was a higher indidence of abnormal larvae at hatching and reduced viability compared to 22°C in some, but not all, experiments. Eggs incubated at 12°C produced inviable larvae. High proportions of 12°C larvae were abnormal at hatching and fish raised at 12°C failed to feed] 22.0 °C Wiegand, 1988
6 Temperature for incubation Compared with incubation at a constant 22°C, exposure of goldfish embryos and larvae to 13°C, under a variety of thermal protocols, caused increased frequencis of abnormal development and, in some cases, reduced survival to hatching. 22.0 °C Wiegand, 1989
6 Temperature for incubation Similarly, goldfish (Carassius auratus) eggs incubated at 12°C yielded significantly higher frequencies of abnormal larvae than those incubated at highest temperatures 12.0 °C Kucharczyk, 1997
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.29 ± 0.05, n=57 [Eggs stripped from mature females, fertilized and incubated in water: hydrated eggs] 1.29 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.25-1.46 1.355 mm Battle, 1940
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.5 1.35 mm Mellinger, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-1.7 1.35 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-1.7 1.6 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-1.7 1.6 mm Persat, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.5 1.35 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 1.4 mm Olden, 2006

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Could tolerate 30 or more 30.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
11 Temperature during larval development Compared with incubation at a constant 22°C, exposure of goldfish embryos and larvae to 13°C, under a variety of thermal protocols, caused increased frequencies of abnormal development and, in some cases, reduced survival to hatching. 22.0 °C Wiegand, 1989
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 21°C 21.0 °C Pozernik and Wiegand, 1997
11 Temperature during larval development The optimum temperature for rearing eggs and larvae was 22°C [At 27°C and 17°C, there was a higher indidence of abnormal larvae at hatching and reduced viability compared to 22°C in some, but not all, experiments. Eggs incubated at 12°C produced inviable larvae. High proportions of 12°C larvae were abnormal at hatching and fish raised at 12°C failed to feed] 22.0 °C Wiegand, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 24°C 24.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Battle, 1940
11 Temperature during larval development A central heater-thermostat unit was set to maintain a temperature àf 24°C 24.0 °C Kaiser, 2003
11 Temperature during larval development The experiments investigated the effects of temperature (20, 24 and 28°C) […] Although goldfish is considered as a thermophilic species, survival was lower at 28°C than at 20 and 24°C in Experiment 1, probably due to a decrease of water quality (caused by high feeding level, up to 90% in expeirment 1) and faster development of pathogens in the rearing tanks 20.0 °C Kestemont, 1995
10 Reaction to light Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibaslim by the parents on eggs and larvae ! Absent Horvath, 1992
13 Full yolk-sac resorption By one and one-half to two and one-half days,a length of 5.8 millimeters is attained, and the yolk sac has been reduced to a narrow tubular band. At seven to eight days (6.8 millimeter stage), the yolk material has practically all disappeared.At 25°C 5.8 °C * day Battle, 1940
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Yolk was absorbed to be absent or present as a thin ribbon only by day 2 at 27°C, day 4 at 22°C, and day 6 at 17°C 2.0 °C * day Wiegand, 1988
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding At the day 8th and 10th after hatching larva is 7 mm long. At that time active feeding begins 8.0 °C * day Szczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Each experimental tank was stocked with 83 3-4-day-old goldfish of the cornet variety at a density of 6.5 fish. L-1, and all trials started at the time of first exogenous feeding (at 25°C) 2.0 °C * day Kaiser, 2003
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Three days after hatching at 20°C, the young larvae swim towards the surface for fulfill their swimbladder, and then start to search food 20.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
8 Initial larval size Mostly 4-4.5 [rarely 3.0 or 5.0] 4.25 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size 4 4.0 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.5 4.5 mm Battle, 1940
8 Initial larval size 3.5 3.5 mm Olden, 2006
8 Initial larval size Newly hatched larvae are 5.8 mm long 5.8 mm Szczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
8 Initial larval size Mean initial length at 2 dph 6.3 +/- 0.7 6.3 mm Coutinho, 2006
9 Larvae behaviour Benthic, remain near the spawning area, then near the surface after yolk sac is absorbed Demersal Internet, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour At hatching, the larva is restricted in the movement by the weight of the yolk sac. The larva shows a positive thigmotropism, adhering to the aquarium walls or any fragments of plants. Demersal Battle, 1940
9 Larvae behaviour During 3 days after hatching yolk-feeding larva is fixed to submerged plants Demersal Szczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value 18.7 ± 0.8 (April 30) 18.7 percent Kagawa, 1983
24 Maximum GSI value 10.5 ± 1.2 (May) 10.5 percent Kobayashi, 1986
24 Maximum GSI value 30 30.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
25 Oogenesis duration Goldfish mature in the spring No data Aida, 1988
19 Relative fecundity 160-200 180.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity Around 100 100.0 thousand eggs/kg Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Spillmann, 1961
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Internet, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [sex not specified] 1.5 years Scholfield, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 3.5 [Both sex] 3.5 years Olden, 2006
