Battle, 1940


Battle, H.I. (1940) The embryology and larval development of the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) from Lake Erie. Ohio Journal of Science, pp. 82-93

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Carassius auratus Egg Egg size after water-hardening 1.25-1.46 1.35 mm
Carassius auratus Egg Egg adhesiveness When first laid the whole surface is adhesive, but the quality is lost as they have become water hardened a,d attached to aquatic plants [The eggs are of a mucilaginous character and adhere readily to aquatic plants to which they usually attached singly, rarely in twos or threes and at intervals of one-half to one inch] Adhesive
Carassius auratus Egg Incubation time [46 to 54 hours at 84°F; 4-14 days; 5-7 days at 70-75°F, 3-4 days at 18.5-29.5°C] 9.0 days
Carassius auratus Egg Temperature for incubation 25 [18.5-29.5°C] 24.0 °C
Carassius auratus Larvae Initial larval size 4.5 4.5 mm
Carassius auratus Larvae Larvae behaviour At hatching, the larva is restricted in the movement by the weight of the yolk sac. The larva shows a positive thigmotropism, adhering to the aquarium walls or any fragments of plants. Demersal
Carassius auratus Larvae Temperature during larval development Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C
Carassius auratus Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption By one and one-half to two and one-half days,a length of 5.8 millimeters is attained, and the yolk sac has been reduced to a narrow tubular band. At seven to eight days (6.8 millimeter stage), the yolk material has practically all disappeared.At 25°C 5.8 °C * day
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning season Begins early in the spring and occurs at frequent intervals from April to August ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August']
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Over a period from 7 a.m. to 10 a.m. [Spawning usually starts at daybreak and lasts till mid-afternoon] Day
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Parity Begin breeding in their second year and while they may continue to reproduce for six or seven years they yield the maximum number of eggs in their third and fourth years No category