26 Resting period August No data Kobayashi, 1986
22 Onset of oogenesis December [GSI increased slowly from December to February, from 3.9 ±0.7 to 5.2 ± 1.0) ['February', 'December'] Kagawa, 1983
22 Onset of oogenesis GSI gradually increased from August to February (From 2.0 ±0.2 to 3.7 ±0.5) ['February', 'August'] Kobayashi, 1986
22 Onset of oogenesis Females commence vitellogenesis during winter ['February', 'March', 'January'] Kobayashi, 2002
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity March until April [GSI rapidly increased in March, and after the first ovulation second important increase in April] ['April', 'March'] Kagawa, 1983
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity GSI rapidly increased in April (6.4 ± 1.0) ['April'] Kobayashi, 1986
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous Asynchronous Kagawa, 1983
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous Asynchronous Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
21 Oocyte development Exhibit group synchronous oocyte development No category Kobayashi, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Mean 14 [2 to 400] 14.0 thousand eggs Internet, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity 10-80 45.0 thousand eggs Persat, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 5.3 [Total number of eggs or offsprings per breeding season] 5.3 thousand eggs Olden, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 48-60 [in April] and 38-54 [In June] 54.0 thousand eggs Wisniewolski, 1988
16 Length at sexual maturity 13.5 [Both sex] 13.5 cm Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [In France, only if water display a temperature of 20 or more] 2.0 year Spillmann, 1961
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 year Internet, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [sex not specified] 1.5 year Scholfield, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 3.5 [Both sex] 3.5 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Usually at 2 in our latitudes, sex not specified 2.0 year Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
15 Age at sexual maturity In their natural area of distribution goldfish mature at the age of 1-2 years 1.5 year Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996

Male (56%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Tiny white bumps on the head and around the pectoral fin Absent Horvath, 1992
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male bears nuptial tubercles on head, opercules, and first rays of pectoral fins Present Billard, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercles fune, on opercles, sometimes on back, and a few on pectotal fins of breeding males Present Scott and Crossman, 1973
30 Male sexual dimorphism During spawning fish are more brightly coloured than usually. During spawning males have hish locomotor activity, they are covered with breeding tubercles especially on the head and abdomen near pectoral fins, and their general coloration changes to purple Present Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
33 Maximum GSI value 3.2 ±0.4 [May] 3.2 percent Kobayashi, 1986
35 Resting period 0.3 ± 0.1 [August, but a large increased was oberseved in the Autum: about 4%)] 0.3 months Kobayashi, 1986
28 Length at sexual maturity 13.5 [Both sex] 13.5 cm Olden, 2006

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Each female may be pursued by several males No category Internet, 2005
47 Mating system Each mature female ready to release eggs is followed by a group of males […], the relase of larbe numbers of eggs and milt occurs. Promiscuity Horvath, 1992
47 Mating system The female may be accompanied by two or more males No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system Small,desorganized groups of males actively follow females, frequently initiating physical contact (nudging) and inspecting their urogenital and gill regions where pheromones are released. Following behavior typically leads to active chasing, the intensity of which increases until the time of ovulation as males appear to compete to be closest to the female (s), at times pushing each other. Once ovulated, females become sexually receptive and initiate spawning acts by entering aquatic vegetation. typically,one/few male (s) will enter vegetation witha receptive femaleand then swim rapidly with the female through a small arc, at which time the female release (oviposi) eggs and the male (s) will release (ejaculate) sperm to complete a spawning act. Female spanwing behaviour will continue until all ovulated eggs are released, and may involve a hundred or more oviposition acts over several hours with various males Promiscuity Kobayashi, 2002
47 Mating system Several males follow one female. In the spawning ground they form a tight group. Females release spawn, which is immediatly fertilized. Spawninf act may be repeated with different frequency which depends on temperature. Time intervals between batches are inversely related to spawners' body length Promiscuity Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning most often occurs in bright sunny mornings Day Scott and Crossman, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition The spawing and laying of eggs usually commences at dawn Dawn Horvath, 1992
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Over a period from 7 a.m. to 10 a.m. [Spawning usually starts at daybreak and lasts till mid-afternoon] Day Battle, 1940
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Ovulation occurs near dawn Dawn Kobayashi, 2002
50 Parental care No, rather spawning parents often prefer to eat the new-laid eggs and hatched alevins No category Horvath, 1992
50 Parental care Non-parental No category Kobayashi, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Plants Phytophils Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Dense vegetation Phytophils Horvath, 1992
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic vegetation, submerged tree branches, roots, leaves Phytophils Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils Persat, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Submerged aquatic plants or willow roots Phytophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Vegetation, roots or fixed objects Phytophils Scholfield, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Member of the phytophilous group Phytophils Belova, 1981
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plant substrate Phytophils Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
44 Spawning substrate Release eggs adhere to the vegetation Phytophils Kobayashi, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Just before spawning fish go to shallow places overgrown with aquatic plants Phytophils Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are scattered over thick vegetation and mud, sand, clay, or gravel, also deposited on undersides of boats and harbor pilings Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation No, deposit its eggs No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Scatter their adhesive eggs No category Scholfield, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation Non-territorial No category Kobayashi, 2002
41 Spawning temperature 20-25 [In fish farm] 22.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature Around 15°C [Garden ponds] 15.0 °C Horvath, 1992
41 Spawning temperature 15-23 [but also 18-29.5] 19.0 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 16-17 16.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 20-25 22.5 °C Persat, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Above 16 16.0 °C Scholfield, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 15 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 15.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature >17 17.0 °C Gillet and Quétin, 2006
41 Spawning temperature About 20°C 20.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
41 Spawning temperature Beginning at about 55°F, spawning may continue throughout the summer if water temperature remains above 60°F 55.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 4-5 4.5 weeks Kobayashi, 1986
42 Spawning water type Creeks, ditches, ponds and reservoirs Stagnant water Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Seeks warm, weedy shallows No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Stagnant water or with a weak flow Stagnant water Belova, 1981
42 Spawning water type Current-free areas in lower reaches of rivers, bays, harbors, lagoons, marshes, and flooded lowlands Flowing or turbulent water Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Internet, 2005
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth Just before spawning fish go to shallow places overgrown with aquatic plants No data Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
43 Spawning depth 2-12 feet 7.0 m Goodyear, 1982
36 Spawning migration distance No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
36 Spawning migration distance Move inshore short distances into littoral areas or tributaries beginning at about 45°F 45.0 km Goodyear, 1982
37 Spawning migration period In the spring, when water temperatue is about 10-14°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
37 Spawning migration period Move inshore short distances into littoral areas or tributaries beginning at about 45°F No data Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season April trough July ['April', 'July'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season First warm days of spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Horvath, 1992
39 Spawning season May 1 until June 9 ['May', 'June'] Kobayashi, 1986
39 Spawning season Mid-March until End of June ['March', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season March until June ['March', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season June-July ['June', 'July'] Persat, 2001
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Spring and summer ['August', 'July', 'September'] Scholfield, 2005
39 Spawning season Begins early in the spring and occurs at frequent intervals from April to August ['April', 'August', 'May', 'June'] Battle, 1940
39 Spawning season June-July ['June', 'July'] Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
39 Spawning season Spawning season of goldfish begins in spring and lasts up to the end of summer ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
39 Spawning season Mid-April to Mid-August, usually May-June ['April', 'August', 'May', 'June'] Goodyear, 1982
48 Spawning release 3-4 spawnings in reared conditions No category Spillmann, 1961
48 Spawning release Spawn several times under natural conditions Mutliple Aida, 1988
48 Spawning release Female are able to spawn more than once each spawning season Mutliple Internet, 2005
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner: up to 4 a year Mutliple Persat, 2001
48 Spawning release In favourable conditions fish may spawn several times in a season Mutliple Horvath, 1992
48 Spawning release In rearing conditions, up to 3-4 spawnings per season No category Billard, 1997
48 Spawning release Batch spawner Mutliple Scholfield, 2005
48 Spawning release In the region where temperatures of water maintains above an higher value during several months, several spawning could be observed in the same breeders Mutliple Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
48 Spawning release Ovulate oneto several times over a protracted spring-summer spanwing season Mutliple Kobayashi, 2002
48 Spawning release Duirng on spawning event they spawn about 2 thousand eggs. One gram of spawn contains 1.2 thousand eggs No category Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
49 Parity Reproduction occurs annually for about 6-7 years No category Scholfield, 2005
49 Parity Begin breeding in their second year and while they may continue to reproduce for six or seven years they yield the maximum number of eggs in their third and fourth years No category Battle, 1940
49 Parity They continue reproduction yearly during 6-8 years No category Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996